Risk assessment for public health from air pollution in the industrial regions of Ukraine
The main purpose of the research is to improve the efficiency of management decisions in the field of environmental protection through using the methods for assessing the public health risk at the current level of air pollution.
Methodology. The article presents a hierarchical methodological approach for determination of the level of air pollution hazard at the state, regional and local levels.
The state of atmospheric air is greatly affected by emergencies associated with accidents at chemically hazardous facilities, which result in burst releases of hazardous chemicals into the environment. When determining the environmental risk of deterioration in the state of atmospheric air, the chemical hazard indicator was taken into account.
Results. On the territory of the East of Ukraine there is the largest number of potentially dangerous enterprises. A new methodology of determination of the hazard level of air pollution is presented at the existing trends of anthropogenic load and the possible occurrence of technogenic emergencies. Assessment of public health risk due to air pollution in the Mariupol city showed an extremely high level of danger.
The determination of the risk as a macroecological indicator according to the new method shows a high level of hazard of air pollution in the industrial developed regions of Ukraine. The shortcomings of the methodical approach of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA US), widely used in many countries of the world, are shown. An analysis of methodological approaches to assessing the public health risk has shown the promise of using the methodology for assessing potential risk in determining the level of environmental hazard of industrial enterprises. The assessment of the public health risk in the current quality state of air is given by two different methods for the regions of Ukraine with a high level of ecological and chemical hazard.
The improvement of the methodology for assessing the risk to public health due to air pollution is proposed, which is presented as a scientific novelty. Currently when Ukraine has been affected by hostilities and the economic crisis, the issue of priority funding for environmental protection is very important. The implementation of the proposed methodological approach will make it possible to scientifically determine regions with an increased level of hazard to public health and minimize financial resources for improving the air quality, which has actual practical significance.
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