Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series Еcоlogy <p><span lang="en"><span title="У віснику надаються результати теоретичних та прикладних досліджень у галузі екології, неоекології, екологічної безпеки, охорони навколишнього середовища та збалансованого природокористування. ">The Karazin University Journal of Еcоlogy provides the results of theoretical and applied scientific research in the field of ecology, geography, biology, environmental safety, environmental protection and sustainable use of nature.</span></span></p> <p>Priority is given to finding new ways for solution of existing environmental problems and identification of the best international practices, as well as issues of environmental management, medical-environmental researches, innovative research in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, human ecology, plant and animal physiology, constructive geography, ecology and sustainable environmental management. The issues of development and methodological researches in national higher education for geographic, biological and environmental sciences are presented.</p> <p>&nbsp;<span id="result_box" lang="en"><span title="Викладаються питання організації та методологічних досліджень національної вищої екологічної та природоохоронної освіти. "><span id="result_box" lang="en"><span title="Призначення: Для науковців і фахівців у галузі екології, охорони навколишнього середовища та раціонального природокористування ">For scientists and specialists in the field of ecology, <span title="У віснику надаються результати теоретичних та прикладних досліджень у галузі екології, неоекології, екологічної безпеки, охорони навколишнього середовища та збалансованого природокористування. ">geography, biology, </span>environment protection and rational use of nature.</span></span></span></span></p> <p>The journal is included in the List of scientific professional editions of Ukraine, in which the results of theses and dissertations for the scientific degrees of the Doctor and the Candidate in Geographical Sciences may be published.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication&nbsp;of this work under the terms of a license <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License&nbsp;4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> (Крайнюков Олексій Миколайович (Krainiukov Oleksiy M.)) (Баскакова Людмила Валентинівна (Baskakova Ludmila V.)) Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Air temperature change manifestation at the Zhytomyr territory <p>The territory of cities with a changing environment, a significant density of population, industrial and transport facilities, daily activities that ensure its vital activity and cause significant greenhouse gas emissions, causes a significant contribution to climate change, which is one of the most acute environmental problems of our time.</p> <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To assess the manifestations of air temperature changes in the city of Zhytomyr for the period 2000-2022.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Statistical, the coefficient of deviation essentiality of air temperature from the average long-term values was calculated in accordance with the methodology of Pede D.A. .</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The information base of the research was the data on average annual and average monthly air temperatures in Zhytomyr of the Zhytomyr Regional Centre for Hydrometeorology. It was determined that in the period 2000–2022, the air temperature in the city increased by 1.9 °C compared to the climatic norm. 2015, 2019, and 2020 were the warmest during the period of our observations. Based on the calculation of the coefficients of of deviation essentiality of air temperature deviations from long-term average values, it was determined that for individual months of the year for the period 2000–2022, 2.9% of recorded conditions were close to extreme, and 31.9% – recorded conditions that differ significantly from the perennial average, the remaining 65.2% have conditions close to normal. According to the years of observation, temperature conditions that are significantly different from the long-term average occurred in 2002, 2007, 2008, 2015-2020, close to normal - during the rest of the years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The obtained results are important for understanding the problem of increasing air temperature in Zhytomyr and developing measures to adapt to climate change at the local level.</p> L. O. Herasymchuk, R. A. Valerko, I. G. Patseva Copyright (c) 2023 Herasymchuk, L. O., Valerko, Р. A., Patseva, I. G. Sat, 09 Dec 2023 17:37:24 +0000 Hydrochemical analysis of surface water quality dynamics in the Oskil river <p>Purpose. Hydrochemical analysis of the dynamics of changes in the quality of surface waters of the Oskil River.</p> <p>Methods. Comparison of hydrochemical indicators with norms of maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). To determine the water quality criterion, the MPC for fisheries reservoirs was taken. The general assessment of water quality is determined by the following methods: water pollution index (WPI), modified WPI and specific combinatorial water pollution index (WPI).</p> <p>Results Based on the water pollution index, it was determined that the river corresponds to the category "very clean" to "moderately polluted". The water pollution index of the Oskil River indicates that the upper course corresponds to the II class "clean", but near the city of Kupyansk the water quality deteriorates to the III class "moderately polluted", and further downstream it again becomes the II class "clean".. According to the methodology specific combinatory water pollution index, the river water is rated from "very clean" to "moderately polluted". The pH in the water varied from 6.08 to 9.27. The total water hardness varied between 10.0 and 2.8 mmol/dm3. The oxygen level indicates an acceptable water condition in most areas. Compounds, the concentration of which most often exceeds the MPC for all observation posts, are: chromium 6+, manganese, copper, petroleum products. Other compounds may also exceed the MAC in some posts and observation years, including total iron, sulfates, zinc 2+ , nitrites, cobalt, phenols, and BSC5.</p> <p>Conclusions. Significant variations in the concentrations of chemical elements in different areas were found in the water quality of the Oskil River. Index of water pollution of the Oskil River according to the calculations of the IZV mod. shows that in most cases for all years of observation, the river corresponds to the III class "moderately polluted". The change in the KIZ indicator along the Oskil River shows that the level of pollution of the river is low along its entire length and it mostly remains under the influence of insignificant anthropogenic influence.</p> O. V. Biryukov Copyright (c) 2023 Biryukov O. V. Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Current priorities of monitoring research of roadside ecosystems (on the example of highways of the Cherkask region). <p>Implementation of priorities of ecosystem dynamics during monitoring of roadside landscapes determines the role of a buffer between, mainly, agricultural land and the road surface.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>&nbsp;Using monitoring methods to investigate the modern ecosystem dynamics of roadside landscapes.</p> <p><strong>Methods.&nbsp;</strong>Measurement of the level of noise, dustiness, radiation background with special devices, photography of vegetation and traces of the presence of fauna with further interpretation of the photographs. The results of the chemical analysis of soils were carried out by the ICP-OES method on the iCAP6500DUO device.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Monitoring researches were carried out by route advance by car, first from the village of Sychivka (on the border with the Vinnytsia region) to the east to the city of Cherkasy and in the opposite direction to the city of Uman. A total of 8 stops were made for the relevant measurements and sampling. The intensity of the noise load increased around large settlements (Uman, Smila, Cherkasy), and on intermediate sections of the highway, where vehicles could develop high speeds. The dependence of dustiness on the total carrying capacity of vehicles was determined. The radiation background for all polygons corresponded to the background values. Chemical analysis of soil samples directly near the track and at a distance of 25-30 m from it determined a close dependence on the distance. A generalization of various parameters of the current state of roadside ecosystems is made. In particular, the recording of various types of ruderal plants made it possible to draw a diagram of the degree of completion of the formation of roadside ecosystems.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;After the construction of the road surface, over a certain period of time, plant and animal communities are formed along it, which later show signs of ecosystem dynamics</p> S. P. Ogilko Copyright (c) 2023 Ogilko S. P. Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Geoecological assessment of forest landscapes as a basis for the evaluation of ecosystem services <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To study the use of geoecological assessment of forest landscapes as a basis for the assessment of ecosystem services to take into account the natural and anthropogenic conditions of their functioning.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The results of the geoecological assessment were translated into indicators of ecosystem services: provision and regulation.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The geoecological assessment of forest landscapes was carried out on a model plot of the Vasyshchivske Forestry of Kharkiv Region, as representative for all forest landscapes of Kharkiv Region - watershed, valley, and beam-thrust. On the basis of the previously conducted geoecological assessment of the forest landscapes of the model area by the means of landscape and ecological planning, the indicator of the amount of ecosystem services to provide for medieval stands by species composition per 1 ha was determined. Thus, on the basis of the Analytical Portal of the state wood accounting system, it was determined that for 2022, the average value of wood by species composition for the Kharkiv region was determined. Thus, the value of the ecosystem service for providing wood is about 604.5 million hryvnias. In terms of unit area (1 ha), the indicator of the ecosystem service will be UAH 13,247/ha. The indicator of the value of ecosystem services for regulation, in particular of the carbon capacity for the model plot, was determined for medieval stands by species composition per 1 ha.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The proposed use of geoecological assessment based on the landscape-ecological approach provides an opportunity to take into account landscape conditions, the impact of anthropogenic activity, as well as the results of management decisions in nature management.</p> N. V. Maksymenko , V. O. Voronin, S. V. Burchenko Copyright (c) 2023 Maksymenko, N. V., Voronin, V. O., & Burchenko, S. V. Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fire classification in natural ecosystems by physical and environmental characteristics <p>To qualitatively and quantitatively characterize and classify the intensity of forest fires and their environmental consequences, it is necessary to develop a special scale similar to the scale of wind strength, sea storms, earthquakes, geomagnetic storms, etc.</p> <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To describe the scales developed for the classification of forest fires according to various parameters characterizing physicochemical processes, environmental consequences and the level of danger from pyrogenic factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> System analysis, multifactorial analysis, mathematical modeling.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> A seven-magnitude scale for classifying forest fires by intensity, energy characteristics, mass of emissions of the main combustion products and related chemical elements, as well as by environmental consequences and hazard level is proposed. It is substantiated that with moderate and weak winds, the intensity and energy of forest fires in Ukraine usually do not exceed 4-5 magnitudes, i.e., a moderate or high level. Fires of this level occurred, for example, in the spring, summer, and fall of 2020 in a number of regions of Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The developed special scales for classifying forest fires according to various parameters are an effective tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the intensity of forest fires and their environmental consequences. The obtained results can also be used to assess environmental impacts, material damage and social losses.</p> L. F. Chernogor, A. N. Nekos, G. V. Titenko , L. L. Chornohor Copyright (c) 2023 Chernogor L. F., Nekos A. N., Titenko G. V., Chornohor L. L. Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Monitoring organisation and forecasting of crisis situations <p><strong>Purpose</strong><strong>. </strong>Scientific substantiation of theoretical foundations and provision of practical recommendations for improving the system of crisis monitoring, assessment of its actual and predicted state; deterioration of living conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Based on the use of general scientific and special methods of cognition. The hypothetical and deductive method was used to reveal the content and essence of the concept of "crisis monitoring". The method of structural and functional analysis is used to identify current trends in the preparation, planning and implementation of measures related to the improvement of crisis monitoring. The method of generalisation and comparison is used to assess the current state of the crisis monitoring system, to evaluate its actual and forecasted state; deterioration of people's living conditions.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The article shows that emergency and crisis situations are an integral part of the social system. The author analyses the scientific heritage and legislation, which makes it possible to conclude that a crisis situation, critical situation, crisis, emergency situation are the defining properties of these systems and are the result of the action of factors. The author establishes that emergency and crisis situations develop in time and space and allow identifying certain stages at which crisis situations may arise.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The consequences of emergency and crisis situations are always negative, but there is a direct and inverse relationship between crisis and emergency situations.</p> L. I. Demchuk, I. G. Patseva Copyright (c) 2023 Демчук Л. І., Пацева І. Г. Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the effect of heavy metals on the imbalance of growth processes <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>To determine the phytotoxic properties of model solutions of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu) on the growth of roots and sprouts of the test plants of oats <em>Avena sativa</em> L. as a representative of monocotyledonous cereals and radish <em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. as a representative of dicotyledonous broad-leaved plants.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Statistical, model solutions, test plants, biotesting.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>As a result of phytotoxicity of model solutions of heavy metals Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu on <em>Avena sativa</em> L. test plants, it was established that there is no imbalance of growth processes when using solutions with concentrations of 1 MPC and 5 MPC. With an increase in the concentration of model solutions, there is a gradual inhibition of the growth of sprouts and especially the roots of the test objects. The most toxic effect on the test object, according to the research results, was caused by Cd - a phytotoxic effect from weak to strong was observed under the influence of different concentrations of model solutions. Experimental determination of the phytotoxic properties of model solutions of heavy metals Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu on test plants <em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. showed that the imbalance of growth processes is absent only when using solutions with concentrations of 1 MPC and 5 MPC Cu, i.e. practically without exceeding the regulatory requirements for soil quality. Model solutions of Cd and Cu 40 MPC had the highest degree of imbalance in the growth processes of the test plants <em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. – strong for the experimental study we conducted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Biodiagnostics using <em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. test plants revealed signs of toxic effects where<em> Avena sativa</em> L. test plants did not experience inhibition, or the determined phytotoxic properties of the model solutions were lower, which is determined by the imbalance of growth processes. The above-mentioned discrepancies between the results of biodiagnostics of model solutions with the help of different test cultures make it possible to assert that it is necessary to introduce a comprehensive indicator for determining the phytotoxic properties of the studied samples, with the help of which it is possible to level such discrepancies.</p> O. M. Krainiukov, I. A. Kryvytska, O. E. Naidonova Copyright (c) 2023 Крайнюков О. М., Кривицька І. А., Найдьонова О. Є. Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000