Cognition, Communication, Discourse <p>International On-line Journal</p> <p>The articles of this international on-line journal address relevant issues of linguistics in the media space: semantics, pragmatics, cognitive science based on the materials of Slavic, Germanic and Romance languages.</p> <p>For linguists, educators, graduate and postgraduate students.</p> <p>Published since 2010.</p> <p>ISSN 2218-2926</p> V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University en-US Cognition, Communication, Discourse 2218-2926 <p>Authors, who publish with this journal, accept the following conditions:</p> <p>The authors reserve the copyright of their work and transfer to the magazine the right of the first publication of this work under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Non-Derivs License (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC-ND</a>), which allows other persons to freely distribute a published work with mandatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.</p> <p>Authors have the right to enter into separate additional agreements for the non-exclusive dissemination of the work in the form in which it was published by this journal (for example, to post the work in the electronic institutions' repository or to publish as part of a monograph), provided that the link to the first publication of the work in this journal is given.</p> <p>The journal policy allows and encourages the authors to place the manuscripts on the Internet (for example, in the institutions' repositories or on personal websites), both before the presentation of this manuscript to the editorial board and during review procedure, as it contributes to the creation of productive scientific discussion and positively affects the efficiency and dynamics of citing the published work (see <u><a href="">The Effect of Open Access</a></u>).</p> Crossing the textual frame and its transmedial effects <p>The year 2022 marks the 100<sup>th</sup> anniversary of Juri Lotman’s birth. On this occasion, I propose to return to one of Lotman’s concepts, namely that of <em>frame</em>. The term was proposed in <em>The structure of the artistic text</em> (1970/1977), in the traditional understanding of a limit that separates a text produced in any kind of medium from extra-textual structures (other texts) or non-text (real-life contexts). This notion of frame comes close to its understanding in literary studies, as well as the theory and philosophy of art and should not be confused with a well-known concept of frame propagated in AI Studies (Minsky 1975; Petöfi 1976) and which refers to a global cognitive pattern of storing common-sense knowledge about particular concepts and situations in memory. Lotman returned to the discussion of the textual frame in <em>Universe of the mind</em> (1990), mainly in application to the fine arts. He also elaborated there a more inclusive concept of <em>boundary</em> (proposed in Lotman 1984/2005) as a demarcation of the semiosphere and of its internal subsystems, which necessitates constant translations between particular codes and languages. Lotman dubbed transgressions of textual borders <em>transcoding</em>, which in contemporary parlance is a clear manifestation of <em>transmediality</em>. Therefore, I propose to analyse the concept of frame in relation to Intermedial Studies (cf. Elleström, 2014). Such crossings of boundaries between different media/modes/modalities are simultaneously creative and potentially confusing, in that they display a semiotic collision of artistic codes and require a heightened processing effort on the part of the addressee.</p> <p>My vantage point is basically semiotic, with the focus of interest going less to verbal texts and more to the issues of frame in the visual arts. Semiotic considerations on the problem of boundaries are complemented with brief <em>phenomenologically-oriented</em> <em>ponderings</em> on aesthetic and cognitive import of <em>framing devices </em>(Crowther, 2009) that emphasize their <em>antithetical function</em> as: a) devices with their own artistic value, even complementing the text vs. b) “defences against the exterior” and hindrances to creative liberty.</p> <p>First, I turn to two areas of interest of Lotman himself: 1) the extension of artistic media in Baroque art and 2) collages, which I treat as transmediality through surface. Lotman perceived collages as a collision of <em>the fictitious</em> with <em>the real</em>, referring to their doubly figurative nature (metonymical and metaphorical). Next, I&nbsp;complement this discussion with examples taken from 20<sup>th</sup>-century painting and sculpture, e.g. Spatialism, Minimalism, and Hyperrealism. Of particular interest is the situation in which the frame becomes a text commenting on its content or plays a metatextual function. Another game worthy of attention is embedding of frames.</p> <p>The discussion closes with the case of transmedial effects between painting and theatre, illustrated by Polish painter and stage-director Tadeusz Kantor’s theatrical experiments in Cracovian Cricot 2 Theatre: a)&nbsp;Velázquez’s Infanta Margarita entering Kantor’s self-portraits and a photo-portrait frame in the performance <em>Today is my birthday</em> (1990); b) Kantor stepping out of the frame of his own self-portrait on the illusory boundary between real life, painting and theatre.</p> <p>The article posits to treat frame and multiple ways of transgressing it as an integrational phenomenon that opens a path for further interdisciplinary studies across the borders of artistic semiotics, Intermedial Studies, literary theorizing and the theory and philosophy of art.</p> Elżbieta Chrzanowska-Kluczewska Copyright (c) 2022 Chrzanowska-Kluczewska Elżbieta 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 9 21 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-01 Professional wrestling and identity construction in the realm of social media <p>The article presents an analysis of the problems that professional wrestlers face in their utilization of social media and the various strategies they employ in order to create a successful cohesion between the identity they present on the ring and their social media presence. Because of the metaphysical split that lies in the very foundation of wrestling the wrestler exists in two different realities—the world of everyday ordinary life on one side and the world of kayfabe on the other. The consequences from that grow in importance with the transition of wrestling into a televised form of entertainment and the conflict becomes even more emphasized when wrestling comes in contact with the realm of social media. The wrestler may choose to avoid social media altogether or she may choose to utilize social media as a continuation of her in-ring persona, or she may choose to initiate an interaction between the reality spheres of social media and wrestling. In the second part, I examine the challenges that the wrestling promotions face in their attempts to create a benign and engaging corporate identity. Historically wrestling has oftentimes exploited various negative stereotypes related to gender and race and this heritage continues to haunt the promotions up to this day. The contemporary problems lay in the field of social justice and the cruel ways in which the promotions treat their workers—the lack of permanent contracts, the uncertainty about health insurance and the attempts to ban wrestlers from utilizing social media.</p> Stanul Grozev Copyright (c) 2022 Grozev Stanul 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 22 36 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-02 Emergent meaning-making in multimodal discourse: A case for sadness in The Horse Whisperer <p>This article addresses functional-pragmatic and cognitive-semiotic issues of emergent meaning-making in multimodal discourse. The theoretical backbone comprises the theories of conceptual integration, blended classic joint attention, embodied cognition, and performativity. This study acknowledges that emergent meaning-making is a performative act grounded on the intersubjective interaction of communicants constituted by environmental and bodily factors. Emergent meaning is viewed as novel, which possesses a certain level of complexity, and is not derived from the meaning of its semiotic elements. A case study analysis of sadness in film enables to reveal the main features of emergent meaning-making: 1) filmmakers and viewers co-participate in meaning-making and are able to share joint attention providing intersubjective interaction mediated by the camera; 2) meaning-making is grounded in bodily experiences and embodied not only through nonverbal elements but also verbal and cinematic semiotic resources in film; 3) a synergistic integration of modes and semiotic resources constructs the emergent meaning; 4) the configuration of semiotic resources is characterized by the volatility of combinations; 4) emergent constructs may be organized according to particular regulations creating constructive patterns. These findings stipulate further analysis of meaning-making, its material-perceptual and socio-semiotic aspects.</p> Tetiana Krysanova Copyright (c) 2022 Krysanova Tetiana 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 37 52 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-03 Human trafficking and the modern slavery framing of the problem: Between rhetorical pathos and conceptual limitations <p>Trafficking in human beings is a serious problem, which affects vulnerable groups disproportionately. Eastern European countries are among the most affected due to a variety of risk factors. Yet this problem often remains invisible to the mass public. The attempts to bring it into the public consciousness rely strongly on different rhetorical strategies. I argue that the way of social issue framing largely determines its public perceptions and reactions to it. This material examines human trafficking as phenomenon, its definitions and root causes, and then focuses on the framing of trafficking as modern slavery. This framing is made possible by the use of multimodality in media outlets and in prevention campaigns. I will apply the method of content analysis of images used in the Bulgarian digital press or for campaign purposes. The combination of text and imagery is a powerful tool to create the association of slavery, detention, and captivity. These associations are emotionally contagious and can generate pathos; they also convey the idea of a powerless innocent victim in need of rescue, which is a limiting view. The paper argues that this approach has both its positive and negative aspects, the latter being the risks of reductiveness and barriers to the deeper understanding of the problem, its underlying causes, and possible solutions. The alternative framing of this phenomenon as a human rights violation implies the necessity of not just “rescue and salvation” of individuals, but also structural changes in society.</p> Donka Petrova Copyright (c) 2022 Petrova Donka 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 53 67 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-04 Translating artlangs: the clash of worldviews <p>The research is dedicated to the problem of translating artlangs as a means of the alternative worldview embodiment. The object of research is twofold: the worldview in its linguistic manifestation and artlangs – artistic languages created within literary discourse mainly for expressive purposes. The aim of the research is equally dual: to determine what (kind of) worldview is reflected in artlangs and how it can be reproduced in translation. Our first hypothesis outlines three instances of worldview clashes connected with the perception, interpretation and translation of a piece of fiction depicting an alternative reality via an artlang. The first occurs when <em>the reader decodes the text and recreates in their mind the author’s artistic worldview, because the resulting ‘picture’ is never identical to the original one due to the uniqueness of information processing. The second occurs in translation, because the image of an alternative world in the translator’s mind is indeed the projection of that of the author, but formed under the influence of their own (target) worldview and incarnated through the available target linguistic resources. The third occurs when the </em>target reader retrieves the information from the target text and once again forms their own view of the alternative reality<em>. </em>According to our second hypothesis, a<em>rtlangs’ principal translatability is determined by their inextricable ties with natural donor language(s), though their reproduction is a highly demanding creative act whose outcome depends on a number of </em>concomitant circumstances. Here belong: the relation between an artlang’s donor language(s) and a piece of fiction’s source language; the relation between a piece of fiction’s source language and its target language; and, finally, the method of artlang’s manufacturing.</p> Oleksandr Rebrii Ievgeniia Bondarenko Inna Rebrii Copyright (c) 2022 Rebrii Oleksandr, Bondarenko Ievgeniia, Rebrii Inna 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 68 77 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-05 Meaning-making tools in intersemiotic translation (based on screen adaptation of “The hours”) <p>The present article focuses on screen adaptations as intersemiotic translation which gives an opportunity to transpose written word into the multimodal space of cinema. Taking up the role of translators who act as mediators between different semiotic systems, film-makers face a range of challenges associated with the meaning-making resources available to the creator of a book and a film, respectively. They have to take into account a variety of factors ranging from the need to preserve the spirit of the book and its aesthetic value to the obligation to ensure commercial success of the film. However, reinterpretation of a literary work for screen purposes inevitably produces a new work of art which starts its own life in the cultural environment it is meant for. Unleashing their creativity, film-makers decide which elements of the book they consider essential to convey the key message of the writer and which could be sacrificed to provide for the visual appeal of the work of cinema.</p> <p>A vivid example of such a challenge is seen in filming “The Hours” based on the novel by M.&nbsp;Cunningham, a story of three women bound through time with a book. Virginia Woolf writing her “Mrs.&nbsp;Dalloway”, Laura Brown reading it and Clarissa Vaughn nicknamed Mrs. Dalloway by her former lover—all of them are struggling to find their true selves in the world, which dictates the way they must live their femininity. The battles they have to fight every single day without having the right to speak up are mostly represented in their internal monologues the novel abounds with. The film, in its turn, focuses on the main events in the story reinforcing them with powerful symbols such as the kiss that reveals true desires of Virginia and Laura while showing Clarissa that her life goes on; the cake that becomes an embodiment of Laura’s failure as a spouse and a mother; water that will swallow Virginia and become a point of no return for Laura, and flowers presaging death for Virginia but fortelling life for Clarissa. An intricate mixture of music, image, and unrivaled play of actors produce a coherent and eloquent narrative, which makes viewers rethink gender stereotypes as well as Virginia Woolf’s legacy.</p> Ganna Tashchenko Copyright (c) 2022 Tashchenko Ganna 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 78 90 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-06 Multimodality and transmediality in Kamal Abdulla’s short fiction: a cognitive-emotive interface <p>This paper addresses the issues of in-built multimodality and transmediality as well as their interface employed in “Could You Teach Me to Fly…?”, a short story by Kamal Abdulla, a well-known Azerbaijani writer, scholar, and public figure. Relying upon the cognitive-emotive approach as the ground for multimodal text analysis, the research interprets the above concepts as interphenomena, which, along with iconicity, intermedial references, and manifestations of verbal holography as the interplay of planes and vectors, create the effect of literary text multidimensionality. The paper claims that the short story that belongs to intellectual prose foregrounds the metaphor of love as a magic gift that endows a person with capacity to fly. This metaphor is embodied in the iconic image of a white bird the woman in love turns into. The paper shows that the magic of imagery based on fairytale and mythopoetic motifs reveals itself through a set of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic manifestations of multimodality accompanied by the use of zoom-in/zoom-out cinematic techniques. The magic of paradoxical imagery, where a naked woman symbolizes an emotionally intense silence, is enhanced by discourse transmediality, due to which the key visual image of the woman-bird flying high into the sky as if evaporating transforms into an integrated kinesthetic poetry-dance-film image. Given all this, the paper suggests several techniques of cognitive-emotive multimodal analysis, which might further enrich the metamethod of literary text disambiguation as a way of its interpreting aimed to reconstruct a literary work’s conceptual structure while defining the factors of textual multidimensionality and deepness.</p> Olga Vorobyova Copyright (c) 2022 Vorobyova Olga 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 91 102 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-07 Multimodality and cross-modal cohesion in manga <p>Manga with their distinct style and symbolism represent a growing reading trend in the world. Manga use an established set of symbols to convey various emotions. Manga have generally been more experimental in layout than Western comics. They are more fragmentary and contain more panels that enhance the dynamism of the story. We aimed to outline methodological approaches to the analysis of manga; to summarize specific features of manga as a separate medium; to analyse how multimodal cohesion is created in manga; to reveal various types of relations between visual and verbal modes. Manga is a multimodal discourse, combining several modes, mainly visual and verbal. The aural mode is represented by linguistic and visual signs, e.g.&nbsp;jagged borders of a speech bubble or the size and boldness of letters. We applied methods originally designed for the film analysis to the analysis of manga, in particular, Tseng’s (2013) theory of cross-modal cohesion, based on tracking cross-modally realized characters, objects, actions, and settings. This analysis included building cross-modal cohesive chains. We argue that it is possible to track cross-modal cohesion in manga, based on the interaction of visual, verbal, and aural components of identity chains. Besides, the interaction between visual and verbal modes was revealed by analysing text-image relations. In this paper we have outlined manga-specific features, distinctive features of manga’s page layout, cinematic devices, which manga borrowed from films, some of which may be used as focalisation-marking devices.</p> Victoria Yefymenko Copyright (c) 2022 Yefymenko Victoria 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 103 114 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-08 Ukraine and the West in pro-Russia Chinese media: A methodology for the analysis of multimodal political narratives <p>This study represents a research project done at the crossroads of political, multimodal and cognitive linguistics. In focus is the Russia-Ukraine war featured in March – May, 2022 by the English edition of <em>the&nbsp;Global Times</em>, a&nbsp;Chinese media outlet, one of the voices of pro-Russia Chinese state propaganda. The analyzed articles contain political cartoons and thus can be defined as multimodal texts. Together, they mold a narrative, or ‘story’ addressed to international readers and intended to shape their worldview beneficial for Russia. Out study of this narrative aims to reconstruct the mental image it portrays and to expose the ways in which the verbal and visual modes interact to implant this image into the readers’ minds. To fulfil this task, we propose a cognitive linguistic methodology which, applied algorithmically, enables building cognitive ontologies that structure information rendered verbally and visually. The constituents of each ontology have factual and emotive salience, dependent of the number of descriptions provided by empirical texts. We demonstrate how an overlap of the ontologies boosts salience of the key emotively connoted message targeted at the audience. In the study, the interplay between verbal and visual modes in individual texts is characterized in terms of accentuation, elaboration, extension, questioning, and combining considered as universal ways of ‘stretching’ information, which are trackable far beyond the metaphoric domain where they were previously identified by Lakoff and Turner (1989).</p> Svitlana Zhabotynska Olha Ryzhova Copyright (c) 2022 Zhabotynska Svitlana, Ryzhova Olha 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 24 115 139 10.26565/2218-2926-2022-24-09