https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/issue/feed Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series "Geology. Geography. Ecology" 2024-02-20T12:12:26+00:00 Василь Григорович Суярко geoeco-series@karazin.ua Open Journal Systems <p>Specialized edition on geological and geographical sciences.</p> <p>Indexed in:&nbsp;<em>WorldCat</em>,&nbsp;<em>BASE</em>&nbsp;(Bielefeld Academic Search Engine),&nbsp;<em>ResearchBible</em>,&nbsp;<em>TIB/UB</em>&nbsp;(German National Library of Science and Technology, University Library Hannover),&nbsp;<em>SBB&nbsp;</em>(Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin),&nbsp;<em>Ulrich's Periodicals Directory</em>,&nbsp;<em>EBSCO</em>,&nbsp;<em>Index Copernicus</em>,&nbsp;<em><strong>Web of Science</strong></em>&nbsp;(Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)).</p> <p>Visnyk of V.&nbsp;N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series “Geology. Geography. Ecology” is devoted to the modern studies in the field of geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, ecology and social and economic geography.</p> <p>“Visnyk” is intended for scientists, specialists and high school lecturers.</p> https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23185 Geochemical proxies of the gryphon breccia of mud volcanoes in East Azerbaijan: regularities in the distribution of chemical elements and spatial characteristics of sedimentation 2024-02-19T18:12:25+00:00 Elnur Baloglanov b.elnur2016@gmail.com <p>The paper is devoted to the study of the patterns of distribution of major oxides and trace elements in the gryphon breccia of 12 active mud volcanoes located in various oil and gas regions (Absheron, Gobustan and Lower Kura) of Azerbaijan. Interpretations of the chemical elements found in gryphon breccia samples have allowed the composition of their source rocks, sedimentation conditions, and sedimentation areas to be determined.</p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>The main goal of the study is to conduct geochemical studies of gryphon breccias belonging to various oil and gas regions, determine spatial patterns, achieve their explanation, and at the same time determine the conditions for the deposition of mud sediments.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>The chemical composition of mud volcanic breccia samples was analyzed using an “S8 TIGER Series 2” spectrometer and an “Agilent 7700 Series ICP-MS” mass spectrometer. Based on the results obtained, in addition to identifying patterns in the areas, modern approaches based on geochemical interpretation were used to explain them. The results on the genesis of breccias are consistent with the results of the published literature on the development of geodynamic and paleobasin conditions in the region.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Samples with the lowest Si content are characteristic of the Lower Kura mud volcanoes, where the youngest (Quaternary) deposits are recorded. In samples from these mud volcanoes, relatively high contents of Mg and P are also noticeable. High contents of Ca are characteristic of volcanoes located near the Caspian Sea. These mud volcanoes are also rich in trace elements such as Li, Ga, Rb, Zr, Mo, Cs, Pr, Tl, Pb, Th, U and others, but depleted in Ni, Sr, Ba and etc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Plagioclase-rich source rocks and oxygen-dominated paleobasin environments played a key role in the formation of breccia deposits belonging to the mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan. Geochemical proxies make it possible to link the paleobasin conditions of the formation of the gryphon breccia of the most mud volcanoes of South and Central Gobustan with the continental setting, especially in comparison with some volcanoes of the Lower Kura, as well as Gobustan and Absheron, located on the shores of the Caspian Sea and relatively close to it. The breccias of mud volcanoes located at a relatively large distance from the modern sea boundary and in the steepest northern part of the Lower Kura are associated with marine conditions, as are breccias of mud volcanoes located in the south of this tectonic zone (subjected to intense subsidence) and at a short distance from the Caspian Sea, may be due to geological factors.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23186 Tectonic position of the Ukrainian shield 2024-02-19T18:13:37+00:00 Sergey Goryainov gorjajnov@karazin.ua <p><strong>Statement of the general problem</strong>. The analysis of the geological structure of Europe indicates a wide development of Laramian (post-Cretaceous - pre-Cenozoic) deformations in non-Alpine regions. They are traced by the regional angular unconformity between the folded Mesozoic and non-folded Cenozoic from the Caspian Sea to Great Britain. The area of development of the Laramie folding of Europe also covers the Ukrainian shield.</p> <p><strong>An unsolved part of the overall problem</strong><strong>. </strong>The Ukrainian crystalline shield is described as "uplift of the crystalline foundation of the East European platform", where Precambrian rocks come to the surface. But the same rocks can also be traced far beyond its borders. The question arises - what structural position does the Ukrainian shield occupy in the structure of the Laramie folded region?</p> <p><strong>Analysis of recent research and publications</strong><strong>. </strong>On the geological maps of the pre-Cenozoic formations of Ukraine, the northern border of the Laramie folded region can be traced along the Chernihiv-Lysychansk line. Mesozoic folds and an angular unconformity in the Cenozoic basement disappear further north. To the south, the Laramie deformations intensify, but unevenly.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article </strong>is identification of modern structural position of Ukrainian crystalline shield.</p> <p><strong>Research materials and methods. </strong>Were involved more than 120 geological maps of Ukrainian regions and author's digital geological model of East Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of the main research material</strong>. A band of Mesozoic folds and NW vergence thrusts tens to hundreds of kilometers long is developed immediately south of the border of the folded region. The amplitude of the folds is 1.5–2 km. The band of development of these folds and thrusts with a width of about 100 km limits the Ukrainian shield from the northeast.</p> <p>To the south of the Ukrainian Shield, on the shelves of the Black and Azov Seas and in Northern Crimea, a sub-latitude band of Laramie thrusts and folds with a width of 150–200 kilometers has been established. Amplitudes of thrust folds reach 1–2 km, amplitudes of separate thrusts reach 8–10 km. This band of folds and thrusts limits the southern slope of the Ukrainian shield from the south. These Laramie folds and thrusts are overlain by Cenozoic sediments.</p> <p>To the south, in the Mountainous Crimea, the deformations are still intensifying. Folds and thrusts are replaced by wide and extended mélange zones of northwestern vergence.</p> <p>The Ukrainian shield is bypassed by the development of folds and thrusts from the northeast, east, and south. On the slopes of the Ukrainian shield, Mesozoic fold deformations subside, and the Mesozoic there lies gently sloping and monoclinally. Such poorly deformed blocks within folded regions are called middle massifs. This middle massif of the Laramie fold region within Ukraine has an anteclise structure. In the core of the anteclise, Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks emerge from under the sedimentary cover. The western wing of the anteclise is overlain by younger thrusts of the Carpathian folded structure of Attic (post-Miocene) age.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty</strong><strong>. </strong>In the modern geological structure, the Ukrainian shield is the core of the anteclise of the middle massif in the Laramie folded region.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>As a tectonic uplift, shield was formed in the Paleocene. In the Late Cretaceous, it was still buried under shelf carbonate deposits. Erosion of this uplift formed the Cenozoic deposits of Ukraine with a specific mineragenic specialization. Taking into account the Laramian folding allows us to reconcile the diverse geological phenomena of the region into a single system without contradictions.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23187 Evaluation of geological structures and geothermal resources in the North Tanzania Volcanic area using remote sensing and gravity data analysis 2024-02-19T18:16:11+00:00 Albano Mahecha albanho6@gmail.com Nureddin Saadi n.saadi@uot.edu.ly Essam Aboud eaboudishish@kau.edu.sa Akira Imai imai@mine.kyushu-u.ac.jp Kotaro Yonezu yone@mine.kyushu-u.ac.jp <p><strong>Problems Statement and Purpose</strong>. Northern Tanzania Volcanic terrain has been a subject of evaluation for geothermal potential in the last four decades. The region is characterized by Neogene to Recent volcanic and tectonic activities. This preliminary study based on remote sensing, water chemistry, gravity data, geological structures and volcanic centers distribution reports the geothermal manifestations identified and discusses the implications on geothermal fluid pathways. Oxygen-hydrogen isotope data from water samples indicate that there were involved in the hydrothermal system.</p> <p><strong>Tectono-Volcanic Structures</strong>. The Northern Tanzania Divergence (NTD) area characterized by Neogene to Recent volcanic and tectonic activities. Recent volcanic and tectonic activities are ash cone and lava dome eruption at the floor of Meru crater a century ago, dyke intrusion and volcanic eruption south of Gelai volcano, and Oldoinyo-Lengai volcano, respectively. Fumarolic activities and hot springs are dominant in a relatively young volcanic area to the north-eastern and northern part of the NTD.</p> <p><strong>Data and Methods. </strong>Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) image, water isotope analysis and gravity data were used to extract and analyze the surface and subsurface geological lineaments and map the hydrothermal alteration zones in the study area. The hydrothermal alteration is used to evaluate and identify the permeable structures. Analysis and interpretation of the length and trends of extracted lineaments were used to investigate the tectonic evolution. Geological map of a study area was digitized from the existing geological maps and the age of rocks to delineate volcanic activity and associated lineaments based on the age of the lithological domain. Digital image processing was applied to enhance the visual interpretation. Gravity data were used to give insight into the subsurface structure in the study area.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>The higher δ <sup>18</sup>O values and large deviation from meteoric water lines suggest that is due to the interaction of fluids with host rocks at elevated temperatures. These are consistent with open structures that act as conduits for fluid flow. The potential field gravity data reveal a basin-like structure trending in the NNW direction. The gravity data show that the basement units gradually deepen towards the central part and that it is controlled by two main fault systems that trend N-S and NW-SE respectively. The gravity data presented here provides new constraints on the tectonic evolution and geothermal resources of the study area.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23195 Studies of oil product pollution in the aeration zone by mathematical modelling 2024-02-19T18:18:27+00:00 Оleg Ulytsky olegulytsky@gmail.com Natalia Dіachenko natalidyachenko1969@gmail.com Armen Sokolov staroilua@gmail.com Olga Serdіukova serd.64@ukr.net <p><strong>Formulation of the problem</strong>. The article presents the results of a study to assess the pollution of the aeration zone due to the leakage of oil products as a result of the destruction of the «Amik» oil depot during the military operations in the town of Borodyanka. The destruction of the tanks resulted in an immediate leakage of light oil products onto the soil of the surrounding area. The result was a technogenic environmental situation that required immediate determination of the mechanisms of accidental penetration of pollutants into the soil and groundwater, determination of the area of contamination and scientifically sound methods of soil remediation of oil products. The article highlights the issues of organising mathematical modeling of various data for solving applied problems using Google Earth data.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods. </strong>In order to assess the contamination area and determine the mechanism of accidental penetration of oil products into the soil and groundwater, the existing models of pollutant penetration in case of accidental oil spill were analysed and mathematical spatial models of geomorphological, hydrogeological, engineering-geological and experimental filtration data were created using interpolation, mathematical approximation and gradient analysis. The latter made it possible to identify the directions of surface and groundwater flow both in the local area of the oil depot and in adjacent areas. Using the investigation and filtration parameters obtained during the field work, hydraulic gradients and soil filtration coefficients were calculated, and a spatial mathematical model of the local subterranean gradient of groundwater flow was created.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. It was shown that the direction of the underground flow is controlled by a zone of local depression, which is expressed by a decrease in the absolute height of the natural lithological layer with a height difference of about 0.4 m or the maximum values of the height of the contamination lens. The direction of extension of this zone has been determined to be from north to south. This zone can be considered the zone of maximum accumulation of liquid with oil products.</p> <p>Based on the survey results, the thickness of the contamination lens was calculated to be 0.3 m on average. Using this indicator, the area of contamination is 4169 m<sup>2</sup>, the volume of contamination is 1250.7 m<sup>3</sup>, which corresponds to the claimed damage. However, taking into account the anisotropy of the filtration properties of the lithological types in different directions within the aeration zone, the presence of dissolved water due to dispersion and the presence of local accumulation depressions in the lithological strata, options with other indicators (0.5 m / 0.1 m) are also acceptable. The calculation of the contamination areas was carried out taking into account the power variations. The approximate total areas of oil product distribution in the aeration zone were plotted with reference to Google Earth imagery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The research enabled practical recommendations to be made for cleaning up the area of oil products and preventing the spread of the pollutant by pumping oil products out of the modelled and actually confirmed pollution lens. In accordance with the recommendations, 140 wells were drilled to a depth of 5.2 m, with a diameter of 0.11‑0.168 m and a total length of 710 m, which made it possible to prevent the spread of the contaminant by pumping out the oil products and reusing them after clean-up.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23196 Polychronic-polygenic spatial-paragenetic ilmenite bearing of the Bukinska area of the Mezhyrichny deposit of titanium ores 2024-02-19T18:20:28+00:00 Lubov Figura liuba_figura@ukr.net Myron Kovalchuk kms1964@ukr.net <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The primary task, aimed at meeting the needs of our own titanium raw materials, is to put into operation as soon as possible the deposits in which spatially and paragenetically different ore bearing capacity is combined in a spatial and paragenetic way and which have sufficient detail been studied. One of these deposits is Mezhyrichne, which is located within the Volyn megablock, in the central part of the Korosten pluton, Zhytomyr region. Within the deposit, several areas have been identified, including Bukinska.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the publication</strong>. To investigate the ilmenite ore-bearing of the polygenic-polychronic spatial-paragenetic ore-bearing system within the Bukinska area, which is composed of ore-bearing rocks of the foundation, their weathering crust, continental alluvial (Aptian-Lower Albian) deposits (formed due to erosion and redeposition of eluvium) and coastal-sea (Turonian) formations (formed due to erosion and redeposition of Lower Cretaceous alluvium and partially weathering crust).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methodology</strong>. The methodical and methodological basis of the research was the work of the autors on the structural and lithological modeling of placers of heavy minerals. The actual material for the studies were the production reports and scientific publications. A target database was created for cartographic modeling of the structure and quality indicators (distribution of ilmenite content along the lateral spread and vertical cross-sections of wells) of the rocks. The database contains the coordinates of 1635 wells, their description, test results. Cartographic constructions were made in Inkscape, Golden Software Strater, and Golden Software Surfer software. Correlations between certain parameters of ore-bearing sediments were studied in Microsoft Excell.</p> <p><strong>Main Results.</strong> Information on the geological structure of the Bukinska area of the Mezhyrichne titanium ore deposit is given. It has been found that the ore-bearing potential of the area is determined by a polygenic-polychronic spatially-paragenetically connected ore system. This ore system is composed of titanium-bearing rocks of the crystalline basement of the Volodarsk-Volyn complex, their weathering crusts, Lower Cretaceous continental, Upper Cretaceous coastal – marine products of erosion and redeposition of eluvium and to a lesser extent and partially heterogeneous formations of the Quaternary system. Maps of the relief of the bottom, the top surface and thickness of the ore-bearing rocks have been constructed. The lateral distribution of the average ilmenite content in all rock types was studied. The directionality and strength of correlations were investigated. The peculiarities of the distribution of ilmenite in the vertical section of formations of different ages and different genesis have been clarified.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>A target database was created, on the basis of which a set of maps was built, which made it possible to study the structural and material parameters of ore-bearing deposits. The ore-bearing potential of the polygenic-polychronic spatial-paragenetic system of the Bukinska area was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. It has been found that the Bukinska area, within which there is a spatially and paragenetically combined temporal and heterogeneous ore bearing, has a significant ore-bearing potential and is attractive for investment. The obtained results are an information base for supporting mining operations.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23197 Spatiotemporal analysis of urban sprawling using change detection: a case study of Shaki district, Azerbaijan 2024-02-19T18:21:36+00:00 Nofal Artunov nofel.ertunov@gmail.com Nariman Pashayev pasayevneriman@mail.ru Elnura Gasimova qasimovaelnura2@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The contemporary globalized world characterizes the rapid population growth, its significant concentration in cities, and an increase in the urban population. Currently, many socio-cultural, economic, environmental, and other challenges are arising in modern cities. Cities are therefore emerging from the common understanding and displaying new characteristics: reduced density, dispersed development, poor accessibility and monofunction. However, the concentration of population in cities also brings its own set of issues.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of article. </strong>The purpose of the study was to identify Shaki City's urban development process, and how its land use has evolved over time. It examines the population growth in the region and the increase in the specific weight of the urban population between 2016 and 2023, analyzing the population growth trend over a 20-year period. The direction and extent of urban land use has been studied by determining the relationship between the growth rate of the urban population and the extension of the urban area, and by analyzing the changes which have occurred during the period of land use.</p> <p><strong>Research methods. </strong>Statistical data has also been used for this purpose, together with data from the Azersky satellite. Machine Learning (ML), which is widely used in remote sensing systems, was applied, Support Vector Machine Learning (SVM), and image classification and processing were performed. On the basis of the obtained data, a comparative analysis of the previous and current conditions was carried out and the area of changes in the area between the classified areas was calculated. Simultaneously, the changes between categories during the use of the area and the recent changes in the direction of land use were shown. Classification performance has been assessed, user and producer accuracies have been determined and kappas have been calculated.</p> <p><strong>Main findings.</strong> The increase in the population of the Shaki district led to an increase in the specific weight of the urban population and the extension of the town to the south and south-east where the population previously lived sparsely. It is mainly due to construction of new housing estates in region, as well as construction of a central clinic, an ASAN service, and a regional education division. A 'flight to the centre' was observed, resulting in noticeable changes in the land use structure between 2016 and 2022, in line with the growth rate of urbanisation and economic development. The decoding of the distribution images of the region shows that there has been an increase in the area of settlements over the six-year period. By 2016, settlements cover 22.4 per cent of the city, and by 2022, the figure rises to 39 per cent. From 34% to 32.9%, the total area of forest reserves decreased.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical value </strong>The article describes for the first time the urban sprawling and territorial transformations in Shaki district in the context of population growth by using change detection analyses. The practical value of the study is the possibility of using its algorithm and method to conduct similar studies in other cities of Azerbaijan. The results of the study are significant in the context of justifying regional measures to adapt urban expansion to population growth.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23198 Winter and spring long-term dynamic of air temperature in Central Ukraine 2024-02-19T18:23:22+00:00 Olha Helevera olga.gelevera@gmail.com Mykola Mostipan mostipan1960@ukr.net Sergii Topolnyi sergii.topolnyi@yara.com <p><strong>This study aimed</strong> to analyze data from meteorological stations in central Ukraine that have the longest observation period and to search for patterns in the dynamics of temperature indicators over the past 140-200 years.</p> <p><strong>Data and methods.</strong> To characterize the climate of central Ukraine, we analyzed the average monthly and average annual temperatures of Uman, Kropyvnytskyi, and Poltava, which have the longest continuous or almost continuous periods of observation. Based on these data, we have constructed graphs of changes in the average annual and average monthly temperatures for the winter and spring seasons. To analyze the dynamics of temperature indicators, we built linear and 11-year moving averages.</p> <p><em><strong>The results.</strong></em> The analysis of meteorological data from weather stations in central Ukraine over the entire period of observation showed the following: average annual temperatures increased from 1.4 degrees in Kropyvnytskyi, 1.6 degrees in Uman to 2.5 degrees (since 1886 - 2.2 degrees) in Poltava. The highest average annual air temperatures at all weather stations were recorded in 2020 and 2021.</p> <p>The largest temperature increase occurred in the winter months. Over the entire observation period, the average monthly temperature in December increased by 2.0 degrees in Kropyvnytskyi, 2.3 degrees in Uman, and 3.6 degrees in Poltava (3.3 degrees since 1886). The average monthly temperature in January increased from 2.4 degrees in Uman and Kropyvnytskyi to 4.9 degrees (3.5 degrees since 1886) in Poltava. The average monthly temperature in February increased from 2.2 degrees in Kropyvnytskyi, 3.4 degrees in Uman to 4.1 degrees (since 1886 - 2.9 degrees) in Poltava. All three weather stations have common periods of rising and falling temperatures, with an increase in the average monthly temperature in the winter months from 1987-1989 to 2022.</p> <p>The air temperature in the spring months also increased significantly. Over the entire observation period, the average monthly temperature in March increased from 2.3 degrees in Kropyvnytskyi, 3.0 degrees in Uman to 3.6 degrees (since 1886 - 3.5 degrees) in Poltava. The average monthly temperature in April increased from 2.1 degrees in Kropyvnytskyi, 2.4 degrees in Uman to 4.2 degrees (since 1886 - 3.4 degrees) in Poltava. The average monthly temperature in May increased from 0.5 degrees in Uman and Kropyvnytskyi to 2.9 degrees (since 1886 - 1.3 degrees) in Poltava. All three weather stations have common periods of rising and falling temperatures, with a slight increase in average monthly spring temperatures from 1988-1990 to 2022.</p> <p>Analyzing the graphs of 11-year moving averages, one can notice the presence of periods of increase and decrease in average monthly temperatures lasting about 33 years or doubled periods lasting about 66 years.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty</strong>. For the first time, the data of weather stations in central Ukraine for the entire period of observation (138 years – Uman, 148 years – Kropyvnytskyi, 198 years – Poltava) were analyzed and regularities in the dynamic of temperature indicators were determined.</p> <p><strong>The practical significance</strong> lies in the possibility of using the researchers results to predict future climate change.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23199 Fog and low-level stratus characteristics at the airport of Odesa from surface observations 2024-02-19T18:25:35+00:00 Oleksiy Hustenko aleksey.gustenko96@gmail.com Inna Khomenko innchom.ik@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Fog that limits visibility and low-level stratus represent a significant hazard to aviation especially during takeoff and landing, and also low-level flying of aircrafts, because accidents often occur in reduced visibility conditions and low clouds. Therefore, forecasting fog and low ceilings is one of the most important, but at the same time the most difficult issue, because both phenomena strongly depend on local conditions and unsteady in both time and space.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> is to obtain the statistical characteristics of low-level stratus and fog at the airport of Odessa and determine local dependencies that would enable to improve aviation weather forecasts related to low-level stratus and fog physics.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty of results obtained.</strong> In this study for the Ukraine for the first time for Odesa airport frequency distribution of low-level stratus and fogs is obtained as a function of the time of the day and the month of the year and also as a function of the temperature and relative humidity near the surface.</p> <p><strong>Practical importance of results obtained.</strong> The results obtained could be used for providing weather forecast model with historical data and improving forecast of fogs and low-level stratus.</p> <p><strong>Materials and method.</strong> To study fog and low-level stratus characteristics occurring at the airport of Odesa, Ukraine, half hourly observations in the period of 2010-2021 are used. Applying a statistical approach annual, seasonal and diurnal distribution of fog and low stratus and their frequency distribution associated with various meteorological parameters are obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion.</strong> The monthly distributions of low-level stratus reveal maximum occurrence frequencies in November and January, and fog most frequently occurs in December. No significant diurnal cycle of stratiform cloud occurrence is discovered, as opposed to fog for which the highest frequency is observed in the hours before sunrise, while when the day sets in, frequencies are declining and increasing at night. Fog and low-level stratus have the same distribution in duration and the mean event duration is 4.5 h while 55% of the events lasted 2 h or less. The most long-lived fog and stratiform clouds can last about 4 days during the December-January period. Occurrence of fog and stratiform clouds as function of temperature and relative humidity reveals a close statistical relationship, especially for fog events. More than 33% of all fogs are observed at temperatures of 0°C to 6°C and 96-100% relative humidity, the most frequencies of low-level clouds (13%) occur in the same temperature interval, but at lower values of relative humidity (91‑95%). Regarding fog density 75% of the events have minimum visibility lower than 400 m, which indicates the severity of the problem, because, despite the season and type of fog, they are usually quite intense and dense. In all seasons of the year, the highest frequency of low-level stratiform clouds is in interval of 3...4 m/s, excluding summer, when most often such cloud is registered at higher speeds. The wind directions associated with low-level stratiform clouds are, as a rule, northern and eastern ones. Fogs, on the contrary, most often in all seasons, except winter, are formed at calm, meaning that radiation fogs are the most common type in the Odesa airport. In winter fogs are most commonly associated with northern and easterly winds; in all other seasons the southern wind is the most frequent.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23200 Landscape research: from paradigm through GIS technology to monitoring (on the example of the territory of the Slobozhansky National Nature Park) 2024-02-19T18:27:30+00:00 Oksana Zaliubovska bodnia@karazin.ua Alina Ovcharenko alina_06ov@ukr.net Igor Chervanyov i.chervanyov@karazin.ua <p>For 10 years, a group of specialists from the department of physical geography and cartography has been exploring the territories of national parks consistently using information technology tools, improving their use in combination with ground test landscape surveys. This article reflects the experience of such scientific and applied development in relation to the territory of Slobozhansky National Nature Park.</p> <p><strong>The purpose</strong> of this development is to improve the existing technologies of complex interpretation of geodata for the design and monitoring of the territory in their systematic combination with the methods of online mapping and in-depth meaningful interpretation for the scientific support of the organization of the territory and the administration of the national parks. This article covers currently known and possible scientific approaches and measures that rely on scientific and applied measures used by the national parks administration in management processes.</p> <p>The most recent issues highlighted in this article compared to the previous published works of the authors are the formulation of the trinity paradigm of the process of creating a landscape model of the territory. A set of individual tasks is defined, the consistent implementation of which ensures the achievement of the goal: selection of appropriate types, scales and optical ranges of remote sensing, taking into account the landscape conditions inherent in the location of the territory of the national park; development, on these grounds, of the technology of thematic landscape mapping, geoecological assessment and control of results on test areas of the terrain; peculiarities of drawing legends of applied landscape maps using GIS technologies; making corrections and additions to the existing defining documents of projects of the national park organization and developing recommendations for their improvement; design of the monitoring system of Slobozhansky National Nature Park.</p> <p>In <strong>the paradigm</strong> of applied landscape research, the national park should be designed based on the trinity of remote sensing and human intelligence: a) the technical level of providing remote sensing; b) taking into account the ambiguity of the optical image of the area depending on the purpose of geodata interpretation; c) tasks that are also solved ambiguously: the selection of certain ranges and scales of soundings, the selection of test areas and even the compilation of legends of a large-scale landscape map. The specified ambiguity is manifested in the variability of constructions and creates the subjectivity of applied landscape research.</p> <p><strong>Methodological basis</strong>. The system-structural approach is manifested in the identification and identification of those spatial connections between visually significant and hidden from direct observation properties (mainly water-heat balance indicators) of the landscape, which change in an ambiguous dependence on regional background indicators, therefore must be taken into account in design and monitoring.</p> <p><strong>Scientific results</strong>. In addition to theoretical generalizations, the article briefly presents the implementation of the highlighted approach in the study of landscapes of the Slobozhansky National Nature Park.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23201 Study of crimes in the city of Kokand using GIS technologies and sociological questionnaires 2024-02-19T18:29:01+00:00 Nilufar Komilova ni.komilova@nuu.uz Bakhodir Makhmudov b.maxmudov@nuu.uz Normurod Latipov n_latipov@nuu.uz <p><strong>Formulation of the problem. </strong>It is known that the influence of the demographic, social and economic conditions of the region on criminal activity is significantly high. In this place, researching the types of crime characteristic of cities with different functions, and identifying hotspots where criminal activity has intensified within the city will further enrich the scientific and practical aspects of the geography of crime. The use of geographic information systems (hereinafter GIS) in the implementation of these tasks is an important issue on the agenda of the field today.</p> <p><strong>Analysis of recent research and publications.</strong> Today, in most developed countries, GIS is widely used to identify common crime areas and organize preventive measures for crime prevention. Research in this regard is almost undeveloped in the Republic of Uzbekistan.</p> <p><strong>Formulation of the purpose of the article.</strong> In this study, theft and drug-related crimes committed in the city of Kokand, Fergana region, were investigated using the Hot Spot analysis method of the Arc GIS (version 10.8) program. The problems of combating crime in identified theft and drug-related crime centres were studied with the help of sociological surveys (conducted with prevention inspectors) and an action plan for crime prevention was developed.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of the main research material. </strong>The indicators of crime levels in the small administrative areas of Kokand, in the Fergana region, have been examined in this study. In addition to the types of crimes that are most commonly committed in large social infrastructures (for example, markets, parks, public places) and their specific characteristics, we also discussed the levels of these types of crimes according to age, gender and population size.</p> <p><strong>Problems and prospects of the development of crime geography in Kokand city</strong>. Hotspot analysis consists of identifying hotbeds of crime in the area and developing proposals and recommendations based on this.</p> <p><strong>Proposals and recommendations for reducing crime in the city of Kokand.</strong> First, this technology is effective in identifying crime trends, organizing preventive measures, planning crime prevention strategies, and improving public safety. Second, GIS is adapted for data processing, mapping, and spatial analysis, thereby increasing the effectiveness of crime analysis and quickly creating a quality criminal analysis map. Thirdly, according to the results of this technology, optimization of the distribution of law enforcement officers, proper and planned deployment, and development of more effective crime reduction measures will help.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23202 The performance of the digital city projects in urban studies of the megalopolises (the case studies of Kharkiv and Dnipro cities) 2024-02-19T18:31:36+00:00 Sergiy Kostrikov sergiy.kostrikov@karazin.ua Kateryna Kravchenko skateryna.kravchenko@karazin.ua Denys Serohin den.seryogin@gmail.com Sofiia Bilianska sofiia.bilianska@gmail.com Anastasia Savchenko nas080392@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction of the research problem.</strong> Urbanization drives Digital City Projects (DCPs) to create smarter urban environments using advanced technologies. DCPs aim to make cities more connected and responsive, adapting to changing needs. The <strong>objective </strong>of this paper is to evaluate the performance of DCPs in megalopolises, focusing on Kharkiv and Dnipro in Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>The previous works done</strong>. The various literature sources demonstrate the rise of Digital Cities stemming from Smart Cities. Kharkiv and Dnipro in Ukraine exemplify digitalization's role amid Russian aggression.</p> <p><strong>Exposition of the main research material.</strong> <strong><em>The performance of the theoretical urbogeosystemic approach and its UOM in the provision of practical Digital City projects. </em></strong>This subsection delves into the practical application of the urbogeosystemic approach and its Urban Ontological Model (UOM) in DCPs. The UOM guides urban studies by defining components and relationships. Implementing DCPs begins with building simulation models using LiDAR data.</p> <p><strong><em>Case Study First - Kharkiv: A feasible perspective of a full-format DCP implementation. </em></strong>This subsection discusses implementing a DCP in Kharkiv, emphasizing data integration from <em>OpenStreetMap</em><em> (</em><em>OSM) </em>and LiDAR. The authors propose that a DCP should serve as a comprehensive model of a real city, encompassing all its structural elements and key objects, going beyond the capabilities of a typical GIS project. Possible user’s scenarios include energy consumption analysis, population estimation, and visibility gradients assessment. The subsection highlights the comprehensive DCP approach with LiDAR data processing software (<em>iQ City CCM</em>) and urban geosituational analysis.</p> <p><strong><em>Case Study Second - Kharkiv: a perspective of geomarketing within the “Digital Kharkiv” project as a routine GIS one.&nbsp; </em></strong>This subsection delves into the integration of geomarketing into the "Digital Kharkiv" project. Geomarketing plays a pivotal role in mapping socioeconomic elements tied to market interactions. "Digital Kharkiv," primarily sourced from <em>OSM</em> data, is lauded for its versatility in urban studies during peacetime and war. The text urges exploration of geomarketing within "Digital Kharkiv" in the context of post-Russian aggression rehabilitation, particularly in optimizing humanitarian object placements. Changes in geomarketing potential pre- and post-invasion in various city districts have been analyzed, highlighting areas with stagnation and those witnessing growth due to population resettlement.</p> <p><strong><em>Case Study Third - Dnipro: implementation of a typical GIS-project for analyzing provision of the city population with public transportation infrastructural networks. </em></strong>This subsection discusses the implementation of the "Digital Dnipro" project as part of the DCP framework. The project focuses on analyzing the provision of public transportation networks in the city of Dnipro. It utilizes data from <em>OSM</em> to create a virtual model of the city, which includes attribute information for urban objects. This subsection also highlights the impact of war on urban planning and the need for sustainable updates to adapt to changing conditions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion. </strong>This section summarizes the key findings and takeaways from the research on DCPs in Ukrainian cities like Kharkiv and Dnipro. It highlights the importance of an urbogeosystemic approach in implementing DCPs effectively. The study emphasizes the flexibility and efficiency of the relevant GIS tools in urban research and transformation.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23203 Remote sensing data for drought stress and croplands productivity assessment in Kherson region 2024-02-19T18:32:58+00:00 Pavlo Lykhovyd pavel.likhovid@gmail.com <p><strong>Formulation of the problem</strong>. Remote sensing data might be used for indirect assessment of croplands conditions and drought stress through the calculation of specific vegetation indices, such as vegetation health index (VHI), agriculture stress index (ASI), and drought intensity or weighted mean vegetation health index (WMVHI). However, the accuracy of these indices is not clear for some territories. For example, the South of Ukraine is a zone of risky agriculture, because of low natural moisture supply and high evapotranspiration. Moisture supply is the main limiting factor for sustainable crop production in this region.</p> <p><strong>The goals</strong> of this study were: 1) to assess the reliability of the mentioned vegetation indices in drought assessment through the direct comparison with the UNEP aridity index; 2) to find out whether remote sensing drought indicators could be used for the yield prediction of major crops on the regional scale.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. The study was conducted for Kherson region of Ukraine, as it is one of the most arid regions of the country with very high drought risks. The data on average weighted annual VHI, ASI, and WMVHI for the period 1984-2022 (Season 1) were collected and generalized from the FAO Earth Observation services. UNEP aridity index was calculated using the data from Kherson regional hydrometeorological center. Correlation and linear regression analysis were performed using common statistical methodology.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. As a result, it was found that 1) all the studied remote sensing drought indicators demonstrate poor correlation with the aridity index, therefore, they should not be used to determine meteorological drought in the region; 2) all the studied remote sensing indices, especially VHI, demonstrate moderate-to-strong correlation with the yields of certain crops, cultivated in Kherson region (R=0.54-0.86), and could be used for the yield prediction; 3) the aridity index have poor relation to the yields of major crops, cultivated in the studied area; 4) VHI-based linear regression models for the crops’ yields prediction are reliable and reasonable for scientific and practical use just for cereal crops, and are much less accurate for grain corn and sunflower; 5) based on the study findings, it could be concluded that aridity index provides pure climatological characteristics of the region, while the studied vegetation indices are mainly focused on the level of drought stress that impacts crops during the growing season.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance</strong>. The article provides novel insights on the implementation of remote sensing data in drought risks assessment in crop production, and their utilization for the purpose of croplands productivity prediction. The study has theoretical and practical importance for current agriculture, and the findings could be used both in scientific, educational, and practical purposes.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23204 Modern changes in climatic characteristics and minimum flow of the rivers in the basin of lake Sevan 2024-02-19T18:34:55+00:00 Varduhi Margaryan vmargaryan@ysu.am Armen Sedrakyan asedrakyan@seua.am Hovik Sayadyan hovik.sayadyan71@gmail.com Svitlana Reshetchenko s.reshetchenko@karazin.ua Sviatoslav Dmitriiev s.dmitriiev@student.karazin.ua <p><strong>Formulation of the problem.</strong> Studies and data on modern changes in the winter minimum average monthly flow of the rivers of the Lake Sevan basin and their climatic characteristics have acquired great practical importance and considerable interest due to the increased use of water resources for the purposes of various types of economic activities, in particular, in connection with the development of the economy, hydropower, irrigation, population growth and rising living standards. Especially relevant are the calculations of the minimum flow in relation to solving the problems of water supply for settlements, industrial enterprises.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the work. </strong>Assessment of modern changes in the winter minimum average monthly runoff of rivers in the Lake Sevan basin and their climatic characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The following methods were used in the work: mathematical-statistical, extrapolation, interpolation, spatial analysis, analogy, correlation and cartography.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>A physical map has been compiled with a network of meteorological stations and hydrological posts in the Lake Sevan basin. Close correlations were obtained between the values of the winter minimum average monthly runoff and the average runoff of the winter period for a hydrological year.&nbsp;These dependences can be used for preliminary estimates of the minimum runoff of the winter low-water period of unstudied rivers in the territory under consideration. In the course of the research, the winter minimum average monthly discharges were calculated by months and for the entire observation period, the average value of the minimum runoff for the winter low water, and the linear trend of the climatic characteristic. Based on the obtained results, a map of the distribution of the modul of the average minimum runoff of the winter low-water period and the coefficients of the linear trend of the winter air temperature were constructed. Examples of curves of long-term changes in precipitation amounts for the autumn and winter periods, the sum of positive temperatures and the number of days with a positive average daily air temperature in the winter period for a series of meteorological stations in the study area are presented.</p> <p>The rivers of the Lake Sevan basin are characterized by an uneven spatio-temporal distribution of winter minimum runoff and climatic characteristics, changes in the winter average monthly minimum runoff, precipitation amounts for the autumn and winter periods are multidirectional, and air temperature changes are only an upward trend. In the area under consideration, there is mainly (by 8 out of 12 stations under study) a tendency to decrease in the values of the minimum average monthly river flow. The conducted studies lead us to the conclusion that the main factor causing changes in the low-water runoff of the rivers in the Lake Sevan basin in winter is the air temperature, or rather, its increase. It follows from this that when calculating and forecasting winter runoff, it is necessary to relate the values of runoff and air temperature.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23205 Cultural landscape as heritage: proposals for Ukraine from the experience of certain European countries 2024-02-19T18:36:51+00:00 Kateryna Polyvach geogpoly@savba.sk <p><strong>Formulation of the problem. </strong>Ukraine has a vast and uniquely diverse cultural landscape potential. However, the state of the landscapes, which has long been a matter of public concern, has deteriorated many times over as a result of russia's full-scale armed aggression against Ukraine. At the same time, Ukraine is far behind in implementing the commitments made by the European and international community in a number of international documents on the preservation of cultural landscapes.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article.</strong> The purpose of this publication is to develop proposals for the implementation of the concept of cultural landscape in the field of protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage on the basis of fulfilling Ukraine's relevant international obligations and introducing the best mechanisms and practices of European countries.</p> <p><strong>Methodology and results. </strong>The research methodology is based on a descriptive qualitative and comparative approach, which made it possible to reveal the peculiarities of the experience of preserving the cultural landscape as a heritage in certain EU countries - representatives of the “old Europe” (Italy and Spain), post-socialist (Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic) and post-Soviet (Latvia and Lithuania) space. The European experience was studied through the prism of meeting the requirements of the European Landscape Convention and the possibilities of its practical application in Ukraine.</p> <p>The analysis of examples of practical implementation of the concept of cultural landscape by European countries in comparison with domestic practice in Ukraine made it possible to identify the main problems in this area and to outline indicative directions of a possible strategy for their solution, the main mechanisms, tools and specific measures for their implementation.</p> <p>The first step in the development of such a strategy could be the development and adoption by government decree of a National Action Plan for the Protection and Preservation of the Cultural Landscape Heritage of Ukraine. The overall goal of this plan for the next 5-10 years should be to ensure the protection, preservation and careful use of the country's cultural landscapes by: bringing the country's legislation into line with the EU system of legal and regulatory standards for landscape protection, regulation and planning; taking these issues into account in the formulation and implementation of state cultural, environmental and urban planning policies and including them as an integral part of the strategy for Ukraine's post-war reconstruction; raising public awareness and involving communities.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance. </strong>The novelty of the study is the identification of the main areas of action for the protection and preservation of the cultural landscape heritage of Ukraine and the development of concrete proposals for their filling with appropriate measures.</p> <p><strong>Acknowledgement</strong>. The research is financed by the European Union NextGenerationEU from the funds of the Recovery and Resilience Plan mechanism within the project "Scholarships for outstanding researchers threatened by the military conflict in Ukraine" No. 09І03-03-V01-00021. This article is one of the results of the research within the framework of grant no. 2/0043/23 "Identification of landscape diversity and its changes in Slovakia based on remote sensing data in the context of the European Green Deal" supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23206 An approach to using the AQI components in urban air pollution sources identifying 2024-02-19T18:38:16+00:00 Svitlana Prokhorova s.boyko.prokh@gmail.com <p><strong>Problem statement. </strong>The fact that the air we breathe is polluted is well known. There are many sources of pollution, especially in big cities. Various sensors are installed to monitor pollutants in the air. One of the global systems for registering the concentration of pollutants in urban air is AQI. Air quality monitors collect data of five major air pollutants – ground-level ozone, particle pollution, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, that then convert to the Air Quality Index. And although the sensors themselves are not capable of reducing pollution in the air, based on the data they provide, it is possible to create indicative maps of urban pollution. Such mapping of urban areas will enable authorities to develop and implement plans to improve the most dangerous areas, as is already done in other countries. But there are still no such maps for Kyiv.</p> <p><strong>Study objective</strong> is to analyse the air quality index in Kyiv, identify the main source of atmospheric pollution and to visualize urban air pollution.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong> involves data analysis from 15 sensors of the AQI worldwide network. We analyzed the concentration of 5 main air pollutants contributed to the common Air Quality Index for a certain period in Kyiv and its surroundings. Knowing the exact coordinates of each sensor and the results of their measurements, we drew a map of air pollution in Kyiv using OriginPro 8.1 software and images from the Google maps.</p> <p><strong>Research results. </strong>It was determined that the largest contribution to the Air Quality Index is made by the fine particulate matter emissions. We determined that the morning sensor data on the amount of dust in the air is the most informative. It is known transportation is one of the main sources of PM<sub>2.5 </sub>in the city. Our map clearly shows that the area with the highest AQI value coincides with a major road junction on the north-west outskirts of the city. Thus, atmospheric pollution in Kyiv is mainly determined by the amount of fine dust in the air. Further research will be aimed at identifying the relationship between the amount of PM<sub>2.5 </sub>in the air and the morphological parameters of indicator plants.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty of the research. </strong>We showed for the first time that air pollution does not coincide with the official sources of atmospheric pollution given by the Kyiv Bureau of Technical Supervision. We also presented new approach to draw up-to-date, representative, and accurate pollution maps that can be submitted to the representatives of environmental services and other interested parties. Such investigations are of great importance as they can give the opportunity to the government to take real actions on pollutants reducing.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23207 Features of the local community involvement in the social tourism development (case study – Serik district, Antalya, Turkey) 2024-02-20T12:12:26+00:00 Cemali Sari csari@akdeniz.edu.tr Kateryna Sehida kateryna.sehida@karazin.ua Gamze Çakir gamzeckrr01@gmail.com Ievgeniia Telebienieva telebenevaev@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction of the research problem. </strong>Tourism activities have shown a shift from privileged individuals with high purchasing power to individuals with lower income levels due to increased leisure time. Along with a high economic potential, tourism has an important social significance; namely, it ensures the restoration of human life forces spent in the work process and contributes to the spiritual and intellectual development of the individual, thereby increasing the quality of labor resources. Orientation to the development of tourism in view of the principles of sustainable development, with an understanding of the need for the development of social tourism and promoting the improvement of the level and quality of life of the population, ensuring accessibility for all segments of the population does not lose its relevance and the need to implement science-based initiatives and measures that should be based on specific research results, primarily geographical. In order to understand the opportunities and obstacles to the development of social tourism, the following questions remain essential: What is the attitude of the local population to the intensive development of tourism in the region of residence? What is the involvement of the local population in tourism? What problems does the local population face when organizing leisure activities? What are the obstacles, challenges, and opportunities for the organization of social tourism? Given the limited geographical studies on social tourism, this study is seen as an original and distinctive contribution. The significance of this research lies in its potential to serve as an example for Turkey.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of this research</strong> is to identify the participation of the local community living in urban and rural neighborhoods of Serik district, which constitutes one of the significant destination points in Antalya province, known as the tourism capital of Turkey, in tourism activities. Additionally, if there are any factors hindering their participation, the aim is to identify and highlight them.</p> <p><strong>Results, scientific novelty, practical significance. </strong>Research method was employed, and a face-to-face survey was conducted using a random sampling method between December 2022 and April 2023, reaching a total of 466 participants. Out of these, 33 surveys were used for pilot testing, and due to incomplete data, 384 surveys were entered into the SPSS software package for analysis. According to the findings, it was observed that 44.8% of the local community residing in urban and rural areas of Serik district had not had the opportunity to go on vacation in 2022 or earlier. In this context, it is evident that the most significant factor influencing the participants' inability to go on vacation is financial insufficiency. Therefore, the necessity of public and civil institutions and organizations supporting the local population with various holiday programs arises.Therefore, it is deemed necessary to integrate social tourism activities to the maximum extent possible in the tourism planning for the local community.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23208 Modern landscape science before the challenges of Postmodernism 2024-02-19T18:42:07+00:00 Yulian Tyutyunnik yulian.tyutyunnik@gmail.com <p><strong>Purpose of the article</strong>: to determine the distinctive features of the subject of research, methodology and method of landscape studies in the state of transition from late Modern to early Postmodern (late 20th – early 21st century).</p> <p><strong>Research methodology</strong>: historical and cultural analysis with the involvement of hermeneutics, philosophical comparative studies.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The research objects specific to postmodern landscape science are characterized: ambivalent, socially devastated, camp landscapes, anti-landscapes, landscapeoids. It is pointed out the complexity nature of the research subject of modern and future landscape science, in particular, such research phenomena as the landscape nature of subjectivity; the immanence of contradiction, paradox and absurdity in a complexity geosystem; and also on virtual landscape reality as a product of artificial intelligence. New philosophical and methodological approaches – multiculturalism and multihistoricism – are proposed.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty</strong>: for the first time in the Ukrainian-language scientific geographical and philosophical literature, an attempt has been made to analyze the current and potential features of landscape science in the Postmodern era.</p> <p>Today, landscape science is in a state of transition to a new historical stage – the Postmodern era. This transition is not a “scientific revolution” in the sense of T. Kuhn, but is coupled with more profound changes that touch the very foundations of rational world perception, scientific world explanation and goal setting in the field of scientific activity – changes that have an existential and metaphysical nature, changes that associated with the transformations of the historical process on a global scale. Areas of study of landscape objects and phenomena, which were methodologically, epistemologically, and existentially inaccessible to the scientific thought of the New Age, the Modern Era, and landscape studies of the 20th century are becoming very popular. were mostly ignored. Actual and future transformations in the methodology of landscape science are also related to the introduction of paradox, contradiction, and absurdity into the scientific discourse. One of the cornerstone and already clearly visible empirical challenges to modern landscape science is the formation of virtual landscape reality. Postmodern landscape science is characterized by a movement towards the assimilation of metaphysical and discursive systems of non-European cultures of mankind (for example, the category of “Delusions” of the indigenous Australian aboriginal civilization). It should also get rid of the new European supremacy in relation to the methods of scientific and quasi-scientific world explanation by European discourses from antiquity to the 16th century. Examples here can be turning to Pythagorean numerology (O.K. Cherkashin) or the so-called eniogeography (G.I. Shvebs) when studying the landscape. As a result, profound future shifts in the landscape scientific discourse will not be dialectical, but fundamental metaphysical in nature. Perhaps this will force a person to radically reconsider his place and his own role in the landscape envelope and in history.</p> <p><strong>Practical significance</strong>. A number of unusual, to some extent unusual, methodological approaches to the further development of landscape science in the 21st century have been proposed, with the fact that the very concept of development must be fundamentally rethought in all respects, primarily existential and ecological.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23209 Spatial-temporal tendencies of the ice regime of the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs 2024-02-19T18:44:04+00:00 Borys Khrystiuk khryst@uhmi.org.ua Liudmyla Gorbachova gorbachova@uhmi.org.ua <p><strong>Formulation of the problem.</strong> Knowledge about the formation, destruction and trends of the ice regime of rivers and reservoirs is very important for hydropower, shipping, fisheries, etc. There are almost no studies that evaluated the trends, homogeneity and stationarity of the ice regime of the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs. At the same time, such research is relevant especially in the conditions of a changing climate.</p> <p><strong>The objective of this paper </strong>is evaluation of spatio-temporal trends of a observation series for the ice regime of the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs based on a complex approach using statistical and graphical methods.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The research used statistical methods, namely the Pearson method for establishing of the trend equation in the time series and the correlation coefficient between variables, and the Mann-Kendell statistical non-parametric test for assessing the statistical significance of the trend. Among the graphic methods, the mass curve and residual mass curve were used to assess the homogeneity and stationarity of observation series, respectively, as well as combined chronological graphs for spatial analysis, determination of synchronous and in-phase (or on the contrary) long-term cyclic fluctuations of the ice regime characteristics at various water gauges. The research was carried out based on the observation data for dates of ice appearance, ice freeze-up, ice break-up (i.e., melt onset), ice disappearance for 35 water gauges.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> According to the Mann-Kendall statistical test, contradictory results were obtained regarding the stationarity of the observation series of the ice regime of the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs. At the same time, according to graphic analysis, such series turned out to be quasi-homogeneous and quasi-stationary, since they have unfinished phases of increase and decrease of long-term cyclical fluctuations. In turn, the cyclic fluctuations are characterized by synchronous and in-phase, which indicates the same temporal and spatial tendencies of the ice regime of six reservoirs. The dates of the appearance of main phases of the ice regime of the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs are characterized by significant variability.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty and practical significance.</strong> For the first time, modern knowledge about the ice regime characteristics of the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs were obtained based on the simultaneous application of statistical and graphical methods. In addition, the research results can be used for further research, namely any statistical processing (determination of probabilistic characteristics, search for prognostic dependencies, generalizations, etc.).</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23210 Contrasting innovation dynamics of professional-technological knowledge intensive business services in metropolitan areas 2024-02-19T18:47:23+00:00 Mehmet Tahsin Şahin tahsinsahin@akdeniz.edu.tr Liudmyla Niemets ludmila.nemets@karazin.ua Mutlu Yilmaz yilmazm@ankara.edu.tr Liudmyla Kliuchko ludmila.klychko@karazin.ua Çiğdem Varol cvarol@gazi.edu.tr <p><strong>Formulation of the problem</strong>. The study examines knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) firms' capability to access, process, and transform information into innovation. KIBS are defined as facilitators, carriers of knowledge, and sources of innovation for other sectors. KIBS play an important role in the production, use, and transfer of knowledge to the manufacturing sector. KIBS activities do not demonstrate a uniform structure within themselves, so a dual classification as professional services (P-KIBS) and technological services (T-KIBS) based on functioning and input has been developed. KIBS activities are concentrated in large cities. Major cities or capitals have well-developed infrastructure, public administration centers, advanced social activities, and numerous research institutes and universities. All of them attract a highly skilled population. Regarding metropolitan city economic growth, KIBS stand out because of their high added value, high income, high innovation returns, and high financial capacity, and they contribute to development.</p> <p><strong>The purpose</strong>. The present study aims to reveal the innovative capacities and dynamics of P-KIBS and T-KIBS firms operating in the metropolitan area of Ankara, Turkey's capital city. To reach this aim, Turkey's capital city Ankara is analyzed by using the results of a questionnaire applied to 410 small and medium-sized (SMEs) KIBS firms, 146 of which are P-KIBS firms and other 264 are T-KIBS firms.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. In the course of the research and preparation of the article, the authors used several scientific methods, both philosophical and general scientific, as well as specific scientific methods. In particular, the methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and hypothetical-deductive method, mathematical-statistical and spatial analysis, methods of grouping and classification, questionnaires and surveys, etc., were used.</p> <p><strong>The results</strong>. There are notable differences between the P-KIBS and T-KIBS firms, considering their spatial distribution patterns and the dynamics of their innovation processes. The spatial distribution patterns of the KIBS firms were revealed. While T-KIBS activities demonstrate a spatial clustering tendency independent of the CBD, the P-KIBS firms prefer to locate within the CBD or its vicinity. KIBS sectors generally prefer to be situated by high-income residents, new settlements, secure and prestigious areas close to large public institutions such as ministries and general directorates. It was revealed that the T-KIBS firms are most densely located in the CBD and newly developing business districts of Balgat and Söğütözü, and in the Technology Development Zones of Ankara. P-KIBS firms, on the other hand, are more widely spread in the Çankaya and Yenimahalle districts. It was found that advances in information and communication technologies have a varied impact on the location selection preferences of P-KIBS and T-KIBS enterprises. According to the research results, the factors influencing the clustering of P-KIBS companies and T-KIBS firms were identified and determined. There is a significant relationship between the innovative P-KIBS and T-KIBS firms and their collaboration with other institutions. As a result of the the study, it has been determined that there is a significant relationship between collaboration, R&amp;D, intrafirm and extrafirm social relationships on the innovation of KIBS firms and also contrasting innovation dynamics related to different classes of KIBS in metropolitan areas.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23211 Landscape-ecological carcass model of urban landscape and methods of optimize urban landscapes (on the patterns of Ganja and Mingachevir cities) 2024-02-19T18:48:31+00:00 Afag Hajiyeva afaq.adiu@mail.ru Gulnar Hajiyeva hgulnarn@gmail.com Khumar Khanim Dadashova xdadashzade@mail.ru <p><strong>State of the problem.</strong> The article outlines the natural and anthropogenic foundations of urban landscapes and the organization and modeling of ecological carcasses. Currently, the impact of human activity in the area, on the landscapes, especially on urban landscapes, sometimes leads to the fundamental change and reconstruction of several landscape units or components, the degradation of the sensitive ecosystems of the area, and the creation of completely anthropogenic complexes.</p> <p><strong>Object learning. </strong>The main object learning is as follows; study of the differentiation characteristics of the factors influencing the formation of modern geosystems (relief, climate, hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, etc.), researching eco-geographical problems caused by anthropogenic changes, drawing up a map with appropriate content on a large scale, structural and functional characteristics of modern natural geosystems spreading in the research area, exposure to severe anthropogenic influences, study of ecological problems, studying the structural-functional aspects, levels of anthropogenic loading and assimilation, as well as the ecological condition of the modern natural geosystems spreading in the research area, complex study of optimization and large-scale ecological stability, drawing up of ecological potential assessment maps of landscapes.</p> <p>The purpose of this study is the landscape ecological formation of urban landscapes in the Republic of Azerbaijan, the optimization of urban landscapes, the analysis and generalization of urban development processes at the level of urban creation and living environment, and the determination of the main regularities of the formation of this environment, taking into account innovation and traditional processes.</p> <p><strong>Methodology. </strong>Ecological analyses were carried out on relevant urban landscapes, and four environmental hazard zones were identified in Ganja, and three in Mingachevir (1: 20000) scale ecological risk maps were drawn up. In the end, the principles of the organization of "ecosystems" based on the optimization of both urban landscapes were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Research results.</strong> The degree of anthropogenic disturbance of the territory was determined, and a map-scheme of the ecogeographic assessment of landscape complexes was drawn up. The study of anthropogenic changes in natural landscapes and the evaluation of the anthropogenic impact in percentage according to digital electronic map fragments was carried out. In the ArcGIS program, the inclination and exposure of slopes in the area, the hypsometry of the relief in the area, the density of roads, the ecogeographical condition of modern urban landscapes, risk zones, and optimization of urban landscapes, etc. maps have been drawn up.</p> <p><strong>The scientific novelty of the research.</strong> The importance and functional role of the city as a complex living environment for the country's population is defined. In the process of city planning in the Republic of Azerbaijan, the face of the city, the composition system of urban architecture, innovations, and traditional features are determined. The main city-forming function and role of the river were determined in the studied cities. And the linear features of the development of the cities, and the differences in formation were determined and analyzed. Accordingly, each of the cities has its own unique development models. Environmental problems of cities were investigated and environmental risk and optimization maps were drawn up.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23212 Development of local eco-network of Lutsk territorial community: features and problems 2024-02-19T18:49:48+00:00 Zoia Karpiuk karpyuk.zk@ukr.net Vasyl Fesyuk fesyuk@ukr.net <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Planning of ecological networks at the local level is one of the most difficult stages of geospatial organization of the territory, which requires a detailed and balanced approach, thorough analysis of topographic materials, land management data and the use of geographic information technologies. Local-level eco-networks have a number of features related to the need for a high level of detalization and connectivity of their components. For them, specific model questions are formed about the assignment of certain areas to the structural and functional elements of the ecological network. At the same time, these elements are complementary elements in the structure of ecological networks of regional importance.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article.</strong> The purpose of the study is to find out the conditions and specific features of the local eco-network of the Lutsk territorial community, to justify the allocation of its structural and functional elements, the current state of development and recommendations to ensure proper functioning.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> To study the features of the territorial organization of preserved areas of the urban community, in particular, as part of the nature reserve network and the Emerald network, substantiation of the boundaries of functional components of the local eco-network, elucidation of functional relationships between its elements, construction of cartographic models methods of field research, comparative geographical analysis, cartographic analysis, statistical analysis were used.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The natural conditions of the community, sources of economic impact and anthropogenic transformation of the environment, indicators of nature reserves, the level of naturalness of other areas: swamps, wetlands, water protection zones, forests, protective forest belts, reclaimed areas due to their obvious necessity inclusion in the local eco-network to ensure its functional integrity were analyzed. 13 natural nuclei, seven connecting elements, buffer zones potentially suitable for increasing the area of natural nuclei and ecological corridors of the territory of restoration and territory of natural development have been identified.</p> <p><strong>The scientific novelty. </strong>The substantiation of structural and functional elements of the first local level eco-network in Volyn Region is made, the map of the local eco-network is developed, the problems of functioning are determined and the prospects of development are analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Practical significance. </strong>The development of the local ecological network of the Lutsk town territorial community is a pilot project of the development of local ecological network of the territorial communities of the Volyn region.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23213 Greening and agroecological assessment of the agricultural sector of the Karabakh region 2024-02-19T18:51:06+00:00 Valida Mehdiyeva mehdieva-valide@mail.ru Ilgar Khalilov xalilov.ilqar@inbox.ru Farhad Eminov eminov-f@rambler.ru <p><strong>State of the problem. </strong>During the occupation by Armenia of the Karabakh economic district of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the military degradation of agricultural lands and their use in agriculture and animal husbandry without observing agroecological rules led to the deterioration of soil fertility and the reduction of the optimality of agrarian landscapes.</p> <p><strong>Object learning</strong>. The article presents modern ideas for re-doing the agroecological assessment of the lands and solving the actual agroecological problems of their use in agriculture for greening the development of the agricultural area in the Karabakh economic region. In the economic region, the main approach is given to methodological issues of agro-ecological assessment of soil quality, greening of efficient use of agricultural land, agro-ecological analysis of anthropogenic dynamics of soils, regional integration of assessment of agro-ecological quality of soils. In the design of agroecosystems in the Karabakh economic region, the agroecological approach of the differentiation of the area according to the soil-climate factors, the evaluation of the soil taking into account the geomorphological and climatic factors is given. At the same time, the importance of cadastral assessment and accounting of the modern ecological condition of the region's land resources, as well as the issues of their effective use and protection are explained.</p> <p>In the article, in order to ensure the development of the agrarian sector in the region, the importance of the complex agro-ecological re-evaluation of land resources, ways to eliminate the main indicators of land degradation and ecological requirements for the cultivation of plants, determination of territorial units characterized by variability of natural and climatic conditions, agro-production grouping of elementary areas of agro-landscapes and according to the agro-ecological assessment of the area, the ways of organizing the efficient use of land were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>. Generalization, historical, statistical, systematic analysis, and comparison methods were used to prepare the article.</p> <p><strong>Research results</strong>. Environmental and economic stability may become more challenging in the future due to increasing anthropogenic pressure on agroecosystems in the economic region and poor infrastructure. Due to intensive land use, frequent erosion, river floods, and environmental pollution in the region can lead to a decline in the quality of agricultural land. Also, anthropogenic activities in the region can have a negative impact on the state and development of agroecosystems and the sustainable development of agriculture in the region, to optimize which it is considered necessary to improve and update the methods and technologies used in agriculture.</p> <p><strong>The scientific novelty of the research.</strong> It is necessary to apply agroecological concepts and principles in the redesign, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems in the economic region. The development of agroecosystems in the region should be ensured by alternative agricultural methodologies and approaches that combine the socio-economic and historical context of agriculture. The production of organic agricultural products, which do not harm human health and the natural environment, should be carried out, and the ecological condition of the soil should also be monitored regularly.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23214 Impact of climate change factor on the resource (providing) ecosystem services of the Lower Danube wetlands 2024-02-19T18:52:59+00:00 Mariia Slizhe m.o.slizhe@gmail.com Tamerlan Safranov safranov@ukr.net Nikolai Berlinsky nberlinsky@ukr.net Youssef El Hadri magribinets@ukr.net <p><strong>Problem Statement.</strong> Wetlands perform many vital functions, in particular: accumulation and storage of surface waters; protection from storms and floods; strengthening the coastline and curbing water erosion; hydraulic connection with groundwater; surface water purification; nutrient content; deposit formation; pollutants retention; stabilization of local climatic conditions, especially the amount of precipitation and temperature of the near-surface layer of the atmosphere. They are the world's most productive ecosystems, focus of biodiversity, sources of water and primary productivity on which the existence of innumerable species of plants and animals depends. Wetlands support numerous species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. The ecological character of wetlands is the totality of their ecosystem components, processes and services at one time or another. Wetland ecosystem services are understood as the benefits that people receive from these. These are providing services (water and food); regulatory services (regulation of floods, droughts, land degradation, etc.); supporting services (soil formation, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis, biodiversity); cultural services (cultural and entertainment, spiritual, religious and other intangible benefits). In Ukraine, there are 2417 wetlands with a total area of about 255 million hectares. Among them are 50 wetlands of international importance with a total area of about 734 thousand hectares, a significant proportion of which falls on the territory of the North-Western Black Sea region coastal zone.</p> <p><strong>The aim of this study</strong> is to determine the state, vulnerabilities and climate change impact on the ecosystem services of the «Chilia Branch» wetlands.</p> <p><strong>Research Methodology.</strong> To determine the periods of drought, the study used the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) from April to October 1980-2023. The SPEI index was calculated at a point located in the southern part of the Danube Biosphere Reserve. The assessment of the state of the vegetation cover was carried out on the basis of the analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) the period 2017-2023 at two sites (Ermakov Island and Limba Island). To analyze dynamics land cover in the wetland area, were used Sentinel-2 land use satellite imagery for the period 2017-2021.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Analysis of the SPEI index showed that during the study period there was a positive statistically significant linear trend towards an increase in dry conditions (0.26&nbsp;/&nbsp;10 years). In the period 1980-2023 during the growing season on the territory of the "Chilia Branch" wetland, there is a change in weather conditions towards arid, which poses a certain threat. At the same time, it should be noted that the unique hydrological complex of the Danube Delta has a mitigating effect of the atmospheric drought impact on the vegetation. Also, it should be noted that the threat to coastal wetlands is the anthropogenic transformation of coastal natural systems (urbanization processes, expansion of land for agricultural needs, pollution of soil and surface waters), which can lead to loss of habitats of living organisms and deterioration of ecosystem services.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23215 Load of nutrients and organic substances of the Don River basin (Severskyi Donets sub-basin) 2024-02-19T18:54:11+00:00 Olha Ukhan ukhan_o@ukr.net Nataliia Osadcha nosad@uhmi.org.ua <p><strong>Formulation of the problem.</strong> The main danger of organic substances is the use of large amounts of oxygen for its oxidation. As a result, there are conditions of oxygen deficiency in polluted water sometimes to the formation of hypoxia. It leads to significant violations of biological groups and the death of certain species. The increase of nutrients leads to the uncontrolled development of higher aquatic plants and algae. It caused to undesirable imbalance of organisms in the water body and to decrease in water quality. So, control over the content of nutrients and organic substances in water is one of the important factors to ensure the proper functioning of aquatic ecosystems and maintain water quality.</p> <p>The Severskiy Donets river basin is a quite difficult water object with a variety of natural conditions. Water resources of the Severskyi Donets River serve to provide drinking and industrial water supply, agricultural needs and recreation function.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the research</strong> is to determine the peculiarities of loading rivers of the Severskyi Donets basin with nutrients and organic substances.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>For the purpose of research, the state register 2TP-Vodhosp was used. It contains information about removal of pollutants from utilities and industrial enterprises. Statistical data about the number of population and settlements, distribution by the territory of the basin were borrowed from the database of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine and the Institute of Demography and Social Research.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty </strong>of the work is that for the first time the loading of nutrients and organic substances for all first-order tributaries in the Severskyi Donets basin was calculated.</p> <p><strong>Practical value. </strong>Analys of the main anthropogenic loads in the Severskyi Donets river basin and their impacts can be used for composition of the River Basin Management Plan as an important component. It may serve as a basis for the development of measures for surface water bodies and the river basin as a whole in order to achieve defined environmental goals.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The main load of nutrients and organic compounds is caused by cities with a population equivalent (PE) more than 100 thousand people.</p> <p>The rivers of the Uda sub-basin are the most polluted by these compounds (as a part of municipal sewage) mainly due to the influence of Kharkiv city. The amount of organic matter that enters with the industrial wastewater is also the largest for the Uda sub-basin. Among the industrial enterprises within the Severskyi Donets basin, the largest number of nutrients was diverted by PJSC NKMZ in Kramatorsk city to the rivers of the Kazenny Torets sub-basin and PJSC Severodonetsk Association "Azot" directly to the Severskyi Donets River. The main role in organic pollution from the rural population is played by 5 sub-basins: Velyka Kamyanka, Kazenny Torets, Severskyi Donets, Udy, Aidar. In general, they form 59% of the total organic substances load. The largest inflow of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds is observed to the sub-basins of the rivers Luhan, Kazennyi Torets, Udy, Aidar, Oskol and the Severskyi Donets.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://periodicals.karazin.ua/geoeco/article/view/23216 Environmental protection standards of the EU - national and regional realities 2024-02-19T18:57:08+00:00 Ljubomyr Tsaryk tsarykl55@gmail.com Ivan Kovalchuk kovalchukip@ukr.net Petro Tsaryk pitertsaryk@gmail.com Ihor Kuzyk kuzyk@tnpu.edu.ua <p>The <strong>purpose</strong> of the work are assess of the current state of protected areas of the Ternopil region territorial communities and comparison of these parameters with the environmental standards of the European Union.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>Generalisation and systematisation of information, evaluation, comparison, method of analogies and typologies, statistical, mathematical, cartographic and geoinformation.</p> <p><strong>Scientific novelty. </strong>The main geoecological, economic and legal problems related to the prospects for the development of nature conservation at the national and regional levels are identified. These include the lack of motivation in management structures, low environmental culture of the population, insufficient funding for environmental protection, and the existence of different forms of land ownership. The level of conservation of territorial communities and new administrative districts of the Ternopil region is determined.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Analysed by national and international environmental legislation and identifies the main causes of Ukraine's environmental problems, including military operations. Based on the comparative analysis, the authors compares the basic environmental parameters of Ukraine and the European Union, which demonstrate their significant differences. The level of conservation and the number of protected areas of the Ternopil region territorial communities are determined. The data obtained showed that 36.5% of the region's territorial communities have a conservation level of less than 1%. The situation with the low level of conservation is unsatisfactory in sixteen communities in the Ternopil district and four communities in the Kremenets and Chortkiv districts. Typological groups have been created and a corresponding map of the reserve status of the Ternopil region territorial communities has been constructed. It is proposed to create fifty-three new protected areas in twenty-five communities of the Ternopil region with a total area of 39358 hectares. The expediency of creating thirteen regional landscape parks, twenty-three hydrological natural monuments of local significance, six parks of landscape art monuments, four landscape reserves, four botanical natural monuments of local significance and three protected tracts is substantiated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> It has been established that the level of conservation of the Ternopil region territorial communities does not meet the current requirements of the European Strategy for the Conservation of Landscape and Biotic Diversity. In order to achieve international standards of protected areas and waters, the region needs to create both large protected areas – regional landscape and national nature parks – and local protection zones for hydrological objects, individual trees or landscapes. For this purpose, it is necessary to intensify scientific research of local and regional natural complexes. And the administrative staff of territorial communities should include a position responsible for landscaping, sustainable development and nature protection.</p> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023