Specific changes in main climatic characteristics of the Debed river basin (Armenia)
Formulation of the problem. The article discusses changes in the main climatic characteristics in the Debed river basin (Armenia) at six meteorological stations.
The aim of the work is to analyze and assess peculiar territorial distribution of the main climatic indicators in the Debed river basin, their changes over the past 80-90 years in different conditions of Armenia.
Methods. To solve the set tasks, the authors used corresponding research and published works as a theoretical basis in the work. As a starting material, the work used the daily factual data of the "Center for Hydrometeorology and Monitoring" of the SNCO, Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Armenia for the period from 1930 to 2018 at six meteorological stations.
The authors applied the following research methods in the article: mathematical and statistical, extrapolation, analysis, analogy, correlation, cartographic.
Results. Climate of the earth has been changing rapidly over the past decades, leading to global warming. As a result, we are facing the problem of assessing the macroeconomic consequences of climate change in this territory. Armenia did not remain aloof from the problems of global climate change.
On the territory of the river Debed's basin air temperature distribution and precipitation is uneven, due to the geographical latitude of the area, general and local circulation of the atmosphere, radiation energy and orographic features. We notice a decrease in air temperature and an increase in precipitation with the height of the terrain and the vertical gradient, respectively, is 0.54 ºC / 100 m and -20 mm / 100 m. The average annual air temperature ranges from 3.74 ºC to 12.3 ºC, and the annual precipitation is from 462 mm to 770 mm.
Studies have also shown that long-term fluctuations in average air temperature over the year are generally characterized by positive trends. Air temperature in the basin of the river Debed increased by 1.65 °С on average over the year from 1964 to 2018. A particularly significant increase in annual temperatures has been observed after the 1990s, when the rate of annual warming reached +0.389 ºС / 10 years (for the period 1993-2018). The warmest years were 1966, 2010 and 2018.
The tendency towards a decrease in the annual amount of precipitation prevails in the area. The most significant amount of precipitation decreased in the basin of the river Debed after 2002. The rate of changes in the annual amount of atmospheric precipitation for the period 2002–2018 reached -61.7 mm / 10 years, and for the entire period 1964-2018 - 1.02 mm / 10 years. On average a decrease in annual precipitation was 126 mm from 1964 to 2001, 105 mm - from 2002 to 2018 in the basin of the river Debed. There is a tendency for a slight increase in the amount of precipitation at the Stepanavan weather station.
Abdulzhalimov A.A., Ataev Z.V., Bratkov V.V. (2015). Modern climate changes of high-mountain landscapes of the North-Eastern Caucasus. Izvestiya Dagestanskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta. Journal Dagestan State Pedagogical University. Natural and Exact Sciences. 2, 86-94 [In Russian].
Aleksandryan G.A. (1971). Atmospheric precipitation in Armenian SSR. Yerevan. Science of Academy of ASSR, 180 [In Russian].
Atayev Z.V., Bratkov V.V. (2014). Reaction of landscapes of the North Caucasus on the current climatic changes // The South of Russia: ecology, development. 1, 141-157 [In Russian].
Bardin M.Yu., Platova T.V., Samokhina O.F.(2015). Features of observed climate changes on the territory of Northern Eurasia according to regular monitoring data and their possible factors // Proceedings of the FSBI «Hydrometeorological Center of Russia». 358, 13-35 [In Russian].
Gruza G.V., Rankova E.Ya. (2012). Observed and expected climate changes over Russia: surface air temperature. Obninsk: «VNIIGMI-MTSD», 194 [In Russian].
Baghdasaryan A.B. Klimat Armyanskoj SSR. (1958). The climate of Armenian SSR. Yerevan: Publishing House of the Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences, 151 [In Russian].
Climatic handbook. Part 1. Air and soil temperature (2011). Yerevan, 150 [In Armenian].
Climatic handbook. Part 2. Air humidity, precipitation and snow cover (2012). Yerevan, 172 [In Armenian].
Kirillina K.S., Lobanov V.A. (2015). Assessment of modern climatic changes of air temperature in the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Proceedings of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU). 38, 137–151 [In Russian].
Lobanov V.A., Mammedov S.A. (2018). Assessment of climatic changes in air temperature and their stability in Central Asia. Proceedings of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU). 51, 22–36. [In Russian].
Lobanov V.A., Shadursky A.E. (2010). Application of empiric-statistical methods for modeling and analysis of cli-matic changes. Proceedings of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU). 14, 73–88. [In Russian].
Margaryan V.G. (2009). Regularities of atmospheric humidification spatial-temporal distribution in the Republic of Armenia. Thesis for the degree of candidate of geographical sciences. Yerevan, 169 [In Armenian].
Margaryan V.G., Samvelyan N.I. (2019). The regularities of spatial and temporal change of extremal temperatures of earth layer of atmosphere and its influence on the environment Ararat valley hollow. Vestnik Voronezskogo go-sudarstvennogo universiteta. Seria Geografia. Geoekologia. 4, 15-22 [in Russian] https://doi.org/10.17308/geo.2019.4/2707
Nersesyan A.G. (1964). Klimat Armenii [Climate of Armenia]. Yerevan, 304 [in Armenian]
Perevedentsev Yu.P., Sharipova R.B. (2012).Change of the basic climate indicators in the territory of the Ulyanovsk region. Bulletin of the Udmurt University. Series «Biology. Earth Sciences». 1, 136–144 [In Russian].
Surenyan G.G. (2010). Synoptic analysis of baric fields forming the climatic conditions of the Republic of Arme-nia. Thesis for the degree of cand. geogr. sciences. Yerevan. 145 [In Armenian].
Amiranashvili A., Matcharashvili T., Chelidze T. (2012). Climate Change in Georgia; statistical and nonlinear dynamics predictions. Journal of Georgian Geophysical Society, Issue (A), Physics of Solid Earth, 15a, 2011-2012, 67-87.
Armenia’s fourth national communication on climate change (2014). 213.
Building Resilience to Climate Change in South Caucasus Agriculture (2014). Nicolas Ahouissoussi, James E. Neumann, and Jitendra P. Srivastava, Editors. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 167. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0214-0
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Climate Change) (2013). The physical science basis. In Con-tribution of Working Group I to the Firth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Thomas F. Stocker, Dahe Qin, Gian-Kasper Plattner, Melinda M.B. Tignor, Simon K. Allen, Judith Boschung, Alex-ander Nauels, Yu Xia, Vincent Bex, Pauline M. Midgley (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1552.
Margaryan V.G. (2019). Assessment of climatic trend of air temperature at the earth surface in the context of stable development (case of Gyumri city). Visnyk of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series «Geology. Geogra-phy. Ecology». 50, 125-135. https://doi.org/10.26565/2410-7360-2019-50-09
Margaryan V., Tsibulskii G., Raevich K. (2020). About the features of the time course of the average annual air temperature in the territory of the Debed river basin (Armenia) // E3S Web of Conferences, 223, id. 03009. Re-gional Problems of Earth Remote Sensing (RPERS 2020).