Periodization of the formation of garden and park landscapes of the Central Europe
Formulation of the problem. During of his activities, man sought to harmonize the territory that surrounded him. The environment had to perform not only utilitarian functions, but also aesthetic ones, to satisfy the needs of man in the contemplation of the «beautiful». This aspiration led to the formation and development of a special group of man-made landscapes – garden and park landscapes. Garden and park landscapes are the «smart» group of man-made landscapes, which constructively combines natural components with components formed as a result of economic, art human activity.
The aim of the work. To develop and substantiate the periodization of the formation of garden and park landscapes of Central Europe for their detailed knowledge and rational development.
The research methods. The performed periodization is based on two main research principles: historical and on the principle of natural-anthropogenic coexistence. General scientific and specific scientific research methods have been used.
Presentation of the main research material. In the history of formation and functioning of garden and park landscapes of Central Europe it is necessary to distinguish the following periods: sacral; regular, in the structure of which the following directions are singled out and justified: residential, sacral-regular, and proper regular; landscape with romantic and realistic directions; constructive and eclectic. Each of these periods is characterized by the dominance in the structure of the landscape of natural or anthropogenic component, regular or landscape style of organization of the landscape, has a different level of transformation of the natural basis, a certain functional load, different owners. The landscape structure is formed by the corresponding types and subtypes of garden and park landscapes, which change according to the selected periods. The article shows the change in the genetic structure of garden and park landscapes in accordance with reasonable periods and directions of formation and development. Garden and park landscapes of Central Europe were organized within the channel, floodplain, floodplain-terrace, slope and watershed types of areas, the landscape structure of which was formed by the corresponding types and subtypes of man-made landscapes, represented by park plantings, regular gardens, ponds, canals, paths, stairs, palace, outbuildings, sculpture, garden furniture, etc. It is established that garden and park landscapes performed various functions, namely: economic, aesthetic, sacred, memorial, medical, are places of short-term rest and material manifestation of power and spirituality of owners.
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