Toxicological assessment of drilling wastewater treatment quality
Purpose. To determine the optimal combination and consumption of coagulants and flocculants in the treatment of drilling wastewater, followed by determination of the acute lethal toxicity of the obtained illuminated liquid phase.
Methods. Primary clarification of the liquid phase of drilling waste was carried out by the method of chemical coagulation using the organic coagulants "Magnafloc" and "ECOFLOC" as a coagulant. In case of insufficient degree of purification of drilling wastewater by coagulation method, an additional method of purification with Zetag 8180 flocculants and cellulose gum was used. After the cleaning process, a toxicological analysis of drilling wastewater was carried out using the biotesting method to determine the acute lethal toxicity of the water on the crustacean Ceriodaphnia affinis Lilljeborg.
Results. In the process of experimental research, a number of experiments were conducted to determine the optimal consumption of coagulants and flocculant for the treatment of drilling wastewater, followed by the determination of the acute lethal toxicity of the obtained illuminated liquid phase of drilling water. First, combinations of «Magnafloc» coagulant and Zetag 8180 flocculant were tested. The conducted studies showed that the most effective cleaning occurs during the primary clarification of the liquid phase of drilling waste by the method of chemical coagulation using the organic coagulant «Magnafloc» and additionally the flocculant Zetag 8180 in concentrations of 1.2 g/dm3 and 1 kg/m3, respectively. When using these chemical reagents in the above-mentioned concentrations, the 2nd level of acute lethal toxicity was determined in purified drilling wastewater (water is slightly toxic). The following experimental studies were conducted in order to identify the most effective combination of coagulant «ECOFLOC» and flocculant cellulose gum. According to the results of the conducted research, it was established that the most effective cleaning occurs during the primary clarification of the liquid phase of drilling waste by the chemical coagulation method using the coagulant «ECOFLOC» and the flocculant - cellulose gum in concentrations of 1.2 g/dm3 and 1.3 kg/m3, respectively. When using these chemical reagents in the above-mentioned concentrations, the 2nd level of acute lethal toxicity was determined in the purified drilling wastewater (the water is slightly toxic).
Conclusions. In general, it should be noted that such wastewater requires more thorough treatment in case of possible discharge to water bodies, and its use is possible only in repeated technological processes of drilling. The results of biotesting must be used for screening highly toxic environmentally hazardous chemicals and controlling the toxicity of various categories of wastewater at all stages of their formation and discharges into water bodies as an integral indicator in their quality control.
Leonard, S. A. & Stegemann, J. A. (2010). Stabilization/solidification of petroleum drill cuttings. Jour-nal of Hazardous Materials, 174, 1–3, 463-472, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.075.
Pantelitsa, L., Voukkali, I., Zorpas, A., Pedreño, Jose N., Chatziparaskeva, G., Inglezakis, J., Vardopou-los, I. & Doula M. (2012). Measuring the level of environmental performance in insular areas, through key performed indicators, in the framework of waste strategy development. Science of The Total Envi-ronment, 753, 141974, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141974.
Sadiq, R. & Husain, T. (2005). A fuzzy-based methodology for an aggregative environmental risk as-sessment: a case study of drilling waste. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20 (1), 33-46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2003.12.007.
Njuguna, J., Siddique, S., Kwroffie, L. Bakah, S., Addae-Afoakwa, K., Ekeh-Adegbotolu, U. & Oluyemi, G. (2022). The fate of waste drilling fluids from oil & gas industry activities in the exploration and pro-duction operations. Waste Management, 139, 362-380, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.12.025.
Kraynyukov, O. M. & Kryvytska, I. A. (2023). Technology of local cleaning of the liquid fraction of drilling mud from specific pollutants. International Scientific Journal "Internauka", 3. 90-92. https://doi.org/10.25313/2520-2057-2023-3-8617
Kraynyukov, O.M., Kryvytska, I.A. & Kraynyukov, O.O. (2020). Evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of modern drilling mud detoxification technologies. International scientific journal "Internauka", 16, 9-11.
Khanpour, R., Sheikhi-Kouhsar, M.R., Esmaeilzadeh, F., & Mowla, D. (2014). Removal of contaminants from polluted drilling mud using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 88, 1-7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2014.01.004.
Elnenay, M., Nassef, E., Farouk, G. & Abdel Magid, M. (2017). Treatment of drilling fluids wastewater by electrocoagulation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 26(1), 203-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2016.03.005.
Pereira, Laine B., Sad, Cristina M.S., Rayane, Mayara da Silva, Corona, R.B. & Lacerda V. (2019). Oil recovery from water-based drilling fluid waste. Fuel, 237, 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.10.007.
Guo, B., Zhang, S., Xu, X., Gao, B., Li, Q. & Yue, Q. (2023). An enhanced coagulation using ferric chlo-ride and poly-ferric chloride coagulant assisted by polyamidine: Performance and mechanisms. Chi-nese Chemical Letters, 108379, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2023.108379
DSTU 4173-2003. (2004). Water quality. Determination of acute lethal toxicity to Daphnia magna Straus and Ceriodaphnia affinis Lilljeborg (Cladocera, Crustacea) (ISO 6341:1996, MOD). Kyiv: Derzhspozhivstandard of Ukraine, (In Ukrainian)
Kraynyukova, A. M., Kraynyukov, O. M., & Kryvytska, I. A. (2021). The use of biotesting techniques to assess the ecological status of surface waters. Bulletin of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series "Ecology", 24, 103-116. https://doi.org/10.26565/1992-4259-2021-24-09 (In Ukrainian)
Ablieieva, I.Y. (2020). Assessment of environmental safety of solid phase of drilling sludge after centrifusion separation. Scientific and technical journal «Technogenic and Ecological Safety», 8, 3–11. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4300735.
Adamenko, Y.O., Kundelska, T.V., & Nikolyk, M.M. (2005). Assessment of the impact of the development of oil and gas condensate deposits on the environment. Еxploration and development of oil and gas deposits. 3(16), 53-58. (In Ukrainian)
Copyright (c) 2023 Krainiukov O. M., Kryvytska I. A., Zhytnetskyi I. V.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication of this work under the terms of a license Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.