Cognition, Communication, Discourse <p>International On-line Journal</p> <p>The articles of this international on-line journal address relevant issues of linguistics in the media space: semantics, pragmatics, cognitive science based on the materials of Slavic, Germanic and Romance languages.</p> <p>For linguists, educators, graduate and postgraduate students.</p> <p>Published since 2010.</p> <p>ISSN 2218-2926</p> en-US <p>Authors, who publish with this journal, accept the following conditions:</p> <p>The authors reserve the copyright of their work and transfer to the magazine the right of the first publication of this work under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Non-Derivs License (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC-ND</a>), which allows other persons to freely distribute a published work with mandatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.</p> <p>Authors have the right to enter into separate additional agreements for the non-exclusive dissemination of the work in the form in which it was published by this journal (for example, to post the work in the electronic institutions' repository or to publish as part of a monograph), provided that the link to the first publication of the work in this journal is given.</p> <p>The journal policy allows and encourages the authors to place the manuscripts on the Internet (for example, in the institutions' repositories or on personal websites), both before the presentation of this manuscript to the editorial board and during review procedure, as it contributes to the creation of productive scientific discussion and positively affects the efficiency and dynamics of citing the published work (see <u><a href="">The Effect of Open Access</a></u>).</p> (Шевченко Ірина Семенівна, д.ф.н., проф.) (Гуторов Володимир Олександрович, к.ф.н., доц.) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 14:09:00 +0000 OJS 60 Google doodles as multimodal storytelling <p>This article highlights increasing multimodality of online communication, in particular, multimodal alteration of Google logo known as Google Doodle. Doodles are interesting in terms of multimodal communication, semiotic landscape, encoding and decoding information, meaning-making, visual storytelling and visual communication in the globalized world, which remains multilingual, multicultural, multiracial, multiethnic and prone to conflicts. Despite the problems of aberrant decoding Umberto Eco described, visual communication proves to be the economical and effective means of informing the global audience. Google Doodles progressed from simple pictorial elements added to the Google verbal logo to intricate images with complicated multi-tier historical and cultural background, animated, interactive, hyper-linked, AI-based, video doodles, puzzles and even diverse games. Doodles followed and mirrored ICT and visual design evolution, developed in parallel with digital design and digital multimodality. Google used the chance to implement and demonstrate digital design potential in modern communication. Google Doodles became bright examples of infotainment, edutainment and gamification as every doodle was to inform, to educate, to astonish, to trigger WOW effect while celebrating some remarkable personality or event. Every Doodle is the result of thorough research into the issue, of sophisticated visual and digital design, of unique imaginativeness and high creativeness of the world best mind what makes it possible to squeeze an elaborate story into a picture or a short video. This study suggests that Google Doodles tend to become unique samples of multimodal storytelling, highly complicated semiotically and cognitively. Doodlers make great fun for many people, they send them googling to track down amazing stories, to discover intriguing details, and broaden knowledge horizon. Support of Doodle 4 Google competition among kids promotes multiliteracy and digital culture what is crucial to keep young generations future-proof.</p> Alla Belova Copyright (c) 2021 Alla Belova Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The evolution of the concept of ART in the English linguistic construal of the world: from CRAFT to CREATIVITY <p>There are many accounts of the concept of ART that generally focus on its synchronous analysis. To date the emergence of a new research approach of historical cognitivе linguistics opens up an opportunity of rethinking the structure of this concept and its place in the English linguistic construal of the world. In this paper, we hypothesize&nbsp; that ART is a gestalt polyappeal concept that evolved by the type of cladogenesis from the concept of CRAFT; accordingly, its place in the English constual of the world changed from UTILITARY to AESTHETIC.With the aim to establish the evolution and place of this concept in the English linguistic construal of the world, the article identifies the means of nominating the concept in terms of diachrony; analyses the semantics of lexical means of concept representation, its structure, and determines vectors of its profiling in different historical periods. The comprehensive method of our research includes identifying the name of the concept, that includes semantic componential and frequency analysis of basic lexemes representing the concept of ART in English. As a result the authors find out the etymological layer of the concept, its etymon and internal form of the name. In this paper, we describe lexical means of representation of the concept of ART, that include such basic lexemes as <em>art, arts, skill, </em>and<em> craft</em>, and claim that the semantic volume of <em>art </em>predominates and includes the semantic volumes of other synonyms. Based on their comparative study, we also claim that the noun <em>art, </em>that dominates both in frequency and in semantic capacity, is the name of the concept of ART. Etymologically, <em>art</em> (n) dates back to the Proto-Indo-European noun *<em>ar (ə) -ti-</em> that meant ‘method of doing smth’, which determines its internal form. The empirical material of this research was obtained from thesauri and etymological dictionaries of English, and from the database BNC. We claim that&nbsp; the conceptual model of ART has undergone historical changes. Being based on PROFESSIONALISM within the segment HUMAN ACTIVITIES in the construal of the world, in the Middle Ages, the concept CRAFTS/ART dominated and was profiled within the domain of UTILITARY. At the beginning of the Renaissance, in the construal of the world, along with CRAFTS (the idea of ​​small-scale production) profiled against the UTILITARY, the concept of WORK (industrial production) was formed; and the concept of ART profiled within the AESTHETIC domain appeared. Today, the concept of ART is the domain for such subdomains as PAINTING, SCULPTURE, LITERATURE, THEATER, DANCE, CINEMA, and others.</p> Inna Davydenko, Alevtyna Kalyuzhna, Iryna Shevchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Inna Davydenko, Alevtyna Kalyuzhna, Iryna Shevchenko Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Methodology of interpreting the results of the interdisciplinary lingual-and-energetic research <p>In this paper, the authors substantiate the specificity of a new method and methodological and technological procedures for a complex qualitative-and-quantitative description of the results of non-traditional interdisciplinary lingual-and-energetic studies of stochastic self-developing cognitive processes of human speaking-and-thinking activities. Methodological possibilities and rules of a comprehensive assessment of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes’ self-development are described in the paper. Using a theoretical principle of preserving the utterance’s emotional-and-pragmatic potential as well as the dimensionless <em>K</em>-criterion for defining the level of the utterance emotional-and-pragmatic potential, the authors work out the analysis method based on a psycho-energygram that presents the self-development of cognitive processes of speaking-and-thinking activities in the individual’s spiritual sphere. The trajectories of the analyzed processes’ self-development are considered from the standpoint of synergetic knowledge and thus are interpreted in the form of corresponding attractor structures with bifurcation points that acquire the cognitive status of concepts. The methodology described in the paper opens up new possibilities for a scientific quantitative description of the dynamics of self-developing processes of the individual’s speaking-and-thinking activities. These activities are viewed by the authors in their direct correlation with the reasons that actualize qualitative and meaningful acts generated by psychic and physiological bases of a person’s communicative behavior.</p> Alla Kalyta, Oleksandr Klymenyuk Copyright (c) 2021 Alla Kalyta, Oleksandr Klymenyuk Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Visual metaphor in commercial ad: effectiveness or failure? <p>Based on the modern approaches to the study of multimodal pragmatics, this study focuses on its new facet, identifying the correlation between cognitive and pragmatic features of visual metaphor with reference to visual grammatical analysis and Optimal Innovation Hypothesis added by explanatory tools of the conceptual blending Theory and Relevance Theory along with cooperative principle. The purpose of the article is to analyze the visual message of commercial advertising while assessing its successfulness / failure in accordance with the sequentially applied criteria of “the level of metaphorical polysemanticity and ambiguity”, “the availability of the relevant context of interpretation”, “the level of optimal innovativeness”. The paper reached four principal results. First. The visual metaphor flouts one or few cooperatіve maxims, which triggers discursive implicature. Second. Depending on the level of implicitness and polysemanticity of the visual metaphor, the result of the maxim flouting can be both implicature and explicature. If the inference of the implicature is intended by an advertising message, but requires excessive efforts to process visual information in lack of relevant context, the level of the metaphor interpretation remains explicature. Third. “Explicature” and “implicature” levels of visual metaphor interpretation are associated with different stages of blending processes. Inference of discursive implicature, which constitutes the intended meaning of the metaphor, coincides with the stage of the blend elaboration; Fourth. Depending on the balance between the level of familiarity and innovativeness, the components of a visual metaphor can be ranked on the scale of “attractiveness” for the target client—from optimally innovative to pure innovative devices.</p> Natalya Kravchenko, Oleksandr Yudenko Copyright (c) 2021 Natalya Kravchenko, Oleksandr Yudenko Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive translation analysis of fiction simile <p>This paper introduces a method of cognitive translation analysis of English-Ukrainian translation of fiction simile. Our analysis of Ukrainian and foreign research on fiction simile translation has revealed that such papers are mostly based on traditional structural-semantic translation analysis. Cognitive translation analysis of fiction simile, which allows identifying cognitive models that underpin simile functioning in speech and affect its translation, has been done in very few papers and therefore it requires developing. This paper aims at establishing correlations between linguacultural specificity or, conversely, similarity of cognitive models of English fiction similes and a choice of a translation strategy to render English similes into Ukrainian. The research sample consists of 1200 English similes, collected from D. Tartt’s novels, <em>The Goldfinch</em> and <em>The Secret History</em>, and M. Atwood’s novel, <em>The Blind Assassin</em>, and their Ukrainian translations, performed, respectively, by V. Shovkun, B. Stasiuk and O. Oksenych. Achieving this goal involves fulfilling the following tasks: 1)&nbsp;identifying and comparing cognitive models of English similes and their Ukrainian translations; 2)&nbsp;revealing translation procedures used to render fiction similes – retention, replacement, reduction, omission or addition; 3) establishing correlations between translation procedures and translation strategies – the foreignization strategy and the domestication strategy. A fiction simile is addressed as an explicit conceptual metaphor structured by a propositional model (A is like B), where A is the target&nbsp; concept / domain representing the entity that is compared, B is source the concept / domain representing the entity to which the target is compared (its language / speech&nbsp; instantiation is called a vehicle). Simile can also explicate the characteristic, which is the basis for comparison (A (target) is like B (source / conductor) by characteristic B). Conducting the translation analysis, we take into account the type of fiction simile. We distinguish between conventional simile, grounding on universal knowledge, and original simile, reflecting individual knowledge and creative imagination of an author. Among conventional similes, we differentiate between allusive similes that are mostly based on subcultural knowledge, and idiomatic similes that can be based on both universal and culturally specific knowledge embodied in idioms. Our cognitive translation analysis led to the following conclusions. Retention of similes realizes different translation strategies depending on the type of the simile and the presence / absence of its linguacultural specificity. Retention of conventional and original similes correlates with neutral translation strategy, as neither the former nor the latter has linguacultural specificity that would indicate the inconsistency of their cognitive models and thus constrain the translator's choice, causing a translation problem. Retention of allusive similes can also correlate with neutral strategy if the allusion is part of universal knowledge although more often retention of allusive simile realizes foreignization strategy as such similes are based on subculturally specific knowledge and thus rest on cognitive models that are unestablished in the minds of most representatives of both cultures. If a translator adds a commentary, foreignization is neutralized by domestication. Replacement, reduction, omission or addition of similes correlate with domestication, which can be compulsory if English and Ukrainian similes are based on different cultural cognitive models, or optional if they are based on similar cognitive models. Moreover, domestication can be complete if the simile cognitive model is replaced or partial if the concepts of the model are specified or explained, but the model remains unchanged. These results call for further research, specifically, conducting a quantitative analysis to establish quantitative correlations between the procedures and strategies of English-Ukrainian translation of fiction similes.</p> Alla Martynyuk, Elvira Akhmedova Copyright (c) 2021 Alla Martynyuk, Elvira Akhmedova Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The evolution of the English small talk: a cognitive-pragmatic analysis <p>Since Malinowski defined small talk as a communicative mode – the establishment of human bonds or communion, abundant studies have supplied numerous data about its cultural contexts, social and phatic function, participants and topics of small talk, conversational routines and etiquette mores etc. Nevertheless, some aspects of small talk, both its historical and contemporary procedures, still lack clarification. Lately, the development of a new linguistic approach of cognitive pragmatics has worked out a new methodology that makes it possible to take inquiry into cognitive-intentional and social-cultural aspects of the communicative behavior of small talk. In this paper, we have worked out an integrative framework for cognitive-pragmatic analysis of small talk underpinned by the ideas of historical pragmatics. We implemented this framework in the analysis of small talk on the material of English fiction of the 17<sup>th</sup> -21<sup>st</sup> centuries elicited from the BNC database. We aimed to find out evolutionary trends of small talk in English and to describe the underlying change of English ethos, in particular, politeness principles. Our findings have revealed historically stable and variable characteristic features of small talk: the former mainly concern people’s communion as a universal value, the latter reflect procedural communication patterns and requirements of a particular community. We argue that small talk is a meta-communicative (accompanying informative communication) form of behavior that satisfies human needs for social cohesiveness; its cultural conceptualization depends upon the leading social-cultural values and changes throughout history. We hope, this study may shed light on the understanding of small talk as communicative behavior found not only in fiction but also in other contexts.</p> Iryna Shevchenko, Yuliia Matiukhina, Maria Liudvika Drazdauskienė Copyright (c) 2021 Iryna Shevchenko, Yuliia Matiukhina, Maria Liudvika Drazdauskienė Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Subjectivity in metaphor translation: a case for Russian translation of English metaphors of depressive emotions <p>This paper focuses on the theoretical concept of subjectivity in the translation of metaphors of depressive emotions in W. Styron’s <em>Darkness visible: A memoir of madness</em> into Russian. In his memoir, the author interprets his emotions and names them via metaphors; these interpretations are driven by images in the author’s mind. An image-driven interpretation in translation is a creative act of ascribing a meaning to a word in the source language and of finding a word to capture this meaning in the target language. This act is driven by images ‘drawn’ in the translator’s mind. Mental images as non-propositional objects in the mind are verbalized by words of languages based on propositional structures. This entails semantic losses to translation, minimized by finding words in the target language that make optimal descriptions for the author’s mental images. This paper suggests a hypothesis that metaphor translation is based on their interpretations driven by the translator’s mental images. The theoretical framework of study treats metaphor translation in terms of optimality rather than accuracy of translation. The article uses the subjectivity argument to show that mental images are the translator’s but not the author’s. Subjectivity locks the translator into their own experiences and consequently makes impossible a full compliance of&nbsp; translator’s and the author’s shared phenomenal consciousness. An empirical analysis of metaphorical creativity based on E. Menikov's translation of W. Styron's metaphors of depressive emotions shows that Russian translation often lacks the images that the author uses as the basis for English creative metaphors: on the one hand, the translator's interpretation is conditioned by images that differ from the author's, on the&nbsp; other, some of the author's images are missing from the translation. According to the embodied mind theory, in translation of metaphorical concepts, the degree of creativity is the smallest for conveying universal metaphors and the highest for conveying their contextual variants. The obtained results and conclusions will contribute to the understanding of creativity in the translation of unconventional metaphors.</p> Olga Vakhovska Copyright (c) 2021 Olga Vakhovska Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Political discourse from the standpoint of the addressee <p>This article is an overview of West-European and Asian linguistic discussion of the issue of the addressee as one of the key components of political discourse. It considers the concept of political discourse addressee as well as the issue of speech influence and discourse manipulation since the latter is the most important characteristic of the type of discourse under consideration. To date, actualization of the addressee in political discourse is not sufficiently studied; hence, there is a respective gap in political discourse studies. This conclusion is made upon reviewing modern trends in political discourse research in West-European and Asian linguistics, critical discourse analysis being the major and the most representative of them, with the contribution of political discourse analysis and critical applied linguistics. The overview shows that the linguistic trends listed above have contributed greatly into the study of discourse, in general, and political discourse, in particular. The article also demonstrates the results of the study of political discourse addressee as groups of voters, conducted in papers on communication theory and PR-practices and argues that such approach appears insufficient as it must be augmented by the study of the addressee in terms of cognitive linguistics. This paper concludes that an addressee of political discourse is not in the focus of modern West-European linguistics and thus requires further in-depth analysis, which can be done by applying the communicative-cognitive approach in its multimodal aspect.</p> Ganna Kuznyetsova Copyright (c) 2021 Ganna Kuznyetsova Tue, 25 Jan 2022 14:56:06 +0000