Height differentiation of valley-river landscapes of the right-bank Ukraine
The aim of the article. To analyze the peculiarities of height differentiation of valley-river landscapes and to study their current structure taking a model region as an example – a plain territory of the Right-bank Ukraine.
Methods. The study is based on the ideas of F. M. Milkov on anthropogenic landscapes and their vertical (height) differentiation. In the process of research the constructive-scientific landscape approach and the principles of complexity and natural-anthropogenic combination were used. The main research methods, in addition to field, are methods of theoretical generalization, historical and landscape, the leading factor, zoning, modeling, analogy and more.
Scientific novelty. The main focus of scientists is only on the impact of vertical zonation on mountain landscapes. Height differentiation of valley-river landscapes has not been given due attention. This is especially true of river valley landscapes that have been transformed as a result of economic activity.
Practical value. Previous experience in the optimization of anthropogenic landscapes shows that taking into account their height differentiation is a necessary condition for the development of various projects and schemes of environmental management. Given the growing anthropogenic pressure on the environment, such studies will help to better understand the course of negative man-made processes and contribute to the optimization, conservation and protection of modern valley and river landscapes. In the long run, this may be the basis for similar research in river valleys around the world.
Research results. The development of height differentiation within the boundaries of valley-river landscapes of the Right-bank Ukraine was considered based on the earlier experience. 2 height-landscape levels (“young” accumulative and “typical” accumulative-denudation) and 4 tiers were singled out in river valleys. Bridges, dams, causeways, derivative HES, “water” mills, anthropogenic islands, ponds of a riverbed type or meliorative canals – all these are typical for a lower tier of a “young” accumulative height-landscape level. A middle tier is represented with water-economic and agricultural landscapes. An upper tier is formed with residential and mining-industrial landscapes. In river valleys a “typical” accumulative-denudation height-landscape level has one lower tier which is formed with two natural types of localities: sloping and canyon-like. This tier is characterized with a good preservation (up to 35%) of natural landscapes. Anthropogenic landscapes are represented mainly with forest-cultural, residential, agricultural and road landscape complexes. The conclusion has been made that with further anthropogenization of river valleys it is expedient to make designs of anthropogenic landscapes, distributing them on height-landscape teirs evenly and thoughfully. Within the boundaries of a “young” accumulative height-landscape level it advisable to carry out the restoration and optimization of water-economic landscape-technical systems which are at the “aging” stage. To preserve valley-river landscapes it should be forbidden to take any economic measures except for the optimization ones.
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