The Journal of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Issues of Political Science <p>"Issues of Political Science" considers the actual problems of the theory and practice of political processes in a globalized world. For professors, researchers and anyone interested in the issues of political science.</p> <p>Certificate of state registration of KV № 21570 - 11470Р dated August 21, 2015.</p> V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University en-US The Journal of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Issues of Political Science 2220-8089 <p><strong>Author’s copyright and licensing.</strong></p> <p><strong>License Terms</strong>: Authors retain copyright and also grant the Journal the right to publish original scientific articles that contain research results and are not under consideration for publication in other issues. All material is licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY</a>, which allows others to distribute their work with the copyright of this work and recognition of the first publication in this Journal.</p> <p>If the article is taken for publishing in The Journal of V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University. “Political Science Issues”, the author must sign <strong>a copyright transfer agreement</strong>. The agreement is sent by post (original document) or by e-mail (scanned copy of the document) to the Editorial Board of the Journal.</p> <p><strong>By this agreement the author certifies that the submitted material:</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">does not violate the copyrights of other people or organizations;</li> <li class="show">has not been previously published in other issues and has not been given for publishing to other issues.</li> </ul> <p><strong>The author gives the editorial board the rights to:</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">publish the article in Ukrainian (English and Russian) and distribute its printed version;</li> <li class="show">translate the article into English (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian) and distribute the printed version of the translation;</li> <li class="show">distribute the electronic version of the article, as well as the electronic version of the English-language translation of the article (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian), through any electronic means (placing on the official journal web site, in electronic databases, repositories, etc.).</li> </ul> <p><strong>The author reserves the right without the consent of the editorial board and the founders to:</strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">Completely or partly use the materials of the article for educational purposes.</li> <li class="show">Completely or partly use the materials of the article for writing own theses.</li> <li class="show">Use the materials of the article to prepare abstracts, conference reports, and oral presentations.</li> <li class="show">Post electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic version downloaded from the journal's official website) to:</li> </ol> <ul> <li class="show">personal web-resources of all authors (web sites, web pages, blogs, etc.);</li> <li class="show">web-resources of institutions where authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);</li> <li class="show">non-profit, open-source web resources (such as</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> DEMOCRATIC CHOICE OF UKRAINE: CONTENT AND PARAMETERS OF POLITICAL ENGINEERING <p>The article is devoted to the issue of the modern democracy. The key parameters of democratic choice of Ukrainian society are analyzed such as: possibilities of сo-development &nbsp;democracy as form of spiritual intercourse and as form of effective government; potential of this form of management for development of competitiveness of society in a modern world. Scientific interest is directed on the study of base points of democratic development. The problem of political engineering in the information age is considered. It is determined that political engineering is a system of management techniques and technologies, which in strategic and tactical terms is aimed at creative and effective social design and construction.</p> <p>Effective political engineering is a condition for overcoming destructive phenomena, the most important of which is the excessive growth of the phenomenon of randomness in political development. The article is devoted to the specifics of the explication of the concept of value (axiological) meanings in the information age. The content of axiological guidelines, which are a priority for political adaptation of both society and the political regime, is analyzed. The negativism of the tendency to prioritize technology over axiology in the spiritual and practical mastery of the world by man is noted. The challenges of modernity reflect on the understanding of democracy: procedural aspects prevail over substantive ones. The aggravation of contradictions in the orbit of such more important axiological meanings as stability, democracy, and freedom is logical.</p> <p>It is emphasized that the important risks of the information age are due to the use of axiological meanings of political entertainment, carnivalization and glamorization of the political space. The author identifies ways to overcome negative trends.</p> Tetiana Komarova Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 7 14 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-01 THE CONCEPT OF POLITICAL STABILITY AND POLITICAL CONFLICTS <p>The phenomena of political stability and political conflicts have been studied. Aspects and factors influencing political stability have been analysed, as well as theoretical approaches to analysing political conflicts and political stability.</p> <p>The peculiarities of scientific approaches to determining political stability have been briefly considered. Namely: institutional, socio-economic, psychological, geopolitical, and systemic. The actual definition of political stability has been provided as the stability of the political system, which means the absence of sudden changes and severe conflicts for at least a certain (preferably long) time. The systematized key aspects of this concept have been presented in table form using different approaches. Political stability will consider such aspects as civic participation, social planning and economic stability. In a narrow sense, political stability would mean the absence of radical changes during a certain period.</p> <p>The following theoretical approaches to the analysis of political conflicts have been analysed: realist, liberal, Marxist and postmodernist. Realists believe that political conflicts arise due to the power struggle, liberals see the causes of disputes in insufficient cooperation between the main subjects of politics, Marxists consider politics as a reflection of class and economic conflict relations, and postmodernists argue that politics is (de)constructed through diversity discursive practices.</p> <p>The following methods of conflict resolution in the scientific community have been considered: maintaining the balance of power (realists); appeal to the law and intensification of negotiations to end conflicts (liberals); aggravating the conflict for the society, having passed through revolutionary events, to move into a new quality (Marxists); maintenance of dialogue and tolerance in society (postmodernists).</p> Oleksii Batalov Melania Palamarchuk Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 15 18 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-02 NATIONAL IDENTITY AS A FACTOR IN OF INTERNATIONAL SECURITY: A POLITICAL AND LEGAL ANALYSIS <p>The article analyses such phenomena as national identity, Ukrainian national identity and their impact on state and international security. The essence of national identity, the factors of its formation, the influence of various factors on the development of this phenomenon are revealed.</p> <p>The study of national identity in terms of security is conditioned by modern socio-political realities, international conflicts, crises and wars. The author proves the necessity of reaching consensus through the formation of a national idea, structuring of identification patterns based on national identity and an effective system of political communication in order to achieve dialogue and ensure security at various levels. Attention is drawn to the impact of powerful migration processes on the formation of national identity in Europe and North America. The author emphasises the need to take these processes into account when making important political decisions, laws and legislative acts, creating certain political institutions, shaping the state's cultural policy, etc.</p> <p>The Ukrainian national identity is considered in the context of the Russian-Ukrainian war, which has become an additional factor in the awareness of Ukrainian national identity for citizens of other nationalities in Ukraine. On the other hand, the aggressor country carries out not only military actions, but also a powerful manipulative influence on citizens of the Russian Federation, other countries of the world, and Ukrainians. The author analyses the impact of information and communication technologies on international security. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of implementing the existing provisions of international law in terms of the responsibility of aggressor states for their crimes.</p> <p>It is about building trust and dialogue between the government and citizens. The author emphasises the urgency of finding political and legal mechanisms to influence aggressor states and bring them to justice.</p> Svitlana Denysiuk Yaroslav Fokin Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 19 25 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-03 MILITARY OCCUPATION: MEANING, CONTRADICTIONS AND DIMENSIONS OF THE CONCEPT <p>The concept of&nbsp; «military occupation» (occupation) is examined from its earliest attempts at legal definition to its contemporary understanding. The possibility of prolonged military occupation of a territory and the necessity of studying the political, economic, and social processes occurring within that territory are highlighted. The formation of requirements and rules for conducting military occupation during wartime in international humanitarian law and international relations is discussed. The chronological development of the understanding and regulation of the phenomenon of «military occupation» in international relations is described. An attempt is made to create a model for the development of the phenomenon of «occupation» and its codification in international law.</p> <p>The evolution of occupation processes (cases of occupation) at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries is considered, including the emergence of the so-called «transformative occupation». Its relationship with the concept of «military occupation» is analyzed, and contradictions in the understanding and attitudes toward these concepts in the international scholarly community are identified.</p> <p>The peculiarities of the content of the Hague and Geneva Conventions and the scope of application of their provisions regarding the protection of the rights of the local population of occupied territories and the prohibition of any discrimination against them are examined. Special attention is paid to the significance of the addition to the Geneva Convention of 1949 – the Additional Protocol of 1977.</p> <p>It is determined that the concept of «military occupation» can be considered both in the field of international humanitarian law (legal field) and in a broader sense – as a phenomenon that may not conform to any existing legal norms and international rules, but de facto, the concept of «occupation» requires in-depth independent scientific research, a separate methodology, and theoretical developments.</p> Mykyta Shmanatov Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 26 40 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-04 SOCIAL MEDIA AND THEIR EFFECT ON POLITICAL PARTICIPATION <p>The swift information-communication technologies development, especially the Internet in the last part of the XX century, had a significant degree of influence on human life around the world. It considered the internet evolution path and its effect on the possibilities increasing for communication and getting large quantity information, as well as the democracy establishment and open politics implementation. It analyzed further technologies growth, related to the internet in the XXI century beginning, stressed the role of modern technologies for the interaction perspectives widen, connection establishment in the society and favor in different social media creating, that is: social media has got broad spread around the world thanks to its flex possibilities for communication enhancement, as well as producing, transmitting, following information.</p> <p>It considered several researchers’ points of view on the possibilities of Internet influence on politics and its role as a path of communication for information exchange. It provided examples of early research on the impact of the early Internet on political participation and noted the ambiguity of scientists' opinions on this topic. It provided examples of research on the impact of the early Internet on political participation and noted the ambiguity of scientists' opinions on this topic.</p> <p>It scrutinized social media in the context of their effect on society's behavior, particularly on the political participation level. It described social media as a product of internet development and considered its main features. It is noted that social media, thanks to their interactivity, can theoretically have a positive impact on the political aspect of people's lives, as well as a negative one. It reviewed the results of empirical studies devoted to the topic of social media's influence on the political participation level and stressed the complexity of the specified problem.</p> Oleksandr Chornenkyi Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 41 48 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-05 GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE INITIATIVES «BELT AND ROAD» AND «PGII» AS THE NEWEST ASPECT OF THE POLITICAL RIVALRY BETWEEN THE PRC AND THE USA <p>The development and implementation of infrastructure initiatives of the People's Republic of China («Belt and Road Initiative») and the United States of America («Blue Dot Network», «Build Back Better World» and the current «Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment») in the context of strategic development and the growing political confrontation between the two states were considered. A comprehensive understanding of the purpose and features of these initiatives is formed, as the basic infrastructure development projects are aimed at strengthening the geopolitical positions of the People's Republic of China and the United States and, in the distant future, their political and economic dominance. Key details supporting the thesis of growing competition and confrontation between these states are highlighted. The influence of the Belt and Road initiative on the formation of a competitive strategy by the United States regarding the growing influence of China and the expansion of understanding the modern dynamics and characteristics of Sino-American strategic competition are studied. It is proved that the US leadership is implementing its own infrastructure initiatives for equal competition with China and limiting the latter at the foreign policy and foreign economic level. Different types of sources and materials of a political and economic nature are used and analyzed. Each phenomenon that directly affects the development of infrastructure initiatives of the People's Republic of China and the United States, including its positive and negative sides, is identified, and the principles by which the Belt and Road and Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment" projects are functioning are compared, which allowed to objectively compare them, evaluate their effectiveness and find out the difference in implementation approaches.</p> Mykyta Simonov Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 49 53 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-06 THE FIRST MOROCCAN CRISIS: A SMALL STATE AMONG GREAT FIRES <p>The conflict-filled struggle of the most powerful forces of world politics of the late 19th and early 20th centuries to establish informal control over the Sultanate of Morocco during the corresponding crisis of 1905, which was destined to become the first peculiar apogee of the great geopolitical confrontation of states around the «North African apple of discord», is examined in detail. The background history of events is investigated simultaneously in two dimensions, closely connected with each other by multifaceted cause-and-effect relationships. First, from the point of view of a relatively local confrontation, concentrated in the administrative boundaries of the Moroccan Sultanate and the conditional political-geographical boundaries of the North African subregion and caused by deep economic and political contradictions that reached their apogee at the time of the world's entry into the new, industrial era. Secondly, a smooth transition is made from a local-regional interpretation of the origins of the Moroccan crisis to a more «global» understanding of it. The analysis is carried out as if in a two-dimensional coordinate system: along the «France-Germany» axis and the «Entente - Triple Alliance» axis.&nbsp; The inseparable interdependence of the mentioned factors and the inappropriateness of excessive concentration on a certain «level» of the development of the crisis situation around Morocco are postulated. Due attention is paid to the structuring of the events of the First Moroccan crisis by highlighting and organizing its internal phases; the consequences of the Alchiceras Conference for all parties to the conflict are assessed. Emphasis is also placed on the polarization of the system of international relations on the eve of the First World War.</p> Vera Peftits Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 54 60 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-07 ARMENIAN-AZERBAIJIAN CONFLICT: CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS AND POLITICAL ASPECT <p>The issue of the long-term Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict within the framework of the Nagorno-Karabakh region has been studied. The problem of the ethnic polemic of Nagorno-Karabakh as one of the main factors of the confrontation is considered, and the historical roots of its initiation are indicated. The issue of escalation between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s was analyzed and conclusions were drawn regarding a new wave of confrontation. The classification of official documents and materials for the analysis of the specified problem is given. The importance of the military conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan due to the non-resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh region issue is emphasized not only for the Central Asian region, but for the whole world. The interest of certain external players in the need to solve the Karabakh problem is considered. The role of international actors in the framework of indirect participation, as well as peacekeeping mission, arbitration, etc. is evaluated. The current state of the military conflict is determined. The chronology and course of hostilities between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan are analyzed. The latest events of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region are considered and the main points of the dynamics of the confrontation are shown, as well as the main decisions made as a result of the anti-terrorist operation of the Azerbaijani army in the Nagorno-Karabash region are highlighted. Possible ways to stabilize the situation and settle the Karabakh conflict are identified, the involvement of civil society and communities on both sides to resolve the interstate problem is especially emphasized, and the importance of a comprehensive solution to both the political and humanitarian aspects of the conflict is emphasized. A significant role in the stabilization of the Nagorno-Karabakh region is given to international organizations in the role of mediators and development of realistic and mutually acceptable solutions.</p> Vladyslav Koshelnyk Copyright (c) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 44 61 67 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-44-08