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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • This article submitted has not been previously published and has not been sent to the editorial boards of other journals (or the authors should specify this information in their comments for the editor).
  • The article file is a document in Microsoft Word, OpenOffice, RTF or WordPerfect format.
  • Internet links in the text are accompanied by complete correct URLs.
  • The text is typed in Times New Roman, 12 pt.; with a single line spacing; author's emphasis is highlighted in italics, not underlined (everywhere, except URL address). All illustrations, charts and tables are placed directly in the text, where they should be in content (and not at the end of the document).
  • The text meets the requirements for its stylistics and bibliography set forth in the Guideline for contributors of the section "About the Journal".
  • If the material is submitted to the peer-reviewed journal section, it follows the Blind Review Guaranty's instructions.

Author Guidelines


General information

“Cognition, communication, discourse” (CCD) is an on-line open-access journal in Linguistics and languages, Literature, and Philology (UDC Subjects 80, 81, 82). Both its editorial team and the choice of authors are international.

Aims and scope. CCD focuses on language as an instrument for construing meaning, exchanging information and a form of social practice. It focuses on high-quality doctoral and post-doctoral research in cognitive linguistics, linguistic pragmatics, including cognitive pragmatics, corpus linguistics, discourse analysis and on interdisciplinary approaches in neighboring research areas such as semantics, conversation analysis, ethnomethodology, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics.

Our aim is to publish innovative content, which contributes to cognitive and communicative linguistic theories drawing attested data from a wide range of languages and cultures in synchronic and diachronic perspectives. Alongside full-length articles, the journal welcomes discussion notes and book reviews on topics which are at the cutting-edge of research.

Mission. CCD presents a forum for linguistic research on the interaction between language and cognition, structures and strategies of discourse, communication studies.

The journal is aimed at linguists, teachers, graduate and post-graduate students who are doing their researches in Philology and conjoint spheres.

Article formats: Research article, Book review.

Language of publication: English, multiple. Summaries in English, Ukrainian, Russian.

Reviewing. CCD is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal. All research articles in this journal undergo rigorous double-blind peer review, based on initial editor screening and refereeing by anonymous referees. The journal is committed to meeting high standards of ethical behaviour approved by the Ethical Code of The Scientist of Ukraine (Етичний кодекс ученого України) and by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (https://publicationethics.org/about) at all stages of the publication process.

The editorial board reserves the right to reject an article that does not meet the established requirements or the subject matter of the journal. In case of rejection of the article, the editorial board gives the author a reasoned conclusion.

The term of reviewing the article does not exceed 2 months. The author is to make necessary changes in his / her material in two-weeks’ time.

An article which was not recommended for publication by the reviewer is not accepted for reconsideration. The text of the negative review is sent to the author by e-mail.

Publishing ethics. In accord with the principles of academic integrity, all articles undergo the process of plagiarism checking using modern software and plagiarism online detector “Strikeplagiarism.com” (owner “Plagiat.pl”). The system establishes similarity coefficient 1 (the percentage of text that determines the level of borrowing found in certain sources, consisting of text fragments, containing at least 5 words) and similarity coefficient 2 (percentage of text that determines the level of borrowing found in certain sources that consist of text fragments containing at least 25 words). The recommended indicators of originality of articles are:

  • similarity coefficient 1 – no more than 20%,
  • similarity coefficient 2 – no more than 5%.

The editorial board of the journal takes the final decision on the presence of plagiarism or the lawfullness of borrowings found by the anti-plagiarist system.

Submission. Submission of the article is understood to imply that the article neither has been published before nor is being considered for publication elsewhere. The manuscript should be submitted by e-mail to the following address: cognition.discourse.journal@karazin.ua with a copy sent to the editor-in-chief (iryna.shevchenko@karazin.ua), executive secretary (alevtyna.kalyuzhna@karazin.ua) and technical editor (mykhailo.kotov@karazin.ua).

Content arrangement of the paper

 Title of the paper in English (12 pts, bold, CAPITAL letters, align center).

  • Institution, place, country (12 pts, align center).
  • Abstract with key words (minimum 250 words or 1800 signs, 11 pts).
  • Titles of the chapters (12 pts, bold).
  • Text of the paper (12 pts).
  • Notes if any.
  • Abbreviations if any.
  • References and Sources for illustrations (if any) (12 pts, bold, CAPITAL letters, align right).
  • Contact details – name(s) of the author(s) with their academic degree(s), name and address of the affiliated organization, e-mail(s) and ORCIDS of the author(s).

Text format

All materials should be Times New Roman, 12, font 1; indentation 1,0 cm, margins: left – 2 cm., right – 2 cm., top & bottom – 2.5 cm. The first lines in all sections are not indented.

Manuscripts may be submitted as email attachments in Microsoft Word 97-2003/2010 (author’s name.doc/docx) if they do not contain unusual fonts. If special symbols are used their fonts should be sent separately.

Contributions should be in English, may include multilanguage examples. Spelling should be either British or American English consistently throughout the paper. If not written by a native speaker of English it is advisable to have the paper checked by a native speaker.

Papers should be reasonably divided into numbered sections and, if necessary, sub-sections.

The title is preceded by the universal decimal classification (UDC) bibliographic code. Example:

UDC code (left on top)


 First Author Name and Surname (Times New Roman, 12, Bold)

(Affiliation, City, Country)

Next Author Name and Surname (Times New Roman, 12, Bold)

(Affiliation, City, Country)

Abstract: (in English, Ukrainian, Russian, Times New Roman, 11)

Author’s name & surname. Title of the article (bald). An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article; it allows readers to survey the contents of an article quickly. The abstract should normally be a single paragraph between 200 and 250 words (minimum 1800 signs, key words included). A good abstract is accurate, nonevaluative, coherent and readable, clear and concise. It uses verbs rather than their noun equivalents and the active rather than the passive voice; uses the present tense to describe conclusions drawn or results with continuing applicability; uses the past tense to describe specific variables manipulated or outcomes measured. An abstract for a theory-oriented paper should describe: how the theory or model works and/or the principles on which it is based; what phenomena the theory or model accounts for; and its linkages to empirical results. An abstract for a methodological paper should comprise the general class of methods being discussed; the essential features of the proposed method; and the range of application of the proposed method. Given the small amount of words allowed, each word and sentence included in your abstract needs to be meaningful. In addition, all the information contained in the abstract must be discussed in the main body of the paper.

Keywords: List five to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article; use singular nouns. 

  1. Introduction

The body of a manuscript opens with an introduction that presents the specific problem under study and describes the research strategy. The structure of the introduction should necessarily comprise the author’s aims / tasks / objectives, the subject-matter and the material of the study.

Exploring the importance of the problem the article should state how it is related to previous work in the area. If other aspects of this study have been reported previously, how does this report differ from, and build on, the earlier report?

Describe relevant related literature. This section should review studies to establish the general area, and then move towards studies that more specifically define or are more specifically related to the research you are conducting. Your literature review must not be a series of quotations strung together; instead it needs to provide a critical analysis of previous work.

State hypotheses and objectives, their correspondence to research. The statement of the hypothesis should logically follow on from your literature review and you may want to make an explicit link between the variables you are manipulating or measuring in your study and previous research. The present tense is used to state your hypotheses and objectives. 

Sections and subsections of the paper. Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Any labeled sections / subsection should be numbered (i.e. 2. or 2.1, 2.2 if necessary) and given a brief heading marked in bold (Times New Roman, 12 without full stops at the end). Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

A good paragraph should contain at least the following four elements: transition, topic sentence, specific evidence and analysis, and a brief concluding sentence. A transition sentence acts as a transition from one idea to the next. A topic sentence tells the reader what you will be discussing in the paragraph. Specific evidence and analysis support your claims that provide a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence. A concluding sentence tells the reader how and why this information supports the paper’s thesis. 

  1. Method

The Method section describes in detail how the study was conducted, including conceptual and operational definitions of the variables used in the study. It also permits experienced investigators to replicate the study.

The method section should be written in paragraph form with as little repetition as possible. This section will often be broken down into subsections such as participants, materials and procedure. The subsections you use will depend on what is useful to help describe and explain your experiment.

In the method section of the paper you should use the past tense since you are describing what you did; for example, e.g. An experiment was performed…, The participants were instructed to ... . 

  1. Results

This section describes but does not explain your results; it provides the reader with a factual account of your findings. You can, however, draw attention to specific trends or data that you think are important. Your aim in your Results section is to make your results as comprehensible as possible for your readers.

If you are presenting statistical results, place descriptive statistics first (means and standard deviations) followed by the results of any inferential statistical tests you performed. Indicate any transformations to the data you are reporting; for example, you may report percentage correct scores rather than straight scores. Raw data and lengthy whole transcripts of qualitative data should be put in the appendices, only excerpts (descriptive statistics or illustrative highlights of lengthy qualitative data) should be included in the results section.

In the results section you will need to use both the past tense and the present tense. The past tense is used to describe results and analyses; for example, The knowledge scores were analyzed ..., The results indicated ... .

The present tense is used with results that the reader can see such tables and figures; for example, The data of growth rate in Table 3 illustrates how ... .

Authors should refer in the text to all tables and figures used and explain what the readers should look for when using the table or figure. Focus only on the important point the readers should draw from them, and leave the details for the readers to examine on their own. Each table and figure must be intelligible without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations).

Give titles to all tables and figures, number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). 

  1. Discussion

If necessary an article may have more sections and subsections.

All examples are italicized. One word or word-combination examples are given within the body of a paragraph.

Sentence or textual examples, preferably numbered through the article, are given in separate paragraphs in italics (their source is given straight) with indentation 1,0 cm for the whole paragraph and separated from the previous / following text by one blank line. Example:

(1) “I'm Prendergast,” said the newcomer. “Have some port?”

         “Thank you, I’d love to.” (Waugh, 1980, p. 46). 

  1. Conclusions

This section simply states what the researcher thinks the data mean, and, as such, should relate directly back to the problem/question stated in the introduction. By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details of how the work was done would not be known. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should restate the main points of your argument.

Conclusions should finish up with an overview of future possible research.

 Acknowledgments (not obligatory and not numbered paragraph). Identify grants or other financial support (and the source, if appropriate) for your study. Next, acknowledge colleagues who assisted in conducting the study or critiquing the manuscript. End this paragraph with thanks for personal assistance, such as in manuscript preparation.

Footnotes should be avoided. Any essential notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and grouped together at the end of the paper.

In-text citations. The journal uses APA-6 format (APA style). If you are directly quoting from a work and the author is not named in a signal phrase, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference: (Pocheptsov, 1976, p. 15; Leech, 1985, pp. 373-4).

If the quotation includes the author's last name, it is simply followed by the date of publication in parentheses; if no last name is mentioned in the text it is given in parentheses. For example: According to Jones (2005), “Students often had difficulty using Gerunds and Infinitives, especially when it was their first time” (p. 156). Or “Students often had difficulty…” (Jones, 2005, p. 156).

If you cite a work of two to five authors (use ‘&’ within parentheses; use ‘and’ outside parentheses): (a) Becker and Seligman’s (1996) findings contradicted this result. This result was later contradicted (Becker & Seligman, 1996). (b) Medvec, Madey, and Gilovich (1995) examined a group of Olympic medalists. Or medalists were examined in (Medvec, Madey, & Gilovich,1995) (Mind a comma before & in parenthesis!) A subsequent citation would appear as (Medvec et al.,1995).

In case of six or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and the year of publication: Barakat et al. (1995) attempted to … 


In-Text and Parenthetical Citation Examples

Quote with author’s name in text

Smith (2019) states that, “...” (p. 112).

Quote with author’s name in reference

This is quoted as, “…” (Smith, 2019, pp. 112-4).

Paraphrasing with author’s name in text

Smith (2019) stated these facts, too.

Paraphrasing author’s name in reference

This fact has been stated (Smith, 2019).

No author – give title of work abbreviated to first major word
Italics for books & journals, “quotation marks” for articles & web pages

This book is true (Long, 2019).
This article is true (“Long,” 2019).  

Citing entire website – put URL

This has evidence (www.pubmed.gov).

Quote from website – use paragraph number

According to, “…” (Smith, 2019, para. 4).

More than one author with same last name

P. L. Smith (2018) and J. M. Smith (2019)

Source has more than one author in text

Smith and Lee agree that (2019)

Source has more than one author in reference

This is agreed upon (Smith & Long, 2019).

Citing more than one work

We all agree (Smith, 2019; Lee, 2018).

Citing more than one work by same author published in the same year

We all agree (Smith, 2019a, 2019b, 2019c)

Smith (2019a) believes .....

It has been reported ... (Smith, 2019c)

 The quotations longer than three lines should constitute a separate block, indented 1.0 cm paragraph(s), single spaced, font 12 pts, italics, with no quotation marks, e.g., Kövecses (2018, p. 133) writes:

 In sum, the intratextual use of conceptual metaphor does not necessarily produce metaphorically homogenous discourse. In most cases, a variety of different conceptual metaphors is used in particular media and other texts……………………………………………

 For such quotations their author may be cited in a parenthesis below, not italicized, e.g.:

 In sum, the intratextual use of conceptual metaphor does not necessarily produce metaphorically homogenous discourse. In most cases, a variety of different conceptual metaphors is used in particular media and other texts. This is a natural phenomenon, given the nature of conceptual metaphors as based on the general structure of concepts (i.e., that the concepts have various aspects and we use the conceptual metaphors to comprehend those aspects) (Kövecses, 2018, p. 133).

 Quotation marks. Single quotation marks should be used for the translation of non-English words, e.g., cogito ‘I think’.

Double quotation marks should be used in all other cases, i.e., direct quotations in running text.

Please always use rounded quotation marks (“. . .”) not "straight" ones.

 Dashes. Spaced EM dashes are used as parenthetical dashes (“text – text”). Please do not use double hyphens.

Unspaced EN dashes (-) should be used between inclusive numbers, e.g., 153-159, 1975-1979.

 Italics should be used for:

  • Words, phrases, and sentences treated as linguistic examples.
  • Foreign-language expressions
  • Titles of books, published documents, newspapers, and journals
  • Drawing attention to key terms in a discussion at first mention only. Thereafter, these terms should be set straight.
  • Emphasizing a word or phrase in a quotation indicating [emphasis mine]

Bold or underlining may be used sparingly to draw attention to a particular linguistic feature within numbered examples (not in the running text).

Please keep the use of italics and boldface type to an absolute minimum. CAPITAL LETTERS and SMALL CAPS should not be used for emphasis.

Punctuation.  Please use a serial comma (an Oxford comma or a Harvard comma) placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction (and or or) in a series of three or more terms as in “France, Italy, and Spain” (with the serial comma), but “France or Spain” (two terms only).

Put a comma before ‘which’ to introduce attributive clauses (“Tom’s book, which he spent ten years writing, is now a best seller.”). Do not use a comma to introduce questions and prepositional phrases (“in which”). 

 Abbreviations. List of Common Latin Abbreviations for APA Style



Used inside of parentheses only


compare” or “consult” (to contrast information)

Never put a comma after “…in (cf. Zeller & Williams, 2007)”.


“for example,” (exempli gratia)

Always put a comma after: “Some studies (e.g., Macmillan, 2009)…”


and so on” / “and so forth

Put a comma before if used to end a list of at least two other items: “ (chemistry, math, etc.).
In other cases do not use a comma “(biology etc)”.


“that is,” (id est; specific clarification)

Always put a comma after: “(i.e., first, second, or third)”



Put a full stop after: “(low vs. high)”, do not italicize.



 ibidem” for citations

Not used in APA to refer again to the last source previously referenced.
Instead give each citation using author names as usual.

 References (Times New Roman 12, bald, caps, not numbered)

A reference list (usually about 30 authors, preferably of the last decade) must comprise all the references cited in the text of your paper, listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper and not numbered. Each reference in the reference list needs to contain all of the bibliographic information from its source (citation style APA-6). In each new item, its first line is aligned right, other lines (if any) are indented 1,0 cm. Please make your URL and DOI active.

 For materials in Latin:

Books (authored work) & e-books:

         Langacker, R.W. (2008). Cognitive grammar: A basic introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

         Chandler, D. (1998). Semiotics for beginners. Retrieved September, 1, 2018, from http://www.users.aber.ac.uk/dgc/Documents/S4B  or doi: 10xxxx

Book chapter:

         Mind that editors’ first names are cited before their family names, with a comma before “&” for two or more editors:

         Haybron, D.M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.). The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17–43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

E-book not from a database and without a DOI: in the URL field include the full URL or the homepage URL. Leave out Place and Publisher:

         Austen, J. (1853). Pride and prejudice: A novel. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=ZXY1CwAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&dq=pride%20and%20prejudice&pg=PT4#v=onepage&q=pride%20and%20prejudice&f=true

E-book from a Library database: In the URL field include the URL but remove the ezprozy details:

         Best, A., Hanhimaki, & Schulze, K. E. (2015). International history of the twentieth century and beyond (3rd ed.).  Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com

Journal articles:

         Gibbs, J. P. (1989). Conceptualization of terrorism. American Sociological Review, 54(3), 329-340. doi: 10xx.xxxxx or Retrieved month, day, year, from journal URL…….

On-line newspaper article:

         Brody, J. F. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Several volumes in a multivolume work:

         Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959–1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1–6). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Reference book:

         VandenBos, G. H. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Print journal article. Article titles use sentence style capitalization, i.e., capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle (after a colon, if there is one), and any proper nouns (names). Journal/magazine and newspaper titles use headline style capitalization, i.e., capitalize each significant word but not articles and prepositions. In the year field for reference type Article in press enter the words: (in press).Where relevant, enter data in either the ​DOI or URL.

Mind a comma before “&”” to cite more than one authors!

Wilson, S., Spies-Butcher, B., & Stebbing, A. (2009). Targets and taxes: Explaining the welfare orientations of the Australian public. Social Policy & Administration, 43, 508-525. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9515.2009.00676.x

Fennimore, D. L. (1981). American neoclassical furniture and its European antecedents. American Art Journal, 13(4), 49–65. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org

Webpage, with author but no date:

         Flesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved October 3, 2017, from http://www.mang.canterbury.ac.nz/writing_guide/writing/flesch.shtml

Webpage with corporate author (an organisation or group):

         New Zealand Government. (2008). Digital strategy. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.digitalstrategy.govt.nz/

Dissertation. Print/Hardcopy format

         Knight, A. (2001). Exercise and osteoarthritis of the knee (Unpublished master's dissertation). Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Thesis or dissertation, online from an institutional repository or a website

         Thomas, R. (2009). The making of a journalist (Doctoral thesis, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10292/466

Conference paper in regularly published proceedings, retrieved online:

         Houzel, S., Collins, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593–12598. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105


         Scorcese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Blog post:

         Author, A.A. (2019, December 12). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

For more details go to:

         EndNote for PC: A comprehensive guide to the reference management software EndNote. Retrieved October 3, 2019, from http://aut.ac.nz.libguides.com/endnote/APA_and_EN_Books

For materials in languages other than English:

         Standard format: Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.) [Title translated into English]. Place of publication: Publisher.

!All titles other than English (French, Spanish, etc.) are to be translated!


         Piaget, J. (1966). La psychologie de l’enfant [The psychology of the child]. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

         Bennahmiasm, J.-L., & Roche, A. (1992). Des verts de toutes les couleurs: Histoire et sociologie du mouvement ecolo [Greens of all colours: history and sociology of the ecology movement]. Paris: Albin Michel.

Journal articles (brackets contain an English translation of the article’s title, not the journal):

         Janzen, G., & Hawlik, M. (2005). Orientierung im Raum: Befunde zu    Entscheidungspunkten [Orientation in space: Findings about decision points]. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 213 (4), 179–186. doi: 10.1026/0044-3409.213.4.179

         Zhabotynska, S. (2018). Dominantnist` ukrayins`koyi movy` v umovax bilingvizmu: nejrokognity`vni chy`nny`ky` [Dominance of Ukrainian in the bilingual setting: neurocognitive factors.]. Visnyk Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni V.N. Karazina, 87, 5-19 (in Ukrainian)


         Zagurenko, A.A. (2002). Ekonomicheskaya optimizatsia [Economic optimization]. Neftyanoe khozyaistvo, 11. Retrieved frоm http://www.opus

Conference papers:

         Zagurenko, A.A. (2002). Osobennosti proektirovaniya [Features of design]. Trudy
         6 Mezhdunarodnogo Simpoziuma: Novye tekhnologii. Kyiv, 267-272 (in Russian).


         Zagurenko, A.A. (2002). Ekonomichna optymizatsia. [Economic optimization]. Unpublished candidate dissertation, National Teachers’ Training University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (in Ukrainian)

Dissertation thesis (abbreviations: dokt./ kand.):

         Zagurenko, A.A. (2002). Ekonomichna optymizatsia. [Economic optimization]. Unpublished candidate dissertation thesis, National Teachers’ Training University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (in Ukrainian)

For transliteration use http://translit.kh.ua (from Ukrainian) and http://www.translit.ru (from Russian). Use http://apareferencing.ukessays.com/generator/ to created reference list according to APA citation style.

DOIs. When DOIs are available, include them in the reference information. Place the DOI at the end of the reference, and don’t add a period at the end of it. Here’s an example:

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi: 10.0000/0000


All textual examples cited in the article should have full bibliographic information about their sources listed in alphabetical order and not numbered (citation style APA-6).

Author’s research profile. All articles are followed by the author’s research profile in English, Ukrainian, Russian, containing information about his / her name and surname, title, position, affiliation and work address (please take it from the official site), e-mail, ORCID. Example:

Petrenko Petro – PhD in Linguistics, Associate Professor, Kyiv National Linguistic University (73, Velyka Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine); e-mail: name@gmail.com; ORCID: 0000-0002-7720-0970.

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