Biological wastewater treatment plants as sources of environmental pollution by persistent organic pollutants (on the example of Odesa industrial-and-urban agglomeration)
Formulation of the problem. Effective mechanism of wastewater treatment (WT) are important components of reducing anthropogenic load on the environment. One of the most widespread mechanisms of urban wastewater treatment is the biological treatment on a Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant (BWTP). However, increasing the nomenclature of pollutants concentrated in urban wastewater seriously affects the effectiveness of WT on BWTPs, which are not intended for such a wide spectrum of specific pollutants such as, in particular, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The control of their intake into the environment must be regulated according to the Stockholm convention. The goal of the research is the evaluation of the intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) into the environment from the wastewater of Odesa Industrial-and-Urban Agglomeration (IUA) and determining the volumes of their accumulation in the sea environment.
Purpose. The assessment of the amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) entering the environment with the wastewater from Odesa IUA and determining the amount of their accumulation in the sea environment.
Methods. In our research, all available official methods of calculation of the unintentional formation of POPs were reviewed, as a result – the main and most complete methods were selected: «UNEP (2013). Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional POPs» and «EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories, 2019». For evaluation of PCDD/F accumulation in the sea environment an improved by authors methodology for calculation of PCDD/F accumulation with their cumulative effect and half life taken into account was used.
Results. The work provides justification for the necessity of use of calculation methodologies for determing the intake of PCDD/F to the sea environment adjacent to Odesa IUA; annual massed of PCDD/F entering the sea environment as part of treated, insufficiently treated and untreated wastewater are calculated; massed of PCDD/F that accumulate in waste activated sludge (WAS) on BWTP are calculated; volumes and specifics of PCDD/F accumulation in the sea basin, where the wastewater of Odesa IUA is being discharged to are determined using the improved methodology that enables taking into account the cumulative effect and half life period of these substances; mass and concentration of PCDD/F, immobilized in WAS, are determined, the excess level of concentration of PCDD/F in WAS compared to the maximum permissible concentration is determined. The total accumulation of PCDD/F in the sea environment over 2007-2017 period is determined.
Conclusions. It was established that the use of calculation methodologies for evaluating PCDD/F volumes in the water environment is the only and necessary condition for satisfying the requirements of the Stockholm convention due to the impossibility of performing a regular instrumental monitoring of PCDD/F intake into the water environment. The use of suggested by us improved methodology for calculation of PCDD/F accumulation with their cumulative effect and half-life period taken into account allows for calculation of PCDD/F masses that were formed throughout the year under consideration, taking into account the PCDD/F masses that were formed during previous years as well.
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