The problem of disintegration: case of Brexit
There are constant changes in the modern development of the society, signalling that the existing orders are no longer suitable for the participants of trade and political agreements. The prospect of the UK leaving the EU took the markets and politicians by surprise. It is clear that Brexit brings economic and political consequences of disintegration not only for the United Kingdom, but also for the EU partners and for the future of European integration. The subject of our article is to find out the causes for disintegration processes in the UK. The purpose of the article is to analyse the economic and non-economic factors influencing the decision of the referendum on leaving the European Union. In order to look at the reasons for Brexit, this article collects economic and non-economic factors that influenced it. The study uses general scientific methods: analysis of the macroeconomic indicators of the UK over the years of participation in the EU, data fromthe latest scientific papers on Brexit. The results suggest that unemployment rate, lower GDP or inflation cannot be decisive when it comes to leaving the EU. In line with this view many contemporary studies show that the exit is not profitable from an economic point of view and will affect the macroeconomic indicators of the state. Moreover, there is considerable normative uncertainty about how the exit process will be carried out. This further indicates that the process is unlikely to be completed. In conclusion we say that the main reasons for Brexit are determined socially, historically and geographically and associate with the strong identification of voters primarily as citizens of the nation-state, rather than the European Union.
Berenda, S. V. (2012). Evoljucija ekonomichnoji integhraciji v krajinakh Jevropy : monoghrafija. X. : KhNU imeni V. N. Karazina.
Rayzberg, B. A., Lozovskiy, L.Sh., Starodubtseva, Ye. B. (1999). Sovremennyy ekonomicheskiy slovar. M.: INFRA-M.
Rjeznikov, V. V. (2011). Vzajemodija ekonomichnykh system jak katalizator stanovlennja ekonomichnoji integhraciji. Visnyk Kharkivsjkogho nacionaljnogho universytetu im. V. N. Karazina, 970, 155159.
Filipenko, A. S., Budkin, V. S., Dudchenko, M. A. ta in. (2004). Mizhnarodni integhracijni procesy suchasnosti : monoghrafija. K. : Znannja Ukrajiny.
Fedorenko, V. Ja. (1996). Sutnistj i klasyfikacija typiv i prychyn dezinteghraciji. Integhracijni procesy v krajinakh SND, 48–51.
Jakubovsjkyj, S. O. (2012). Procesy ekonomichnoji dezinteghraciji ta jikh modeljuvannja. Visnyk Mizhnarodnogho Slov'jansjkogho universytetu, 2, Т. XV 2–6.
Assessing the Economic Implications of Brexit. Executive Summary. (2018). Oxford Economics.
Balassa, B. (1962). The Theory of Economic Integration. London: George Alien & Unwin.
Brexit. (2018). Oxford Dictionaries.com. Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/brexit
Campos, N. F., Coricelli, F., & Moretti, L. (2014). Economic Growth and Political Integration: Estimating the Benefits from Membership in the European Union Using the Synthetic Counterfactuals Method. IZA Discussion Paper, 8162. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp8162.pdf
Cooper, R. (1974). Worldwide Versus Regional Integration: Is There an Optimal Size of the Integrated Area? Retrieved from https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/160148/1/cdp220.pdf
Crafts, N. (2016). The Growth Effects of EU Membership for the UK: A Review of the Evidence. Working Paper 280, University of Warwick. Retrieved from http://www.smf.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/SMF-CAGE-The-Growth-Effects-of-EU-Membership-for-the-UK-a-Review-of-the-Evidence-.pdf
Dustmann, C., Frattini, T., & Preston, I.P. (2013). The Effect of Immigration along the Distribution of Wages. Review of Economic Studies 80(1), 145–73.
Goodwin, M. J., & Oliver H. (2016a). The 2016 Referendum, Brexit and the Left Behind: An Aggregate-level Analysis of the Result. Political Quarterly, 87(3), 323–32.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – Office for National Statistics (2018). [statistical database] – Date of entry 20.10.2018 https://www.ons.gov.uk/
Haas, E. B. (1970). The Study of Regional Integration: Reflections on the Joy and Anguish of Pretheorising. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300017495
Hainmueller, J., & Hopkins, D. J. (2014). Public Attitudes toward Immigration. Annual Review of Political Science 17, 225–49.
Hall, P. (1966). The World Cities London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Hobolt, S. B., & de Vries, C. E. (2016). Public Support for European Integration. Annual Review of Political Science 19, 413–32.
IMF - International Monetary Fund [statistical database] – Date of entry 20.10.2018 https://www.imf.org/external/index.html
Friedmann, J. (1986). The World City Hypothesis. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1986.tb00231.x
Pisani-Ferry, J., Röttgen, N., Sapir, A., Tucker, P., & Wolff, B.G. (2016). Europe after Brexit: A Proposal for a Continental Partnership. Bruegel External Publication, Brussels. Retrieved from http://bruegel.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/EU-UK-20160829-final-1.pdf
Rodrik, D. (2011). The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy. W.W. Norton & Company.
Röpke, W. (1942). International Economic Disintegration. London: William Hodge and Company Limited.
Sampson, T. (2017) Brexit: The Economics of International Disintegration. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 31 (№ 4), 163–184.
United Kingdom – Economic Indicators. (2018). [statistical database] – Date of entry 20.10.2018 https://tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/indicators
Wadsworth, J., Dhingra, S., Ottaviano G., & Van Reenen, J. (2016). Brexit and the Impact of Immigration on the UK. CEP Brexit Analysis no. 5. Retrieved from http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/brexit05.pdf
World Bank. 2017. World Development Indicators. (2018). [statistical database] – Date of entry 20.10.2018 http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication of this work under the terms of a license Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.