The Journal of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Issues of Political Science <p>"Issues of Political Science" considers the actual problems of the theory and practice of political processes in a globalized world. For professors, researchers and anyone interested in the issues of political science.</p> <p>Certificate of state registration of KV № 21570 - 11470Р dated August 21, 2015.</p> V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University en-US The Journal of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Issues of Political Science 2220-8089 <p><strong>Author’s copyright and licensing.</strong></p> <p><strong>License Terms</strong>: Authors retain copyright and also grant the Journal the right to publish original scientific articles that contain research results and are not under consideration for publication in other issues. All material is licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY</a>, which allows others to distribute their work with the copyright of this work and recognition of the first publication in this Journal.</p> <p>If the article is taken for publishing in The Journal of V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University. “Political Science Issues”, the author must sign <strong>a copyright transfer agreement</strong>. The agreement is sent by post (original document) or by e-mail (scanned copy of the document) to the Editorial Board of the Journal.</p> <p><strong>By this agreement the author certifies that the submitted material:</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">does not violate the copyrights of other people or organizations;</li> <li class="show">has not been previously published in other issues and has not been given for publishing to other issues.</li> </ul> <p><strong>The author gives the editorial board the rights to:</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">publish the article in Ukrainian (English and Russian) and distribute its printed version;</li> <li class="show">translate the article into English (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian) and distribute the printed version of the translation;</li> <li class="show">distribute the electronic version of the article, as well as the electronic version of the English-language translation of the article (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian), through any electronic means (placing on the official journal web site, in electronic databases, repositories, etc.).</li> </ul> <p><strong>The author reserves the right without the consent of the editorial board and the founders to:</strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">Completely or partly use the materials of the article for educational purposes.</li> <li class="show">Completely or partly use the materials of the article for writing own theses.</li> <li class="show">Use the materials of the article to prepare abstracts, conference reports, and oral presentations.</li> <li class="show">Post electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic version downloaded from the journal's official website) to:</li> </ol> <ul> <li class="show">personal web-resources of all authors (web sites, web pages, blogs, etc.);</li> <li class="show">web-resources of institutions where authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);</li> <li class="show">non-profit, open-source web resources (such as</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> THE CRISIS OF LEGITIMACY FROM THE POINT OF VIEW ОF THE FUNNEL OF CAUSALITY <p>The problem of legitimacy of political institutions and institutions of state power is considered. Various approaches to determining the legitimacy of government are analyzed, but the main emphasis is on the level of trust and what exactly reduces the level of trust in government institutions Emphasis is placed on the factors that affect the fall of trust and lead to crisis phenomena in the political environment and destabilize society in general. The points of view of M. Weber, R. Dworkin and A. Buchann on legitimacy are compared, which give rise to different views on political obligations and normative conditions. A crisis of legitimacy is a situation in which the legality of the existing social order is questioned and distrust of the existing government is openly expressed, which demonstrates the inability of the government to assure society of the necessity and optimal functioning of existing state institutions. The reasons for the delegitimization of power are determined (the lack of proper representation of the interests of social groups and sufficient vertical mobility in the political system in combination with social inequality), which ultimately lead to the radicalization of attitudes in society, the strengthening of the opposition and, in general, distrust of state institutions The methodology of the “Funnel of Causality allows to combine different levels of society and take into account the effects of the environment. First of all, the macro level (economic development, the influence of geopolitical actors, historical traditions,national mewntality etc.), radical economic changes, the development of civil society, the political activity of various social groups, the growth of crisis phenomena, as a result of radical transformation. Due to the fluctuating nature of the country's political development during the years of independence, revolutionary situations arose, and the very legitimacy of the government, even at the macro level, was called into question.</p> Maryna Shapovalenko Copyright (c) 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 43 7 12 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-43-01 THE DOCTRINE OF STATE AND LAW IN THE IDEOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL DOCTRINE OF CLASSICAL CONSERVATISM <p>This research paper explicates the basic doctrines of the State and law of classical conservatism, as well as the peculiarities of understanding and existence of the idea of the State, which follows from the conservative definition of the State. The characteristic components of this political institution are the categories of law, legal consciousness, political integrity, etc. The perception of understanding the conservative theory of the origin of the state, based on the social contract theory, as a logical continuation of the organic association of people to maintain social order and political stability, is crystallising. The latter principles are also the fundamental axiological determinants of the conservative ideological and political doctrine, whose manifestor and defender is the state. The author characterises the concepts of law and law, the conceptual basis of which is reduced to the moral sphere of existence. The main objective of the existence of laws is to protect rights and freedoms, as well as their institutional representation. At the same time, the author defines the peculiarities of understanding legal consciousness and political consciousness as fundamental elements of state-building processes. In turn, their fundamental features are historical and geographical locality, identity and conceptual authenticity, which are the basis for the constitution of heterogeneous forms of political systems. The tasks and structural elements of the theory of state in the ideological and political doctrine of conservatism are analysed. The author also identifies the institutional elements of social limitation of state power in the context of conservative doctrine, which include the church and civil society.</p> Anna Malkina Anton Pastukhov Copyright (c) 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 43 13 21 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-43-02 INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL DIALOGUE AS THE BASIS OF UKRAINE'S INTEGRATION INTO THE EU <p>The category "international political dialogue" is considered, which should be understood as a political-psychological and political-legal decision-making process by harmonizing the positions of states on complex problems and ensuring the process of their implementation. The most important prerequisites for interstate dialogue are the equality of the parties. The mutual interest of Ukraine and the European Union regarding the integration movement of Ukraine into the EU, which is the choice of the Ukrainian people, is emphasized. The main state documents that ensure this movement are considered. Since the EU is an integration entity of developed free and democratic states, it strives precisely for parity dialogue.</p> <p>In the conditions of globalization of socio-political development, political crisis, in particular, war, it is impossible to obtain EU membership without reaching a consensus on certain problematic issues and implementing the results of international political dialogue. The dictation of one party and/or the lack of willingness to negotiate excludes the existence of dialogue, as the agreement of the parties' positions is replaced by unilateral or multilateral (depending on the situation) pressure. Attention is paid to the complex process of ensuring political dialogue with a number of special measures (from defining the goal, resolving conflict situations to reaching the desired consensus).</p> <p>It was revealed that the obstacles to the effective political dialogue of Ukraine with the EU are the problems that the latter emphasizes: ineffective fight against corruption, slow reform of the law enforcement system, involvement of the judiciary; imperfection of the legal framework; uncompetitiveness of the financial system and the banking sector; weak protection of property rights of a potential investor.</p> Valery Kononenko Svitlana Zdorovko Copyright (c) 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 43 22 28 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-43-03 THE MAIN STAGES OF DEPLOYMENT OF HYBRID AGGRESSION BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AGAINST UKRAINE <p>A historical analysis of the hybrid aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, which became the most dramatic event in the recent history of Ukraine, at the beginning of the third decade of independence, was conducted. The open armed actions of the Russian Federation against Ukraine caused new challenges not only to the national security of Ukraine, but also to the security of the world in general. Currently, the term "hybrid war" best characterizes the actions of the Russian Federation in relation to Ukraine. It is this type of warfare that combines not only military means, but also informational, economic, political, diplomatic, and humanitarian means. At the same time, the «hybrid wars» of the Russian Federation use many tools, starting from the spread of panic rumors to the mobilization of the potential of the church, agents of influence in the economy, political bodies or the use of so-called soft power.</p> <p>The article analyzes the step-by-step process of the military conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine, starting with the occupation of the Crimean Peninsula, the open Russian-Ukrainian armed confrontation in the east of the Ukrainian state, and ending with a large-scale invasion of Ukraine. Within each of the stages, separate periods are distinguished, the evolution of which determined and changed the motives of the behavior of the Russian Federation and led to the beginning of hostilities. The Russian-Ukrainian war requires a complex scientific understanding, study and generalization of the experience of conducting military operations in the largest armed conflict in Europe since the end of the Second World War. Conclusions were made regarding the need to consolidate the efforts of the EU, the USA and other democratic states as a guarantee of preventing hybrid aggression by states that act from the position of force, rather than the force of law.</p> Yaroslav Drozdyuk Copyright (c) 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 43 29 36 10.26565/2220-8089-2022-43-04 THE ROLE OF AGENT-BASED MODELING AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE <p>It considers opportunities for using computer agent-based modeling in studies related to political process analyses. Gives information about the historical context of computer simulation based on agent model implementation, and emphasizes the significance of T. Shelling and R. Axelrod models. It is noted usefulness of this method is applied to complex dynamic system analysis, wherein participants have complex interconnections, and their behavior depends on the situation.</p> <p>Gives information about an agent-based model's main elements, especially space and agents, and describes what they can represent. Draws attention to the importance of the researcher’s study goal understanding using this approach, which in turn affects the model parameters setting that determines model will be abstract, realistic, or mixed.</p> <p>Considered opportunities applying agent-based modeling for the course of social and political processes forecasting, and showed the opinion of other researchers on this issue.</p> <p>Provides examples of ten studies related to the analysis of various political processes, the authors of which applied this approach and their own agent models with different realism levels.</p> <p>Shows possibilities applied of computer simulations for forecasting the results of future and reproducing the results of past elections, evaluating election campaign strategies, the emergence of ideological polarization, modeling political discourse, evaluating the effectiveness of implemented policies, analyzing the risks of social instability in the state under the influence of external and internal factors.</p> <p>It is concluded that agent-based modeling can be a helpful tool in the hands of political scientists and noted that the use of this approach significantly expands the possibilities for analyzing complex political processes.</p> Oleksandr Chornenkyi Copyright (c) 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 43 37 46 10.26565/2220-8089-2022-43-05 POLITICAL CAMPAIGNING AND PROPAGANDA ON TELEVISION: FEATURES OF USE <p>The topic of political campaigning and propaganda on television is highlighted with an emphasis on methods, effectiveness and ethical aspects of influencing public opinion and political processes. Analyzes the various methods and tactics used in political campaigning on television, including emotional impact, imagery, and rhetoric, and examines their impact on shaping public opinion and audience behavior.</p> <p>The work compares the practices of political campaigning in different countries and contexts, which makes it possible to highlight the main differences and similarities in approaches to the use of television campaigning. This analysis reveals the importance of political context and cultural characteristics for the formation of effective communication strategies through television. Such important ethical issues related to the use of television propaganda as freedom of information, manipulation of public opinion and the need to protect society from unwanted negative influence are considered. Particular attention is paid to the potential of technological change, transparency and the development of ethical standards to improve the practices of using television campaigning for political purposes.</p> <p>The final conclusion of the work emphasizes the importance of studying and understanding the impact of television campaigning on public opinion and socio-political processes, as well as the need to observe ethical norms in the process of preparing and publishing material of a socio-political nature to ensure freedom of information and protection of democratic values in society.</p> Maksym Honcharenko Copyright (c) 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 43 47 50 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-43-06 THE IRAN-IRAQ CONFLICT, OR THE FIRST PERSIAN GULF WAR: CAUSES, COURSE OF EVENTS AND GEOPOLITICAL CONSEQUENCES AT THE REGIONAL AND GLOBAL LEVELS <p>The article analyses key factors of conflict in Iran-Iraq long-term relations through the prism of the historical deepening of contradictions between the two nations and states, which found their expression, first of all, in the framework of the territorial conflict regarding the ownership of the water area of the Shatt-el-Arab river, which is strategically important regarding to its geographical location.</p> <p>Some attention is paid to the role of the «Kurdish question» in the development of interstate relations; the religious dimension of the Iran-Iraq conflict is also analyzed in detail, the role of which increased rapidly after the events of the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979. The ideological and political strategies of both opponents in the struggle for regional leadership are considered in detail. The main groups of factors causing the Iran-Iraq conflict are separated and briefly characterized.</p> <p>Also, the article carefully describes the military-political grounds and the course of the key stages of the direct armed confrontation and its role in the contemporary Middle Eastern geopolitical picture, including objective reasons that forced various Arab and other actors of different levels to take their own position in the context of the struggle between the two regional "power centers". A change in the nature of the participation of the main international players involved in the conflict is observed, depending on the trends in the arena of military operations.</p> Vera Peftits Copyright (c) 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 43 51 62 10.26565/2220-8089-2023-43-07