Assessment of the volume of provision of cultural ecosystem services by Kyiv green zones
Among the groups of ecosystem services, cultural ecosystem services (CES) are the most in demand in cities. Currently, the status of the CES evaluation remains problematic.
Accordingly, the purpose of the work was to develop the provisions of the methodology for estimating the volumes of the most demanded CES and determining the value of green areas in providing CES, taking into account the demand for them.
Methodologically, the work consisted in the steps: 1) identification of indicators of the effectiveness of the provision of CES, which are of decisive importance when citizens choose green areas to visit, which is an aspect of the CES offer (residents' perception of green areas; the character of their use; value and suitability to perform recreational and wellness functions; indicators defining restrictions on the use of green areas, etc.) 2) Normalization of calculated indicators based on a single scale, to determine the total volume of the CES offer: was applied the one-sided increasing Harrington desirability function. 3) Development of a methodology for the entire CES calculation. According to the general algorithm, the evaluation was based on the sequential determination of the potential of the green zone in providing CES, as an average value of the indicators of perception of the territory and of the total CES offer - the number of CES that the green zone is able to provide, taking into account the value of CES restrictions.
As a result of calculations according to the algorithm, an assessment of the volume of CES of was estimated in the selected 14 green zones of the city Kyiv. The calculation showed that none of the selected green zones provide the maximum volumes of CES, only 3 of them have higher than average volumes, 9 have average volumes, and 1 green zone each has minimum and lower than average volumes. At the same time, the potential of the researched green zones for the provision of CES: the maximum volumes in 2 zones and in the absolute majority - 11 is higher than the average volume. Accordingly, in almost all green zones there is a lack of receipt (loss) of significant amounts of CES, mainly due to the presence of problems that lead to a deterioration of the perception of green zones by residents.
In order to determine the consumer value of green zones the indicator of alternative availability of green zones was used, which reflects the ratio of supply of ES and demand for them. Among those investigated in the work, 2 green zones were identified, which due to low supply in areas with high demand for CES, should receive maximum attention when making priority management decisions.
Thus, the research solved the scientific task of objectively taking into account in the CES evaluation all aspects that determine the CES offer. This method, in combination with the determination of the value of green areas in providing CES, can be used in urban planning practice as a tool for improving the quality of urban green areas, their sustainable development and providing citizens with the maximum amount of CES.
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