https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/issue/feed Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series "Geology. Geography. Ecology" 2023-03-24T12:52:25+00:00 Василь Григорович Суярко geoeco-series@karazin.ua Open Journal Systems <p>Specialized edition on geological and geographical sciences.</p> <p>Indexed in:&nbsp;<em>WorldCat</em>,&nbsp;<em>BASE</em>&nbsp;(Bielefeld Academic Search Engine),&nbsp;<em>ResearchBible</em>,&nbsp;<em>TIB/UB</em>&nbsp;(German National Library of Science and Technology, University Library Hannover),&nbsp;<em>SBB&nbsp;</em>(Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin),&nbsp;<em>Ulrich's Periodicals Directory</em>,&nbsp;<em>EBSCO</em>,&nbsp;<em>Index Copernicus</em>,&nbsp;<em><strong>Web of Science</strong></em>&nbsp;(Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)).</p> <p>Visnyk of V.&nbsp;N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series “Geology. Geography. Ecology” is devoted to the modern studies in the field of geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, ecology and social and economic geography.</p> <p>“Visnyk” is intended for scientists, specialists and high school lecturers.</p> https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21367 The impact of complex engineering and geological conditions on the durability of the polymer pipeline 2023-03-24T12:46:55+00:00 Vadym Aleksandrovych v.a.aleksandrovych@ukr.net Olha Havryliuk gavrilyk.o.v@gmail.com Valeriy Sukhov valery.sukhov@karazin.ua <p><strong>Formulation of the problem. </strong>During the construction of the oil collector, in order to ensure uninterrupted transportation of products, it was planned to lay an industrial oil collector made of fiberglass pipes. In some areas, repeated depressurization of the joints of the fiberglass oil collector occurred. In this regard, there was a need for a comprehensive approach to establishing the causes of the aerial situations.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article</strong> is to analyze the impact of complex engineering and geological conditions on the durability of the polymer pipeline using the example of an industrial oil collector made of fiberglass pipes of the Anastasiv deposit, located in the territory of the Romen district of the Sumy region of Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> To achieve the goal, a visual survey of the geological and geomorphological structure was performed, as well as the analysis of the engineering and geological conditions of the territory where the fiberglass pipeline is laid. Soil samples were taken from the place of depressurization of the polymer pipeline joint, and their physical and mechanical characteristics were determined. Modeling and calculation of the stability of the slope on which the depressurization of the joint of the polymer pipeline occurs, were carried out by the finite element method.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> During the examination of the fiberglass pipeline, negative and potentially negative factors of the engineering and geological conditions influence on the laying and operation of fiberglass collectors were established. It was revealed that there was a discrepancy between the design decision and the actual layout of the fiberglass pipes, which could lead to the occurance of areas of "sag" and, as a result, an increase in the stresses in the pipeline from the backfill load. At the same time, the realization of subsidence phenomena of IGE 5 after laying the pipeline also led to additional non-design stresses. The analysis of engineering-geological and hydrogeological conditions indicates the possible activity of slope processes in the study area, which leads to a violation of the stability of the slope and, consequently, the occurrence of additional displacement and stresses due to,deformation of the soil massif.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance.</strong> The necessity of conducting engineering-geological surveys to assess the impact of complex engineering and geological conditions on the durability of a polymer pipeline is substantiated. The main negative processes and phenomena that led to emergency situations on the territory of laying the polymer pipeline were identified.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21368 Vulnerability assessment of drinking groundwater of buchak-kaniv aquifer under the conditions of quality composition long-term transformation 2023-03-07T11:27:02+00:00 Serhii Levoniuk sergii.levonyuk@gmail.com Ihor Udalov igorudalov8@gmail.com <p><strong>Problems Statement and Purpose.</strong> This article is a continuation of the authors' previous publications on improving the methodical approach to assessing the vulnerability (protection) of drinking groundwater within the Dnipro-Donetsk artesian basin (DDAB) and is a practical component of these studies. In order to find and develop optimal forms of ecological safety management of drinking water supply for the region population, the authors' improved approach to assessing the vulnerability (protection) of drinking groundwater in the strategically important waters of buchak-kaniv aquifer (BKA) was tested.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of article </strong>is the ecological and hydrogeological zoning of research area according to the danger of quality transformation of BKA groundwaters and the determination of zones of increased ecological danger of these waters quality reduction due to elements of surface and deep genesis.</p> <p><strong>Data &amp; Methods.</strong> The research is based on the analysis of results of drilling more than 950 wells in this region, as well as about 500 measurements of piezometric levels of BKA and the first interlayer aquifer during 1960-2020.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Complex systems of ecological and hydrogeological zoning of the territory of DDAB central part have been developed according to the degree of ecological danger of lowering the quality of BKA drinking groundwater.</p> <p>Zoning of the territory was carried out according to the danger of deterioration of these waters quality by man-made pollutants that enter the waters in the process of downward vertical filtration and migration from the earth surface. Ecologically dangerous areas with a potential decrease in the quality of BKA drinking groundwater due to elements of surface genesis (water intakes of Poltava, Lubny, Myrhorod, Velyka Bagachka, Krasnograd cities and some others) have been identified.</p> <p>Zoning of the territory was carried out according to the danger of deterioration of the BKA groundwater quality due to the upward migration of natural deep substandard waters. Ecologically dangerous areas with a potential decrease in groundwater quality due to elements of deep genesis (water intakes of Poltava, Romodan, Myrhorod, Shyshaky, Opishnia, Gadyach, Krasnograd, Karlivka cities and some others) have been identified.</p> <p>It is recommended to develop measures to increase the ecological safety of the population's drinking water supply: hydrogeochemical monitoring of characteristic indicators of water quality composition and optimization of the powerful water intakes operating modes (within ecologically dangerous territories); creation of new water intakes (within ecologically safe territories).</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21369 Geochemistry of fluorine in halo waters of ore fields of the southeastern part of the Dnipro-Donetsk avlakogen 2023-03-24T12:47:43+00:00 Vasyl Suyarko vgsuyarko@gmail.com Ahmet Sasmaz asasmaz@gmail.com Oleksii Bartaschuk asasmaz@gmail.com Olga Serdіukova serd.64@ukr.net Volodymyr Manyuk vgeoman@gmail.com <p>The geochemical features of fluorine and its possible sources in the waters of the hydrothermal ore fields of the Dnipro-Donetsk avlakogen (DDA) are considered. It was established that the formation of anomalies occurs due to the interaction of infiltration waters of the zone of free water exchange and waters of deep formation, which are unloaded along the zones of deep faults. It is substantiated that the water migration of fluorine is determined by the geochemical type of groundwater, the degree of its mineralization, acid-base (pH) and oxidation-reduction (Eh) potentials, the presence of complex-forming elements with which fluorine forms mobile complex compounds, etc.</p> <p><strong>Formulation of the problem.</strong> Fluorine is a typomorphic chemical element that is widely present in groundwater. It forms large-scale, contrasting hydrogeochemical anomalies in various types of hydrothermal ore fields, which are controlled by zones of deep faults - fluorite, mercury, polymetallic, and others.</p> <p><strong>Presenting main material.</strong> Anomalies of the element are also formed in those fault zones, where the processes of modern heat and mass transfer are observed, manifested in the upward discharge of endogenous fluids against the background of increased intensity of the geothermal field. This indicates the probable arrival of fluorine in endogenous fluid flows, which are mixed with formation waters during their upward migration. The most contrasting aureoles of fluorine scattering are established in the zone of hypergenic weathering of fluorite of the Pokrovo-Kyreevsky deposit and in the aureole waters of the Mykytiv mercury ore field, in the rocks of which fluorite mineralization is absent. In them, fluorine, together with other trace elements, forms multicomponent anomalies and is part of the hydrogeochemical association of elements-indicators of hidden mercury mineralization - Hg, As, B, F, (Sb).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>. </strong>1. Geochemical features of fluorine in the processes of hydrothermal mineralization are caused by both hypogenic and hypergenic factors of its migration and concentration in the hydrolithosphere of the Dnipro-Donetsk avlakogen.</p> <p>2. The high migration activity of fluorine in fluid systems and, in particular, in groundwater, is determined by numerous mobile forms of the element that exist under different geochemical conditions - in the form of gas, simple anions, complex compounds with metals, silicon, manganese, boron and other chemical elements Fluorine migrates best in alkaline sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride waters, in which Сl<sup>–</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup> and ОН<sup>–</sup> ions not only act as a complexing agent, but also provide high ionic strength of aqueous solutions.</p> <p>3. The high content of fluorine in the waters of the Pokrovo-Kyreivsky fluorite deposit is provided by two different geochemical processes: a) hypergenic physicochemical destruction of CaF<sub>2</sub> by gravitational infiltration waters of the zone of free water exchange; b) the influx of fluorine into deep formation waters together with endogenous fluids that are discharged along fault structures at the post-hydrothermal stage of their tectonic activation.</p> <p>4. Abnormally high concentrations of fluorine in the hydrothermal mercury ore fields of the Mykytivskyi and Druzhkivsko-Kostiantynivskyi deposits, in the rocks of which there is practically no fluorite mineralization, are due to the influx of the element into the mineralization zones from deep fluid flows and underground waters of deep horizons.</p> <p>5. The main natural sources of fluorine in the waters of hydrothermal deposits of the region are: a) products of hypergenic weathering of hydrothermal mineralization of fluorite; b) flows of endogenous postheterothermal fluids; c) pore solutions of sedimentary rocks of marine origin.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21371 Characteristics of forecasting meteorological conditions of air pollution over Odesa 2023-03-07T11:30:56+00:00 Ellina Agayar agayarellina@gmail.com Alina Semerhei-Chumachenko asemergey2016@gmail.com Svitlana Zubkovych szubkovych@gmail.com <p><strong>Formulation of the problem.</strong> The level of atmospheric air pollution in large cities is influenced by a number of factors, among which the most important are the emissions of pollutants into the air, the characteristics of the sources of admixtures, the landscape features, synoptic and meteorological conditions (Vystavnaya, Zubkovych 2014). The influence of the latter is associated with the scattering, washing out and transformation of harmful substances in the atmosphere, as well as the significant variability of their concentrations in space and time. The characteristics of the wind regime (wind direction and velocity), temperature inversions, and formation of low-troposphere currents are among the meteorological factors that most influence the concentrations of contaminants in the layer of atmosphere near the surface (Ivus 2017), (Agayar 2018) Shevchenko 2020).</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article</strong> is to develop and improve methods of forecasting meteorological conditions of atmospheric pollution over industrial areas of Odesa, as well as characterize the variability of meteorological values over the Northwest Black Sea.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> the data of four-time observations (01, 07, 13, 19 hours) for the main pollutants on the network of eight stationary posts for the February, April, July and October of 2011 are used as the initial materials. The catalog of typical synoptic processes over the territory of Ukraine for the period of 2011-2015 is compiled at the Department of Meteorology and Climatology of the OSENU. To clarify specific synoptic situations, synoptic maps of all levels (ground-level, AT-925, AT-850, AT-700 and AT-500) from the archive of the ARMSin (‘automatic forecaster workstation’- program for processing synoptic maps that is applied in Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>1. CO concentrations in the city of Odesa increase with distance from the coastal strip in to the depth of land with maximum values in places with high traffic load, regardless of the season; 2. Absence of industrial facilities and meteorological conditions contribute to the low level of air pollution around post N 8. Exceedance of the maximum allowable concentrations of carbon monoxide is observed in 6 out of 8 observation posts; 3. Favorable conditions for the accumulation of admixtures are formed in peripheral processes with low-gradient pressure fields, in front parts of cyclones and in low-motion and small cyclones with the same air mass; 4. Temperature inversions almost always accompanied the accumulation of harmful admixtures in the ground layer of air above Odesa.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance. </strong>In this article we have analyzed influence of meteorological conditions on the level of atmospheric air pollution in Odesa region. For these purposes the more nuanced-based method of forecasting was adapted. We have demonstrated that its use has efficiency at the present time for improvement of operative prognostic units work for the Northwest Black Sea region. Such conclusions may be identified as a result of empirical findings.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21372 Spatial analysis of the settlement system of Zaporizhia region 2023-03-24T12:48:11+00:00 Oleg Baiteriakov o.baiteriakov@gmail.com Iryna Arsenenko irina_arsenenko@ukr.net Larisa Donchenko donchenko66@ukr.net <p><strong>Formulation of the problem. </strong>In 2020, there were some radical changes that took place in the administrative and territorial structure of Zaporizhia region; as a result, 5 new administrative districts were created on its territory instead of 20 previous ones, which significantly affected the structure of the regional settlement system. Therefore, the question arises about the study of the settlement system of the region in the new socio-geographical realities.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article. </strong>The purpose of the article consists in identification of the current state and spatial differences of the system of settlement of the territory of Zaporizhia region after the reform of the administrative and territorial structure.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>.</strong> The study used methods for calculating quantitative and relative indicators of the state of urban and rural settlement systems, the comparative analysis of the assessment results, as well as methods for typing administrative districts according to the structure of the settlement system.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. For each new district of the region, there were calculated the following indicators: the population density, population concentration index, the average population density of settlements, the average density of settlements, the average distance between them, the leadership index of the administrative centers of the districts, the level of urbanization of the territory by the share of the urban population, according to the hierarchical method of O.&nbsp;Tereshchenko and according to E.&nbsp;Arriaga’s approach. According to these indicators, the spatial differences in the settlement system of the administrative districts of the region were revealed. Differentiation of the system of urban settlements of the administrative districts of the region significantly exceeds the contrast of the average general indicators of the system of settlement of districts. This is especially evident when using hierarchical approaches to determine the level of urbanization. The district systems of rural settlements in Zaporizhia region have smoother differences in terms of similar indicators in comparison with the systems of urban settlement, which indicates the relative rationality of the new administrative-territorial structure. Based on the calculations, a typological grouping of the new administrative districts of Zaporizhia region according to the modern structure of settlement was carried out.As a result of this grouping, 2 types of districts were singled out: 1) districts with a monocentric settlement system; these include Zaporizhia, Melitopol and Berdyansk districts (they are clearly distinguished by the size, functions performed and the impact on the settlement system of multifunctional regional centers); 2) districts with a polycentric dispersed settlement system, these include Vasilievsky and Pologovsky districts (in these districts there are no centers with strongly marked leading positions both in terms of population and functions performed).</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance. </strong>For the first time, there was carriedout an assessmentof the settlement system of the new administrative districts of Zaporizhia region; the spatial differencesof the settlement system were revealed according to various indicators.</p> <p>The data obtained can be used to optimize the territorial management of the region, to predict its further development and to work out strategies for socio-economic development.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21373 Polish ethnocultural landscape of Podillya: structure, use, protection of cultural heritage 2023-03-07T11:35:21+00:00 Volodymyr Volovyk wolowyk@gmail.com Oleksandr Lavryk slavrik1979@gmail.com Yuriy Yatsentyuk yatsentuky@gmail.com Andrii Maksiytov andriy.maksyutov@udpu.edu.ua <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The study of the structure and features of the ethnocultural heritage functioning is an important scientific problem, which is especially important for the implementation of regional and national strategies for sustainable development and optimization of the quality of the country's environment. It is also important to solve the problem of traditional natural resource management of Podillya as a part of Eastern Europe, where a retrospective polyethnic development vector was formed, which has manifested in the formation of the Polish ethnocultural heritage.</p> <p><strong>Problem formulation</strong>. The importance of professional analysis of assessment and assessment of ethnocultural landscape resource potential is based on justification of its future effective use, particularly, in the design of a regional network of ethnocultural protected areas, which aligns with the concept of sustainable development of Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Analysis of recent research and publications</strong>. Eastern European geographers have been developing the concept of the ethnocultural landscape since the end of the XX century and the following directions have been formed: 1) ethnocultural landscape is analyzed as cultural landscape; 2) ethnocultural landscape in anthropogenic landscape studies; 3) protection of ethnocultural artifacts; 4) as a part of humanistic geography.</p> <p><strong>Highlighting previously unsolved parts of the overall problem</strong>. These studies will make it possible to evaluate the degree of Polish ethnocultural heritage influence on tourism development in Eastern Europe. This will allow to development of practical recommendations for the preservation and use of ethnocultural heritage in modern socio-economic conditions, the implementation of targeted programs involving EU funds.</p> <p><strong>Formulating the purpose of the paper</strong>. The study aims to study the problem field of individual components of regional ethnocultural landscape science, its theoretical and practical potential, and its use in solving problems of nature management, namely Polish ethnocultural landscapes and relevant cultural heritage.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of the main research material</strong>. The general regularities of formation of the estate, fortification and industrial landscapes, their ethnocultural features, and features of management are allocated. Proposals for optimization and intensification of nature use of Polish ethnocultural landscapes through protection and museification (regional landscape parks, open-air museums) of Polish historical and cultural artifacts of the region have been formed. Polish ethnocultural landscapes of Podillya are analyzed as an object of ethnocultural tourism. Thus, they will preserve biodiversity, create a basis for a harmonious combination of environmental and educational activities with the opportunity to get acquainted with the Polish historical and cultural heritage of the region.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The unification of Polish ethnocultural artifacts in the villages and small towns of the region contributes to the transformation of heritage into a tourist product, which leads to interest in the preservation of monuments, increases the number of visitors. Given the number and spatial distribution of Polish heritage sites in the region, the creation of a landscape cadastre is one of the top priorities in addressing their protection and monitoring. Ethnocultural objects of Polish origin are usually the core of the planning structure of small towns or villages in the region. When attracting funds from Polish and Ukrainian investors, a profit that will significantly exceed the invested funds is possible. Ethnocultural heritage is one of the priorities of international tourism in the world's leading countries.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21374 Features of climate and geographical distribution of atmospheric precipitations in the south of Ukraine 2023-03-24T12:48:40+00:00 Liudmyla Goncharova goncharova.luda.50@gmail.com Oleg Prokofiev leggg0707@gmail.com Svitlana Reshetchenko s.reshetchenko@karazin.ua <p><strong>Formulation of the problem</strong>. The concept of implementing state policy in the field of climate change until 2030, which aims to develop a national climate program and prevent the reduction of risks associated with them in different regions of Ukraine. The research was performed in accordance with the objectives formulated in the research works of Odessa State Ecological University on the following topics: «Regime of precipitation in the regions of Ukraine in the late XX and early XXI centuries» (№ SR 0111U000590); «Forecasting of dangerous meteorological phenomena over the southern regions of Ukraine» (№ SR 00115U006532); «Comprehensive method of probabilistic and prognostic modeling of extreme hydrological phenomena on the rivers of southern Ukraine to ensure sustainable water use in climate change» (№ SR 0121U010964).</p> <p><strong>Problems of further research. </strong>The results presented in the article, of course, can not be considered exhaustive in terms of determining the impact of only two climatic signals that can form the spatial distribution of precipitation in southern Ukraine. The solution of the problems in the future will be directed to the consideration of other known teleconnections of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres with the involvement of additional equidistant empirical data.</p> <p><strong>The purpose. </strong>This article aims to identify the features of the spatial distribution of precipitation in the winter season and determine the responses of climatic signals (North Atlantic and North Caspian fluctuations) in their fields in southern Ukraine (Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson, Zaporizhia region and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea).</p> <p><strong>Research methods. </strong>The implementation of an integrated statistical approach was carried out in three stages with the involvement of methods of multidimensional statistical and cartographic analysis and methods of research of non-stationary random processes. The subject of the study is the series of monthly precipitation for December, January, February at 40 stations in Ukraine and time series of average values of climatic indices of large-scale interaction in the field of pressure - North Atlantic (NAO) and North Caspian (NCP) fluctuations for each month of the period 1962-2006.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of the main research material. </strong>Objective clustering of the territory of Ukraine has been carried out on the basis of long-term empirical data on precipitation. In the south, 2 generalized clusters have been identified, each of which is statistically sound and characterized by a time series of the mean vector. The statistical structure of these series is analyzed, which allowed to predict future trends in the studied fields until 2025-2030 in the territory of Southern Ukraine. Studies of the impact of North Atlantic and Euro-Mediterranean macro-processes on the spatial distribution of the monthly amount of precipitation in the winter season show the complexity and ambiguity of these relationships in different months of the season and in different regions of southern Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Practical value. </strong>The obtained statistical models in the form of maps-schemes will take into account the directions of transfer of basic substances, which in turn will help (in compiling the climate forecast of precipitation) to understand the contribution of different regions of the Northern Hemisphere to the formation of the main climatic indicator.</p> <p><strong>Research results. </strong>In the south of Ukraine in December and February the monthly rainfall by 2025-2030 will decrease compared to the beginning of the XXI century. In January, only in the Zaporozhye region is expected to fall rainfall in the next 20-30 years. For the rest of the southern regions of Ukraine in January the amount of precipitation will be within long-term values (15-45 mm). The presence of a linear correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the spatial distribution of precipitation in December was determined (with a probability of 90%); in February, the combined effects of the North Sea-Caspian and North Atlantic oscillations. In January, in the south of Ukraine, with some probability, it was not possible to establish responses in the distribution of precipitation with the climatic signals under consideration.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21375 Nature of current and assessment of possible future changes in the water regime of lake Lebedyne (Sumy region) 2023-03-24T12:48:57+00:00 Vasiliy Grebin grebin1964@gmail.com Olga Lukіanets luko15_06@ukr.net <p><strong>Aim of the research </strong>is to identify the characteristic features of modern and predictive assessment until 2030 possible changes in the water regime of the Lake Lebedyne.</p> <p><strong>Methods of the research</strong> – water balance method (to clarify the nature of modern changes in the water exchange of the lake), pairwise and multiple correlation methods (for statistical analysis of relationships between hydro-meteorological variables).</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty – </strong>for the first time the analysis of modern changes in the water exchange of the Lake Lebedyne by comparing the components of the lake's water balance for two periods - modern (1991-2019) with the period of the climatic norm (1961-1990); for the first time estimated for the next decade (2021-2030) changes in the water regime of Lake Lebedyne.</p> <p><strong>Practical value</strong> is determined by the fact that the main provisions of this scientific research will be used when discussing a project to improve the state of Lake Lebedyne, which was provided for by the Program of Economic and Social Development of the city of Lebedin for 2020-2021 program years.</p> <p><strong>Research results. </strong>It was revealed that the total volume of water inflow into the lake in the modern period (1991-2019) has decreased (compared to the period of the climatic norm - 1961-1990) by almost 16%. Of these, the inflow of water from the area adjacent to the lake (slope runoff) decreased by 17.8%, and the amount of atmospheric precipitation on the lake's surface by 11.7% also decreased. There is a decrease in the absolute volume of evaporation from the water surface of Lake Lebedyne due to a decrease in the volume of water inflow. However, at the same time, against the background of an increase in air temperature, the intensity of evaporation increases - its share in the water-balance ratios increased by 8.3% compared to the period of the climatic norm. Evaluating the accumulative component of the lake's water balance, it can be stated that during the period of climatic normal there was a certain accumulation of water in the lake - on average by + 22130 m<sup>3</sup> annually. In the modern period, the volume of water in the lake was depleted - on average for the period 1991-2019 by -&nbsp;81200 m<sup>3</sup> per year. As a result, the volume of water in the lakebed in the modern period has decreased by about 40-42% compared to the period of the climatic norm. According to the forecast estimates of the values of the total water inflow into the lake Lebedyne for the period 2021-2030 it can be assumed that in comparison with the previous decade, they will grow by an average of 18%. Therefore, with a certain stabilization of the evaporation values, one can expect an insignificant, but nevertheless, replenishment of the lake with water.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21376 Agrarian potential of Ukraine under post-Maidan crisis and armed conflict: factors and patterns of regional unevenness 2023-03-07T13:19:46+00:00 Sergii Zapototskyi zapototsk@knu.ua Nataliia Provotar provotarnat@ukr.net Oksana Trusii oktrusij@ukr.net Victoriia Zapototska vzapototska@ukr.net <p><strong>Problem Statement. </strong>Regional socio-economic development is characterized by diversity and multifacetedness and is stipulated with different impacts of factors. Ukraine has a pronounced spatial asymmetry of socio-economic development of regions; therefore, it is an important case for study of various components of regional unevenness. In the present context of post-Maidan crisis and armed conflict, study of uneven development of agrarian potential in Ukraine is becoming increasingly important, whereas it is important to assess and monitor the agrarian potential of regions for economic and food security of the country and regions.</p> <p><strong>Research Methodology. </strong>The research focuses on assessment of the agrarian potential development of Ukraine’s regions in 2015 and 2018, rather than on an empirical comparison of the agrarian potential development of regions before and during the post-Maidan crisis and armed conflict. A hierarchical model for assessing the development of the agrarian potential of Ukraine's regions has been elaborated. Based on the factor analysis results, the individual influence of each factor on the development of the agrarian potential of regions was determined. Using the method of ranking and Kohonen Self-Organizing Mapping, the changes in the uneven development of the agrarian potential of Ukraine’s regions during the post-Maidan crisis and armed conflict period were investigated, and the trajectories of the development of this potential were revealed.</p> <p><strong>This paper aims </strong>to identify the regional patterns of agrarian potential development and determine the factors that influenced its regional unevenness during the post-Maidan crisis and armed conflict.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The research results prove a spatial asymmetry and an increase in regional divergence in the agrarian potential development. The impact of socio-economic and production factors was revealed to grow and the impact of natural resources and macroeconomic factors on the agrarian potential development of the regions was revealed to weaken. The trajectories of agrarian potential development of the regions are determined; they are typified in nine types of trajectories of the agrarian potential development of the regions of Ukraine during the post-Maidan crisis and armed conflict. Recommendations are given on the regional policy in the agrarian sector of Ukraine in order to mitigate the uneven development of agrarian potential in the regions. Given that Ukraine is facing the problem of inconsistency of the institutional environment with the needs of agropotential development, it is very important to implement the institutional transformations, which should focus on harmonization of state and regional policy for the agrarian sector with EU principles.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21378 Ukrainians in Slovakia: settlement and language 2023-03-24T12:49:25+00:00 Andrii Zubyk andriy.zubyk@lnu.edu.ua <p><strong>Problem formulation. </strong>The Ukrainian diaspora is an important object for geographical research. Features of ethnic composition of the country of residence, its language and religious composition, age structure of Ukrainians straight affect to the processes of assimilation and preservation of ethnic identity.</p> <p><strong>The purpose </strong>of the study is to analyze and process population censuses data, which had conducted in Slovakia in 1991, 2001 and 2011.</p> <p><strong>Methodology and materials. </strong>We found the materials necessary for our article in the public domain on the website of the Department of Statistics of the Slovak Republic and on the resource “Population statistics of Eastern Europe &amp; former USSR”. To analyze the ethnic and linguistic environment in which Ukrainians live, in study used calculations of indices of ethnic and linguistic diversity, the coefficient of ethnic compactness.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>According to population censuses, which had been conducted in Slovakia after 1980, the number of Ukrainians is declining. At the same time, the number of Ruthenians is growing, some of whom do not identify themselves as part of the Ukrainian ethnic group. Ukrainians live compactly in Presov and Kosice regions. In particular, these are the northern and eastern counties of the country, such as Presov, Snina, Humenne, Bardiiv, Svidnik, Mikhailovtse, Medzhilabortse and others. Ruthenians and Ukrainians are fourth and sixth largest ethnic groups in Slovakia. The country is relatively homogeneous in ethnic composition, as evidenced by the value of the index of ethnic diversity, which in most districts does not exceed 30%. However, in those districts where Hungarians, Ukrainians and Ruthenians live compactly, this value can be over 60%. Often in the process of ethnic and linguistic assimilation, belonging to a certain religion (denomination) is preserved. In terms of counties, the largest centers where Greek Catholics and Orthodox live coincide with the settlement of Ukrainians and Ruthenians. If Ukrainians and Ruthenians together do not make up 1% of the total population, the share of Greek Catholics and Orthodox in the population is almost 5%. The indicators of linguistic diversity according to the criteria of “native language” and “language of communication at work” are clearly correlated with the index of ethnic diversity. That is, on the one hand, it reflects the clear links between "ethnicity and language", and on the other – the language policy of the country, where Slovak predominates in all areas.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty. </strong>The index of ethnic and linguistic diversity in terms of settlements and counties of Slovakia has been determined. According to the determinate indices and the main results of the census, a number of thematic maps were prepared with the help of GIS, which reflect the settlement of Ukrainians and Ruthenians, indices of ethnic and linguistic diversity and the share of Greek Catholics and Orthodox in the population.</p> <p><strong>Practical meaninig. </strong>The obtained results and thematic maps can be useful in further research of Ukrainians living in Slovakia for historians, demographers, linguists, ethnologists, etc.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21379 Opportunities for the development of dark tourism in Ukraine 2023-03-07T13:19:49+00:00 Mariya Lushchyk murmarja@gmail.com Olha Mamchur olga.mamchur@lnu.edu.ua <p><strong>Formulation of the problem. </strong>Every year there are new types of tourism and, accordingly, new directions of tourist travel. Among such areas is dark tourism, which, although it exists in the modern sense of the term for no more than 25 years, but already plays an important role in the modern tourism industry. We believe that this type of tourism has all the opportunities and prospects for further development in Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Analysis of recent research and publications. </strong>The issue of «dark» tourism is still insufficiently studied in the scientific literature, but has long been of some public interest, so we consider research on «dark» tourism in Ukraine relevant and timely. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature, the article describes the main approaches to the interpretation of the concept of «dark» tourism. The distinctive features that determine the content of «dark» tourism, its classification with a brief description of thematic varieties: mystical tourism, necropolis tourism, thanatourism and disaster tourism. The key reasons for tourists' interest in dark tourism (curiosity, search for novelty, historical memory and respect for cultural heritage, the role of the media and the emotional factor) are identified and the motivation of potential «dark» tourists is described.</p> <p><strong>Formulation of the purpose of the article. </strong>The purpose of the work is to specify the content of the concept of dark tourism, justify the specific structure of dark tourism, monitor the resource base for the development of dark tourism in Ukraine, identify the problems of its implementation and develop proposals for their solution.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of the main research material.</strong> The preconditions for the development of dark tourism in Ukraine are analyzed. The resource base of this type of tourism is investigated: on the basis of monitoring of «dark» places and locations of Ukraine 127 potentially popular for tourists objects are selected: medieval castles and fortresses, dungeons, thematic museums, prisons, cathedrals, ancient settlements, cemeteries, zones, battlefields, battlefields, etc., which can be used in the development of new tourism products. The geographical and thematic structuring of these objects is carried out, regularities in their geospatial organization are revealed. The most interesting objects of dark tourism of each of the macro-regions of Ukraine are singled out and their brief description is given.</p> <p><strong>Problems and prospects of the development of "dark" tourism.</strong> An analytical review of opportunities and threats to the development of dark tourism in Ukraine with the help of SWOT-analysis, substantiates the problems of development of this type of tourism and presents possible ways to solve them.</p> <p><strong>Proposed measures to popularize dark tourism in Ukraine.</strong> Measures for popularization and commercialization of dark tourism in Ukraine are offered, in particular: 1) monitoring of «dark»&nbsp; locations in Ukraine for their suitability for visiting by tourists; 2) creation of an interactive map of dark places of Ukraine; 3) the use of foreign experience in the organization of «dark» tours by domestic tourism enterprises; 4) organization of thematic events − cultural events, competitions, quests, festivals, educational tours, etc .; 5) creation of a web page with information about dark places of Ukraine and relevant tours, launch of the YouTube channel «Mystical Ukraine»; development of profile mobile applications.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21380 Informational and synergetic component of human-geographical research in the scientific heritage of Kostiantyn Niemets 2023-03-24T12:49:54+00:00 Liudmyla Niemets ludmila.nemets@karazin.ua Kateryna Kravchenko kateryna.kravchenko@karazin.ua Kateryna Sehida kateryna.sehida@karazin.ua Ievgeniia Telebienieva telebenevaev@gmail.com Liudmyla Kliuchko ludmila.klychko@karazin.ua <p>The <strong>purpose </strong>of the work is to highlight the information-synergistic component of human-geographical research through the analysis of the scientific heritage of Kostiantyn Niemets – Honored Professor of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. The achievement of the set purpose was accomplished through revealing the figure of the scientist Kostiantyn Niemets, justification of the human-geographical approach based on the information-synergistic paradigm, highlighting the formation of the concept of sociogeosystem and the sociogeoprocess, the peculiarities of the implementation of ideas in the educational process, the training of specialists and scientists, highlighting the potential of human geography and the information-synergistic component of human- geographical research in accordance with today's challenges.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> This article presents an analysis of the information-synergistic component of human- geographical research in the scientific heritage Kostiantyn Niemets – Honored Professor of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. The role of the synergistic paradigm is defined as the basis of modern science and scientific research. The implementation of the synergistic concept in sociogeosystems research, the definition of the role of the information resource and the features of information exchange are substantiated. The main contradictions between society and nature are revealed; the structure of the sociogeoprocess is considered; the main principles of the interaction of society and natural systems in the multi-system of nature management are revealed. The ideas of the formation of the concept of sociogeosystems and sociogeoprocess are highlighted and the features of the implementation of ideas in the educational process of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. are revealed. An analysis of the scientific heritage, which is realized in the scientific research of students and followers of Kostiantyn Niemets, is presented. The latest research and publications were analyzed, in particular, theoretical and methodological developments, the research toolkit, which was introduced during the implementation of dissertations for obtaining the scientific degree of doctor and candidate of geographical sciences under the leadership of Kostiantyn Nemets, as well as during the implementation of scientific research developments, projects and grants, powerful scientific publications authored by Kostiantyn Niemets. The article shows his huge contribution to the development of scientific research and support of young people. The results of the analysis of the dissertation works, which were created under the leadership of Kostiantyn Niemets, and the features of the introduction of the human-geographical approach and the use of powerful mathematical apparatus and modeling methods in these works are presented.</p> <p>Today, the synergistic paradigm is becoming one of the most important foundations of modern science and is being widely implemented in all fields of scientific research. The synergetic paradigm arose at the junction of many fundamental directions of science in the second half of the 20th century, its main methodological premise is a fundamentally different and unconventional understanding of the development of phenomena, processes, and systems in the surrounding reality. In contrast to the classical interpretation of development as a linear process, synergetics interprets the concept of development as a non-linear process that occurs as a result of the interaction of a large number of factors of different nature. In this regard, human geography occupies a leading place, because the main object of its research – the sociogeosystem – combines natural and social subsystems; therefore, human- geographical research includes all aspects of a synergistic approach.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21381 Cultural landscape zoning of Ukraine 2023-03-24T12:50:12+00:00 Kateryna Polyvach geogpoly@savba.sk <p><strong>Formulation of the problem.</strong> Nowadays in Ukraine there is a significant gap in the application of cultural-landscape approach and the lack of cultural and landscape zoning (CLZ) at different taxonomic levels, as one of the fundamental stages in the protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage, which is recognized in a number of international documents by the world community.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article.</strong> The purpose of this study is to develop methodological approaches to CLZ in Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Analysis of recent research and publications. </strong>The study and analysis of the experience of differentiation and zoning of different level territories on the basis of cultural and landscape approach in some European countries showed the crucial role of CLZ in studying cultural landscapes and planning management actions for their protection, conservation and use.</p> <p><strong>Methodology and results. </strong>The overall purpose of CLZ was to identify, define and differentiate integral natural and cultural systemic territorial formations of different levels, which form a set of interconnected cultural landscapes in a given area. The main factors of cultural-landscape differentiation of Ukraine at the macro level were natural-geographical, ethnographic, linguistic, historical-geographical, historical-political and administrative-territorial features and features of spatial localization and concentration of natural and cultural heritage - immovable and intangible. The information base for conducting the CLZ were researches that reflects the territorial differentiation of Ukraine by these groups of features and has developed appropriate zoning schemes with their cartographic implementation. The taxonomic system of the country's CLZ has been developed. It consists of two levels: 14 cultural-landscape regions and 52 cultural-landscape macro-districts; 26 cultural and landscape regions have been identified as a separate taxon, outside of the hierarchy, according to the administrative-territorial division of the country. The most important result of the study – the map "Cultural-landscape zoning of Ukraine", became one of the key topics of the electronic atlas "Population of Ukraine and its natural and cultural heritage". The development of the atlas was completed in 2020 by the Institute of Geography of NASU.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance. </strong>For the first time in Ukraine, CLZ has been developed at the macro level, thus starting to fill a gap of the absence of domestic developments of this kind. The study identified proposals on the main directions of development and practical application of CLZ in the field of protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage through inclusion in the systems of national and regional strategy, spatial development planning, research on integrated study of territory, mapping and development of CLZ regions and administrative districts, etc.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21382 Experience and prospects of mobile GIS use for practical training of geography students 2023-03-07T13:19:55+00:00 Nataliia Popovych n.v.popovych@karazin.ua Olena Sinna o.sinna@karazin.ua Liudmyla Nazarko l.nazarko@physgeo.com <p><strong>Problem statement.</strong> In recent decades, approaches to conducting field research have been significantly modernized. The use of smartphones, tablets and other portable devices with mobile GIS for field data collection has increased significantly. The rapid change in geospatial research technologies makes it necessary to introduce them into the educational process, in particular, in practical training of geography students.</p> <p><strong>Research methodology. </strong>Paper forms of field data collection, materials and reports from practical trainings of the previous years, stored at the Department of Physical Geography and Cartography of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, served us as the source materials for the research. To implement the practical part of the research, ESRI software products such as Collector for ArcGIS, ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS Desktop were used.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the research</strong> is to substantiate the content and to create electronic forms of field data collection with mobile GIS for the physiographic part of the educational natural science training of first-year students of specialty 106 Geography of V.&nbsp;N.&nbsp;Karazin Kharkiv National University.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The use of mobile GIS for practical training of future geographers is widespread in Ukrainian and foreign universities. In particular, in recent years, teachers of the Department of Physical Geography and Cartography have been introducing mobile GIS into field data collection. We have developed 4 electronic forms of field data collection for the physiographic part of the educational natural science training of first-year students. They are soil profile description, forest phytocenosis description, geological and geomorphological observations, and hydrological station. Due to the wide functionality of Collector for ArcGIS, in particular, the ability to work offline, this mobile application and ArcGIS Online were used to develop forms. To optimize the work with individual text fields in electronic forms, we created domain values that allow students to select a certain option from the drop-down list.</p> <p><strong>Practical significance and</strong> <strong>research perspectives</strong>. The implementation of mobile GIS into practical training of future geographers contributes to the formation of cartographic and geoinformation competencies and helps students master modern approaches to the organization of various types of field studies. Testing developed electronic forms during summer practical training of students or through independent research in the study area remains a relevant task. In the future, it is advisable to create electronic forms for all sections of the physiographic part of the first-year students' practical training and to adapt data collection forms for independent use.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21383 The system for near-real time air pollution monitoring over cities based on the Sentinel-5P satellite data 2023-03-07T13:19:57+00:00 Mykhailo Savenets savenets@uhmi.org.ua Andrii Oreshchenko andrey_o@uhmi.org.ua Liudmyla Nadtochii onoslyuda@uhmi.org.ua <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Air pollution heterogeneity and rapid urbanization impose numerous constraints on available near-surface air quality monitoring. The solution for effective warning comes with the integration of different data, including remote sensing. Satellite data cannot answer whether dangerous pollution levels are observed; however, it provides a complete picture and may detect air pollution transportation towards or away from cities. The possibilities for effective near-real time (NRTI) monitoring have significantly improved with the launch of the Sentinel-5P satellite. <strong>The study aimed</strong> to describe the developed system for NRTI air pollution monitoring over Kharkiv, Kryvyi Rig, Kyiv, and Odesa based on NO<sub>2</sub> and CO data derived from the Sentinel-5P satellite.</p> <p><strong>Data and methodology</strong>. The NRTI System was developed for tropospheric NO<sub>2</sub> and total CO column number densities based on the Sentinel-5P NRTI products. After satellite scanning of Ukrainian territory, the NRTI System goes live in 2-3 hours. It is fully automatic, and modules were written using Python, VB.NET, and batch-scripting.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The NRTI System includes four main phases: preparatory, source data downloading, processing and post-processing with visualization, archiving, and result distribution among users. Source data filtering with a quality assurance index and downscaling with linear kriging interpolation were developed. The output of the NRTI System is data in regular grids with a spatial resolution of 0.02<sup>o</sup>×0.02<sup>o</sup>. Based on the NRTI System work during October – December 2021, we conducted preliminary analyses to understand the possibilities of data usage. Higher NO<sub>2</sub> content was observed in Kyiv and Kharkiv, where traffic emissions play a crucial role in air quality worsening. The use of daily time series allowed the detection of an increase in NO<sub>2</sub> variance during the heating season, as well as plume distribution from cities to rural areas due to the prevailing wind. CO content is more homogeneous; however, higher values were observed in industrial Kryvyi Rig and Odesa. It is emphasized the huge impact of shipping CO emissions on air quality in Odesa. The temporal averaging of the NRTI System output allowed us to define the most polluted districts within the cities of interest. We intend to continue developing the presented NRTI System and develop the same algorithms for all cities with populations greater than 500 000 people in order to provide operational air pollution monitoring based on satellite data.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21384 Experimental evaluation of fire weather conditions during periods of wildfires in Ukraine in 2020 2023-03-24T12:50:48+00:00 Inna Semenova in_home@ukr.net Valery Mansarliysky mansmet@ukr.net Natalia Mishchenko minatami@ukr.net Ruslan Koval ruslanmw97@gmail.com <p>Introduction. Almost every year, the territory of Ukraine is affected by drought of different intensity and duration, what is a favorable condition for wildfires. In the forest areas of the country arose about 106.8 thousand fires with a total area of 139.2 thousand hectares during 1990-2017. An analysis of the long-term dynamics shows that wildfires in Ukraine are a sustainable phenomenon. In 2020, under the severe drought conditions, 209 forest fires occurred, the most significant of them were in the Chernobyl zone and in the Lugansk region.</p> <p><strong>Formulation of the problem.</strong> There is still no universally accepted method to describe all drought related processes due to complexity of drought phenomena. Although drought indices and fire weather indices usually have different time scales, their combination can be a basis in the prediction scheme in which the drought index acts as a background indicator, which enhances or decreases the current fire weather index.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of this study</strong> is evaluate informativeness of a new fire weather index HDW (Hot-Dry-Windy Index) for the territory of Ukraine, which takes into account the main meteorological parameters necessary to describe the degree of wildfire danger due to weather conditions, so this index may become a component of the drought and fire monitoring system.</p> <p>Data and methods. The HDW index has a physical justification as the atmosphere affects the fire, namely, the combination of three atmospheric parameters characterizes the current conditions for the ignition and distribution of fire: wind, temperature, humidity. For the calculation of the HDW index, the data of GFS global numerical model with grid step 0.25 degrees is used. The calculation of the daily fields of the HDW index was carried out for the territory of Ukraine and for local areas. To localize areas of wildfires, in the study were used daily hotspots data provided by the web-resource Firms (<a href="https://firms2.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/">https://firms2.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/</a>), which are determined using satellite instruments MODIS (AQUA and Terra Satellites) and VIIRS (S-NPP and NOAA-20 satellites).</p> <p>Research results. Comparison of the calculated HDW fields in Ukraine with the position of hotspots showed that the maximum values of the HDW index are generally concentrated in fire areas. Comparison with the synoptic situation showed that the maximum values of the HDW are located in the zones of advection of warm and dry air in the lower troposphere and zones of strong surface winds, which usually correspond to the periphery of anticyclone or the warm sector of cyclone. The analysis of the time courses of the HDW index showed the typical feature, which expressed in the fact that in all cases there was an increase in the index values in the period before the wildfire, maximum of the HDW is fixed at the time of ignition and after that the index values sharply decreases.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance.</strong> The fields of new HDW index reflects the weather conditions typical for wildfires periods in the territory of Ukraine. The presence of specific features and extreme values in the index time course can be used to track the process of increase of fire danger under changing weather conditions to make short- and medium-range fire danger forecasts with evaluation of fire danger classes.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21385 Principles of processing and three-dimensional modelling through lidar data for applied research of the urban environment 2023-03-24T12:51:04+00:00 Denys Serohin den.seryogin@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The 3D modeling technology of the urban environment using LiDAR survey data expands the possibilities of urban research. With proper use of various methods, models and algorithms for processing and analyzing LiDAR data, they can significantly facilitate and open up new opportunities for many applications discussed in this paper.</p> <p>The <strong>main research objective</strong> of the paper is to review methods for analyzing LiDAR survey data in urban studies and to present individual elements of the author’s optimization of these methods.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> LiDAR data obtained as a result of laser scanning of the earth's surface from a certain vehicle form a three-dimensional terrain model in the point cloud form of varying density degrees. The post-processing of such data can branch out into many applications, which are discussed in this paper. The building extraction from a cloud of LiDAR points is performed using complex computational operations, the essence of which is to calculate the points of separate planes of the buildings roofs and then extract these points for 3D building modeling. There are many approaches to building extraction that aim to either improve the quality and accuracy of the extracted models or to speed up the data processing. Finding the optimal solution for 3D modeling of the urban environment is an urgent task in this area of research. Tracking changes in urban buildings involves comparing digital models of urban areas for different time periods in order to obtain the changes volume for each building. In a similar fashion, LiDAR data is used to assess damage to buildings by creating random points on the buildings walls and comparing their displacements before and after the damage. The population estimate using LiDAR data is based on a comparison of population data for census tracts with data on the number, area and volume of buildings in the same tracts obtained from processed LiDAR data. As a result, the expected population in each individual building can be calculated. Roads extraction from LiDAR data is performed by creating an image of the LiDAR laser pulse intensity and then comparing this image with a digital surface model. The article provides an example of a scheme for such road extraction. In addition, methods for extracting and mapping power lines by filtering the corresponding points are also considered. The ability to determine the exact size, slope, and exposure of a building's roof plane also makes it possible to estimate the potential level of solar radiation received by the roof, which can contribute to the optimal placement of solar power plants. Such an assessment may cause some difficulties, which are discussed in the article. The article proposes various optimization solutions for the considered methods, which were partially implemented in the ELiT software. In addition to effective tools for automatic data processing, the ELiT Project also provides an environment for high-quality visualization of results in a standard web-GIS interface.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. LiDAR data, in combination with efficient algorithms for processing and filtering data, greatly facilitates the solution of a number of tasks related to area monitoring and urban planning. In the future, the high accuracy of LiDAR data and the possibility of their visualization in GIS will make it possible to analyze the urban development features in order to identify the urban geosystemic properties of the city.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21386 Lean-logistics in constructive geography: theoretical and methodological foundations 2023-03-07T13:20:03+00:00 Viktoriia Udovychenko udovychenko.vv@knu.ua Iryna Udovychenko hafran@ukr.net <p><strong>Research problem introduction. </strong>The main research goal of this paper is to provide the lean-logistics geosystem research concept as a contemporary approach of constructive geography closely connected with industry as a part of the service sector based on leading scientific principles, GIS-technologies and remote sensing data processing software involvement, and to give some details about this concept applied implementation. All these arguments allow us to specify and to study in-depth the peculiarities, key types, and specificities of the lean-logistics.</p> <p>In this paper, Lean-logistics is <strong>understood</strong> as an environmental service that helps to improve biodiversity and a stable environment. Lean-logistics itself can be developed as a type of modelling land use and land management activities. This activity can be even thought of as educational innovation with nature-based solutions.</p> <p>The key geographic-centered ideas of the concept of Lean-logistics are integration, engineering, economization, ecologization, socialization, and humanization of modern human activities.</p> <p><strong>The methodological basis</strong> of Lean-logistics is presented by three sections, such as Section I. Theory of logistics (for instance, such aspects as general characteristics of logistics and its key features, Varieties of logistics and its classification, Lean logistics as a science: its place in logistics, key distinct features, etc.), Section II. Applied logistics (with such aspects as Military logistics, Business logistics, Environmental logistics, Urban logistics, and Logistics services), and Section III. Logistical construction (Lean-construction of commodity flows and Lean-construction in the field of services).</p> <p><strong>The practical basis</strong> of Lean-logistics is formed by logic modelling (studios). Logic modelling in Lean-logistics are called <em>logistics studios</em> and are understood as a form of active practical activities of researchers.</p> <p>Summarizing and generalizing key ideas discussed in the text, the authors underline that <strong>the conceptual framework</strong> of the lean-logistics geosystem research is based on the implementation of four cross-cutting lines such as environmental security and sustainable development, health and safety, civic responsibility, business undertaking, and financial literacy. All of them aimed at forming a conscious citizen, all areas of activity of which are permeated by logistics chains.</p> <p><strong>Concluding</strong> the research, the authors emphasize that the lean-logistics concept may be quite useful within the proposed content of Lean-logistics as a page navigator E-collection in the form of a book trailer. Some pages of it contain examples of the multimedia scrapbook of interactive exercises (deal with some definite sections and/or topics) which are presented using the Print Screen-visualization of the logistics lotto. The use of such tools, forms, technologies, techniques in the study of the content of “Lean-logistics in geography”, as E-collection, book-trailer, hotlist, multimedia scrapbook, mind mapping software, QR-coding, Print Screen-visualization, with active use of GIS, educational Internet services, modernizes the learning process and with systematic use in practice makes them necessary and appropriate in the knowledge about geography and constructive geography.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21387 Probabilistic-forecasting method for determination of low flow discharge of Pivdennyi Buh, Black Sea area, and Lower Dnieper rivers 2023-03-24T12:51:39+00:00 Zhannetta Shakirzanova jannettodessa@gmail.com Valeriya Ovcharuk valeriya.ovcharuk@gmail.com Anhelina Dokus angel.dokus@gmail.com Liliia Kushchenko liliakushchenko@gmail.com Olena Tymko elenatymko2018@gmail.com <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> is to substantiate the probabilistic-forecasting method for forecasting the low flow discharge and its implementation for the Pivdennyi Buh, Black Sea area and Lower Dnieper rivers, taking into account climatic patterns of precipitation distribution and establishing probabilistic characteristics of low flow discharge in multi-year period. The study area is in a zone of significant risk due to the shortage of water resources, the formation of extremely low runoff in the dry flow period, which requires its definition and forecasting.</p> <p><strong>The methodological basis</strong> of forecasts is to solve the equation in determining the components of the low flow of rivers by constructing regional dependences for forecasting the average decade summer-autumn low flow from previous water discharge (in runoff modules), establishing their probabilities water discharge for a number of intakes.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The paper substantiates the probabilistic-forecasting method for forecasting low flow discharge (in summer, autumn and winter periods) based on the construction of regional dependences of average decadal runoff modules on previous water discharge for groups of basins of studied rivers taking into account climatic dependences of precipitation distribution in the territory and the establishment of probabilistic characteristics of the low flow water discharge in a multi-year period. The methodology of territorial short-term forecasts of average decade water discharge of low flow of summer, autumn and winter river runoff is assessed as satisfactory with a margin of error of 70&nbsp;% to 97&nbsp;%, with a number of members of more than 500 points. To determine the cumulative probability of the forecast values of the average decade water discharge of the summer, autumn and winter dry weather flow, the empirical distribution of the average monthly water discharge in the limited seasons, which are generalized in the basins of the studied rivers of Ukraine, is established.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty.</strong> For the first time for the zone of insufficient natural water content of rivers the method of territorial forecasts of low flow discharge, determination of their probability of occurrence in a multi-year period and cartographic representation of prognostic values have been developed and practically implemented.</p> <p><strong>The practical importance</strong> is the use of forecast modules maps of low flow for spatial monitoring and assessment of low water levels on rivers in the whole region, including ungauged rivers, and their probabilistic characteristics – to assess the possible occurrence of low runoff, even when it reaches values close to the environmental runoff, which are critical for the functioning of the river ecosystem.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21388 Thermodynamic aspects of the systems approach in ecology 2023-03-24T12:52:00+00:00 Vitalii Bezsonnyi bezsonny@gmail.com Oleg Tretyakov mega_ovtr@ukr.net Mykola Sherstyuk l.plyacuk@ecolog.sumdu.edu.ua Alla Nekos alnekos999@gmail.com <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. research from thermodynamic positions of the properties of ecological systems of various types under the influence of anthropogenic factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Analytical-synthetic method, analysis of information sources, entropy analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The effect of an anthropogenic factor on the ecosystem will result in a decrease in the antientropy of the components. The response of the ecosystem will be different depending on the strength and duration of the disturbance. With a strong and sufficiently long impact, the antientropy of the components falls while preserving the organization of the ecosystem until the too low level of the antientropy of the components does not include their own regulatory reactions aimed at restraining the fall of the antientropy even to the detriment of the organization of the system. The organization begins to fall. Since the influence is strong enough and does not stop, the regulatory mechanisms of the components are not able to stabilize the antientropy. The process of falling anti-entropy and organization continues, the system is irreversibly going to its demise. With an average strength, but long-term impact, the components manage to stabilize their anti-entropy at some sub-optimal, but acceptable level at the expense of energy reserves while preserving the organization. However, if the influence continues and does not weaken, the components, not being able to return their antientropy to the original optimal level, sooner or later cannot cope with the continuous perturbation, and their antientropy begins to fall again, now together with the organization. With a weak or short-term impact, the components, adapting to new conditions, return the antientropy to the optimal level (with a strong or medium impact, this is possible only after its termination before irreversible changes in the system). In this case, the organization of the system remains constant, since the disturbing action in this case did not lead the ecosystem beyond the effective operation of homeostatic mechanisms.</p> <p>Thus, the critical moment when an anthropogenic factor acts on an ecosystem is the beginning of the fall of its organization, when homeostasis has completely exhausted itself in countering the disturbance, and the ecosystem begins to irreversibly degrade. So, to control the state of the ecosystem exposed to the anthropogenic factor, it is enough to monitor the organization of the system: if it does not decrease, we can talk about relative well-being, but if the organization falls, the ecosystem is on the verge of death, and it is necessary to take measures to save it.</p> <p>However, the periodic and fairly frequent measurement of the organization of the ecosystem is a task, although one that does not cause fundamental difficulties, but is very time-consuming, primarily due to finding the average module of the correlation coefficients of the parameters.</p> <p>Determining the complexity of the ecosystem according to the formula, although associated with certain difficulties associated with finding the number of connections, does not require time-consuming mathematical processing.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21389 Ecological problems of irrigated soils in the south of Ukraine 2023-03-07T13:20:08+00:00 Liudmyla Hranovska G_Ludmila15@ukr.net Oleksiy Morozov morozov-2008@ukr.net Pavlo Pisarenko pavel_pisarenko74@ukr.net Sergiy Vozhegov instofrice@gmail.com <p><strong>Problem formulation</strong>. Ecological quality of soils and agricultural products depends on the level of irrigation water mineralization. The quality of mineralized irrigation water has a negative impact on soils, agricultural products and ecosystems. This is especially negative in the conditions of Southern Ukraine within the Black Sea territories where the formation of irrigation waters in the Ingulets river basin depends on the influence of the Kryvyi Rih iron ore basin located in the river basin.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the article</strong> is to assess the impact of mineralized irrigation waters on soils and natural ecosystems.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>. Field sampling of water and dark chestnut saline soils and southern chernozem soils to determine the impact of mineralized water quality on soils and ecosystems, statistical analysis of the obtained data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Discharges of highly mineralized mine waters into the river basin lead to a change in the flow velocity in the river from 4 m³/s to 20 m³/s, which negatively affects the flora and fauna living conditions. Depending on the chemical composition of the discharges, the mineralization of irrigation water varies from 1.393 g/dm³ to 1.7608 g/dm³, and sometimes reaches 4.349 g/dm³. In terms of chemical composition, irrigation water is formed as a hydrocarbonate-sulfate-chloride with almost the same content of sulfates and chlorides, calcium-magnesium-sodium with a significant advantage of sodium. The dynamics of irrigation water quality indicators during 2013-2021 testifies to an increase of the most dangerous indicators for soils: hydrogen index of soil solution (pH) from 7.7 to 8.4, chlorine ion content (Cl–) – from 9.52 to 10.77 meq/dm³ and sodium (Na+) from 9.52 to 13.33 meq/dm³. By means of correlation and regression analyzes, the regularities of water hydrochemical composition formation were revealed and a strong functional connection between mineralization and chlorine ions (r = 0.99) and sulfate ions (r = 0.99), between mineralization and hydrocarbonate ions was established (r = 0.47). As the mineralization of water increases, the content of chlorine ions and sulfate ions increases proportionally, and hydrocarbonate ions play a secondary role in the formation of the hydrochemical composition. To prevent the chlorine ions excess of more than 350 meq/dm³ and sulfate ions excess – 500 meq/dm³, irrigation water mineralization should not exceed 1500 mg/dm³, and to prevent the chlorine ions excess of more than 350 meq/dm³, water flow from the canal should be at least 9.0 m³/s.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty</strong>. New mathematical models of the irrigation water mineralization, its anionic composition, its chloride content dependence on water consumption from the Ingulets river and the interdependence between mineralization and cationic composition of water are offered.</p> <p><strong>Practical significance</strong>. The obtained results are of practical importance for the implementation of agro-ameliorative measures for soil and ecosystem conservation.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21390 Effect of oil contamination on the course of changes in chernozem properties and phytotoxicity 2023-03-24T12:52:25+00:00 Olekcii Krainiukov alkraynukov@gmail.com Inna Miroshnychenko zander3pike5@gmail.com Olesia Sіabruk syabryk86@gmail.com Yevheniia Hladkikh ye.hladkikh@ukr.net <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The consumption of hydrocarbons in the world is steadily growing with the response to the progress of civilization. It is accompanied by the continuous flow of hydrocarbon pollutants into the environment. Soil pollution with oil attracts special attention, because the soil is a key element in the trophic chain of toxicants in the human body.</p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>Investigate changes in the properties (physicochemical, agrochemical and biological) of chernozem soils and its phytotoxicity at different levels of oil pollution for further use of the parameters of these indicators during soil monitoring.</p> <p><strong>Research methods.</strong> The research was conducted during 2019-2021 in the conditions of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in a field small-plot experiment on Chernozem Luvic with the frequency of observations on diagnostic indicators at 1 month, 6, 12 and 24 months. The scheme of the experiment provided for soil contamination with oil in the amount of 0.4 l/m<sup>2</sup>, 1.6 l/m<sup>2</sup>, 6.4 l/m<sup>2</sup>, 25.6 l/m<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The rate of biodegradation of oil products for different levels of pollution of Chernozem Luvic was determined - with insignificant pollution, self-purification of the soil is characterized by a faster course than with medium and strong, within 24 months the content of hydrocarbons decreased by 85-87% and 60-64%, respectively. One of the important mechanisms for the loss of hydrocarbons from the soil surface is microbiological decomposition, studies have shown that in the oil concentration range of 6.4-24.6 l/m<sup>2</sup>, there was a significant increase in the intensity of carbon dioxide release from the soil, which is 60% higher than in the control option, this indicates the intensification of the processes of its biodegradation. Studies of changes in such diagnostic indicators as soil pH, the content of water-soluble potassium and sodium show a less significant influence of the factor of soil pollution with oil compared to the influence of the time factor. However, these indicators are of great diagnostic value in the process of monitoring oil-contaminated soils and remediation, since the most optimal parameters of these indicators determine the suitability of soils for plant growth and microbial life. Studies of phytotoxicity of oil-contaminated soil have shown the negative impact of oil on seed germination in the field condition.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The research results indicate a gradual self-purification of the soil from petroleum hydrocarbons during the observation period. The obtained regularities of the dynamics of changes in the studied parameters will be used to improve the scientific and methodological support for monitoring soils affected by oil pollution.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/21391 Environmental assessment of soil contamination by trace metals 2023-03-07T13:20:16+00:00 Olha Rybalova olgarybalova@ukr.net Hanna Korobkova korobkova.ann@gmail.com Oleksandr Chynchyk chinchik1978@gmail.com Tatyana Stryzhak tatyannaklimenko2065@gmail.com Oleksandr Bondar olexandr.bondar@i.ua <p><strong>The main purpose. </strong>The purpose of this research is to develop a method for determining the level of heavy metal contamination in the soil. For this end, the following tasks are set:</p> <p>- to develop a method for the integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in the soil at the regional and local levels;</p> <p>- to identify the most heavy metal contaminated regions of Ukraine;</p> <p>- to estimate the level of hazard of heavy metal contamination in the soil for territories with different types of land use;</p> <p>- to assess the pollution of soils with heavy metals as a result of hostilities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology.</strong> The method takes into account the soil morphology, genezises, trace metals background concentrations and based on the development of the self-purification index for various soils in different regions of Ukraine. According to the proposed method soils have been classified by trace metals contamination.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> At the local level, trace metals in soils were assessed for urban recreational areas, highways and roads, landfills and industrial zones. The soils in recreational areas were classified as ‘good’, highways and roads are classified as ‘satisfactory’ and ‘poor’, industrial and landfill was classified as ‘very poor’ according to the trace metals contamination. At the regional level, the highest contamination Class was given to the soils of Donetsk and Luhansk regions due to the highest density of industrial areas and performed military activities. The environmental assessment of trace metals contamination in soils due to the military activity was performed for these regions. The results of trace metals determination in Kharkiv according to this method indicate that the most dangerous areas are domestic waste landfills and facilities of the industrial companies. Recreation zones are ranked in Class 2. and the territory near the highways are assessed in quality Class 2 and 3. Assessment of the hazard level of trace metal contamination in the soil by the proposed method will allow making a scientifically substantiated decision on the priority of implementation of environmental measures.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty. </strong>The paper presents a new method of assessing soil contamination with heavy metals at the regional and local level. The advantage of this method is taking into account the hazard class of pollutants and the self-cleaning index. A new classification of the level of danger of soil contamination with heavy metals has been developed.</p> <p><strong>Practical significance. </strong>The use of the proposed methodological approach will contribute to obtaining comparable data when assessing the level of soil contamination by heavy metals and determining the priority of implementing environmental protection measures and increasing the level of environmental safety, which is especially relevant for the post-war recovery of our country.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022