Influence of green infrastructure objects for quality of surface runoff (on the example of green roofs in Kharkiv)
Relevance. Modern urbanization processes in Kharkiv are accompanied by an increase in anthropogenic pressure on the natural component, compaction of buildings and reduction of green areas. The concept of green infrastructure is used in many countries around the world; it is the best way to reorganize urban space into modern cities.
The purpose of the article is a determination of quality changes of water runoff after passing through of green roofs in Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Material and methods. A green roof is the roof of a build, partially or completely covered with vegetation and soil layer. Green roofs are divided into “intensive” and “extensive” types. In the research was studied the frequency of use of green roofs in construction and landscaping on the example of Kharkiv, was conducted an inventory of green roofs in Kharkiv. As the number of green roofs in Kharkiv is rather small, is optimal to choice the particular test sites for research. For chemical analysis, were taken samples of snow, surface runoff from the flat, and sloping green roofs and roof without greening for the content of pollutants. Chemical analysis of the samples was performed by the Laboratory of Analytical Ecological Research of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. The laboratory has the attestation and certificate of ISO 10012:2005 № 01-0155/2019. The study determined the following indicators: pH, nitrites, nitrates, transparency, smell, turbidity, chlorides, general rigidity, total alkalinity, ammonia, zinc, copper, manganese, cadmium, total iron, chromium. Two types often represent green roofs in Kharkiv: parking roofs and cellars. Points of samples are located at Shevchenkivsky and Kholodnohirsky districts.
Results and discussion. Results of a study of snow and runoff sampling after a green roof and a roof without landscaping show that most water quality indicators improve after water passes through green areas. Thus, at points the pH, general rigidity, alkalinity, concentration of chlorides, chromium are decrease. The green roof of the first point (parking) also reduces the concentration of nitrites, ammonia, zinc and manganese. The concentration of iron also decreases in the second point. However, there is an increase in the concentration of heavy metals in the water due to their accumulation in the substrate of the green roof. The results of the study are can be used by the Post-Soviet countries, as previously the impact of surface runoff was considered only in terms of the flow of pollutants from storm sewers to water bodies.
Conclusion. The results of the study indicate that green roofs contribute to the treatment of runoff, natural replenishment of surface water bodies and groundwater and reduce the load on municipal wastewater treatment plant.
Kuzyk, I. R. (2017). On the problem of sustainable functioning of the comprehensive green area of the city Ternopil. Visnyk of the Ternopil department of the Ukrainian Geographical Society, 1(1), 38-42. [in Ukrainian]
Kuzyk, I. R., Tsaryk, L. P. (2020). Geoecological Assessment for The Structure of the Complex Green Zone of Ter-nopil City and its Optimization. Man and Environment. Issues of Neoecology, 34, 8-18. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.26565/1992-4224-2020-34-01
GBN B.1.1-14: 2012. Composition and content of a detailed plan of the territory. Y. M. Bilokon State Enterprise Ukrainian State Research Institute of Urban Design „Dipromisto“ [in Ukrainian]
Maksymenko N.V., Burchenko S.V. (2019). Theoretical Basis of the Green Infrastructure Strategy: International Experience. Man and Environment. Issues of Neoecology, 31, 16-25. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-14
Bezliubchenko О.S., Zavalnyi O.V., Chernonosova T.O. (2011). Urban planning and improvement. Tutorial, 191. [in Ukrainian]
Klieshch A. A., Maksymenko N. V., Ponomarenko P. R. (2017). Territorial structure of the land use of Kharkiv city. Man and Environment. Issues of Neoecology, 27(1-2), 23-34. [in Ukrainian] URL: https://periodicals.karazin.ua/humanenviron/article/view/9168
Maksymenko N., Burchenko S., Miller K., Cohen L., Krivtsov V. (2021). Inventory of green roofs in Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Edinburgh (Scotland): current occurrence, future potential and implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Current issues of formal and nonformal education in environmental monitoring and conserva-tion Abstracts of I International Internet-conference, 127-128. https://ecology.karazin.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/akt-probl-form-i-neform-osv-z-monit-dovk-ta-zapov-spr-2021.p
Burchenko S. (2021). Green roofs for cities surface runoff regulation. 25th international scientific conference EN-VIRO 2021. June 3-4.
Shkaruba A., Skryhan H., Likhacheva O., Katona A., Maryskevych O., Kireyeu V., Sepp K., Shpakivska I. (2021). Development of sustainable urban drainage systems in Eastern Europe: an analytical overview of the constraints and enabling conditions. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 2435-2458. https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2021.1874893
Skryhan H., Katona A., Kireyeu V, Likhacheva O, Maryskevych O, Sepp K, Shkaruba A., Shpakivska I. (2020). Sus-tainable urban drainage systems in Eastern Europe: policy transfer and legacy effects. 1st international iale-russia online conference „landscape science and landscape ecology: considering responses to global challeng-es“, 211.
Miniailo, M. A., Filonenko, O. I. (2015). Roof gardens and their socio-economic impact. Collection of scientific works construction, materials science, engineering, 81, 111–118.
Bronz, I. (2017). A Graphical Approach to Analysis of Individual GSI Project Stormwater Mitigation in Urban Set-tings. Master of Science in Applied Geosciences Project Designs, 39. https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=msag_projects
Culligan, P. J., Carson, T.B., Gaffin S. et al. (2014). Evaluation of Green Roof Water Quantity and Quality Perfor-mance in an Urban Climate. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 79. http://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/PDF/P100KI19.pdf
Gilmore, K., Shopiro, R., Crago, R., Guzman, J. M. (2012). Impacts of Runoff Water Quality from Extensive Green Roofs. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 11, 4948–4965.
Talebi, A., Bagg, S., Sleep, B. E., O'Carroll, D. M. (2019). Water retention performance of green roof technology: A comparison of Canadian climates. Ecological Engineering, 126, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.10.006
Minova, Z., Vranayova, Z. (2020). Green Roofs and Water Retention in Košice, Slovakia, 133. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24039-4
Natural Water Retention Measures project (NWRM). Case Study Green Roofs of Vienna, 13. http://nwrm.eu/
Lönnqvist J., Hanslin H. M., Johannessen B. G., et al. (2020). Temperatures and precipitation affect vegetation dynamics on Scandinavian extensive green roofs. International Journal of Biometeorology, 65, 6, 837-849. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00484-020-02060-2
Tan, C. L., Tan, P. Y., Wong, N. H. et al. (2017). Impact of soil and water retention characteristics on green roof thermal performance. Energy and Buildings, 152, 830–842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.01.011
Raimondo, F., Trifilo, P., A Lo Gullo, M. et al. (2015). Plant performance on Mediterranean green roofs: Interac-tion of species-specific hydraulic strategies and substrate water relations. AoB PLANTS, 7, plv 007. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plv007