PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES AND THE “PRIVATIZATION” OF MILITARY CONFLICTS IN THE CONTEX OF THE DEMONOPOLIZATION OF THE STATE VIOLEN
The prerequisites for the emergence of private military companies and private security companies, the features of their functioning in the context of the demonopolization of state violence are considered. The influence of the establishment of a monopoly on the use of violence in the process of the formation of states of the modern type (states of the Modern era) is highlighted. In a historical retrospective, the reasons for the formation of a state monopoly on the use of violence, factors that contributed to the strengthening of royal power, led to the centralization of state power and the formation of depersonalized rational-bureaucratic state institutions are presented. The role of wars in the emergence of regular armies in the context of the formation of modern-type states is analyzed. The influence of the Cold War on the emergence of private military companies and low-intensity military companies is considered, structural prerequisites for the spread of private military companies both in developed countries and in developing countries are identified. The connection between the loss of the monopoly on the use of violence by states and the emergence of low-intensity wars is shown. The main reasons for the disappearance of high-intensity wars are analyzed. It is shown that the loss of a monopoly on the use of violence by states is not a constant, but is the result of the spread of low-intensity wars that arise due to the loss of advantages in waging high-intensity wars.
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