Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University series «Еcоlogy» 2023-05-01T12:30:00+00:00 Крайнюков Олексій Миколайович (Krainiukov Oleksiy M.) Open Journal Systems <p><span lang="en"><span title="У віснику надаються результати теоретичних та прикладних досліджень у галузі екології, неоекології, екологічної безпеки, охорони навколишнього середовища та збалансованого природокористування. ">The Karazin University Journal of Еcоlogy provides the results of theoretical and applied scientific research in the field of ecology, geography, biology, environmental safety, environmental protection and sustainable use of nature.</span></span></p> <p>Priority is given to finding new ways for solution of existing environmental problems and identification of the best international practices, as well as issues of environmental management, medical-environmental researches, innovative research in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, human ecology, plant and animal physiology, constructive geography, ecology and sustainable environmental management. The issues of development and methodological researches in national higher education for geographic, biological and environmental sciences are presented.</p> <p>&nbsp;<span id="result_box" lang="en"><span title="Викладаються питання організації та методологічних досліджень національної вищої екологічної та природоохоронної освіти. "><span id="result_box" lang="en"><span title="Призначення: Для науковців і фахівців у галузі екології, охорони навколишнього середовища та раціонального природокористування ">For scientists and specialists in the field of ecology, <span title="У віснику надаються результати теоретичних та прикладних досліджень у галузі екології, неоекології, екологічної безпеки, охорони навколишнього середовища та збалансованого природокористування. ">geography, biology, </span>environment protection and rational use of nature.</span></span></span></span></p> <p>The journal is included in the List of scientific professional editions of Ukraine, in which the results of theses and dissertations for the scientific degrees of the Doctor and the Candidate in Geographical Sciences may be published.</p> Entropy approach to assessment of the ecological state of a water course 2023-05-01T12:24:58+00:00 V. L. Bezsonnyi O. V. Tretyakov L. D. Plyatsuk A. N. Nekos <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. Water quality assessment of the Dnipro Reservoir using the entropy index.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Analytical-synthetic method, geo-informational (cartographic modeling), analysis of information sources, entropy analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. It was established that the water does not meet the upper limit of the 1st quality class according to DSTU 4808:2007 by all parameters except BOD<sub>5</sub>, COD and suspended matter. There is a decrease in the level of BOD<sub>5</sub> at posts in the city of Dnipro, which indicates the entry into the watercourse of substances that inhibit biochemical processes (t4 and t5) and a gradual increase of this indicator at the exit from the city and further downstream, which indicates the entry of organic substances. The oxygen content decreases in the part of the watercourse located in the city (t4 - t6) and increases in the middle and lower part of the reservoir. There is also a trend of growth of sulfates, nitrogen compounds, phosphates, SPAR and COD for control points located within the city of Dnipro. The highest values of the entropy index of water quality are characteristic of points t2 (0.5444), t7 (0.6264) and t8 (0.5322). These control points are located at a considerable distance from industrial centers, so pollution caused by agricultural production probably plays a decisive role in the formation of water quality. The lowest value of the index (0.3889) is characteristic of item t1 - s. Shulgivka, after GVK Dnipro-Donbas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. It was established that the main water pollutants are nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and suspended solids. It can cause a negative impact on health due to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, and also accelerates the eutrophication of the water body. A negative impact of agro-industrial production on the ecological condition of the Dnieper Reservoir is observed. The value of the entropy index of water quality ranges from 0.3889 to 0.6264.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bezsonnyi V. L., Tretyakov O. V., Plyatsuk L. D., Nekos A. N. Assessment of the drinking water quality from natural sources in the Kharkiv city 2023-05-01T12:25:39+00:00 A. A. Lisnyak M. I. Kulyuk <p>Improving the reliability and quality of the population's drinking water supply is one of the primary social problems, since the health of the population largely depends on the level of safety of drinking water.</p> <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To determine the composition of spring drinking water consumed by residents of different districts of the city of Kharkiv and to compare the assessment of the quality of drinking water from different natural sources.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Field, laboratory-analytical, statistical.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Water samples from 5 natural springs in the city of Kharkiv, from which the population collects water for drinking purposes, were studied. It was determined that according to the organoleptic indicators, no excesses of the normative values are observed, the pH almost does not change seasonally, with the exception of the sample from the "Nemyshlianske" source. The analysis of total alkalinity in the autumn period showed that the standard was exceeded only in samples of the source of the Yunist park and along the street. Klochkivska, and in the spring period - only in the sample of the source on the street. Klochkivska. The total hardness in the samples ranges from 4.9 to 8.04 mmol/dm3 in the autumn period, and from 6.6 to 10.4 mmol/dm3 in the spring period. Excesses in chloride content are not observed in any of the investigated water samples. The iron content exceeds the MPC level only in water samples from the Nemyshlianske spring. The content of aluminum, zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, ammonia and nitrites in the samples is significantly below the MPC level, and almost does not change by season.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The formation of the general quality class of water samples from natural sources is significantly influenced by the high level of total alkalinity, total hardness, and iron content in some sources of non-centralized water supply. According to the integral ecological index of water samples in the autumn period from natural sources "Nemyshlyanske", Park "Yunist" and along the street. Klochkivska belongs to the II quality class, i.e. pure water. The integrated ecological index for all other water samples in the autumn period assigns these sources to the I class of water quality - very clean. The calculation of the integral ecological index for water samples from all natural sources in the spring period refers them to the II quality class.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lisnyak A. A., Kulyuk M. I. National participant geospatial information system in urban planning 2023-03-17T18:09:08+00:00 Mahdi Fallah Tajoddin Karami Moosa Kamanroodi Kojouri <p><strong>Puporse.</strong><strong> &nbsp;</strong>The title of air-space in the spatial part is not just a noun, but it is quite effective in determining its conditions. National Participant using new spatial information system including software, hardware in synchronous and asynchronous environments. Also, explaining the role of the National Collaborative Spatial Information System in the effectiveness of urban planning</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Introducing the national software in the process of participation along with the spatial information system. Statistical analysis along with interpretations based on statistics, especially Spearman's correlation. Also Using all the criteria and factors that have been used so far to participate with GIS in a spatial and non-spatial way.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> There are short discussion related to the formation of the software, the formation of the environment and hardware and all the existing criteria, and then the evaluation process, proposed for the participation-oriented information system, continues. The methods are discussed and then the discussion related to the case study and evaluation of the usability of the participatory spatial information system and requirements engineering as a support tool for participatory planning in the municipality was discussed. In the end, statistical analysis along with interpretations based on statistics, especially Spearman's correlation, are discussed and demonstrated. The reason for the topic of decision-making is based on statistical analysis, not just comparing decision-making with analysis, because sudden decisions like early humans are usually made in natural events and away from dangers and the like. This issue has not been seen in any dispute so far. In the following, we realized that the time factor and then being on time are the most important factors along with the economic criterion. Although planners were expected to be decisive, the results showed otherwise. In practice, it was proved that the basis of software, mathematical and statistical analysis decisions of the groups is the reason for the rise of the economic standard, along with the time factors, which are very necessary in improving the participation with GIS. The role of the power and wealth layer is still colorful and unlike the priorities, the fastest and most dominant decisions are made by this. in this study Time is a decisive factor.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Based on the results obtained and due to the misleading nature of the time issue, it cannot be managed, and people should not worry about time management, because they lose their focus. Therefore, they should manage their concentration and be focused in the moment. It is only in this way that one can use the time effectively and continue the desired activity. Finally, by programming and creating collaborative decision-making in asynchronous and synchronous environments, NPGIS is introduced in an organizational form.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fallah M., Karami T., Kojouri M. K., Mathematical models for estimate of the ecological consequences of the impact of the pyrogenic factor on forest ecosystems 2023-05-01T12:26:57+00:00 L. F. Chernogor A. N. Nekos G. V. Titenko L. L. Chornohor <p>There is a need for the development of simple analytical mathematical models of the burning of large forest areas, necessary for the assessment of the ecological consequences of the impact of the pyrogenic factor.</p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>Develop mathematical models describing the spread of large-scale forest fires aimed at estimate the ecological consequences of the impact of the pyrogenic factor.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Analytical review of research on the problem, theoretical and computational, mathematical modeling.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results of the main parameters analysis of large forest areas combustion are presented. These include the area covered by the fire, the duration of the fire, the burnout time, the specific mass of combustible materials, the energy and power of combustion, the specific calorific value, the intensity of combustion, the movement speed of the combustion front, the influx of combustible materials, etc. Simple analytical mathematical models of large forest areas combustion have been established. These include the following models: a model with a constant growth rate of the fire area, a two-dimensional model, a model with sectorial movement of the combustion front, a model with a linear growth of the length of the combustion front, a model with a quadratic growth of the change rate of the fire area, and a generalized model. A new fire intensity classification has been proposed, containing 1–7 points from extremely low to extreme intensity. The maximum area covered by the fire (10–100 thousand km<sup>2</sup>), combustion energy (1–10 EJ) and combustion power (0.1–1 PW) have been estimated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Simple analytical mathematical models of the combustion process of large forest surface areas, which are necessary for quantitative assessment of the ecological consequences of fires, have been developed.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Chernogor L. F., Nekos A. N., Titenko G. V., Chornohor L. L. Post-pyrogenic transformation of biogeochemical properties of grey forest soils under technological load 2023-05-01T12:27:45+00:00 Y. V. Buts O. V. Kraynyuk P. I. Lotsman Y. M. Senchykhin <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. Detection of post-pyrogenic transformation of biogeochemical properties of soils in pine forests of the Kharkiv region under technogenic loading.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Determination of the pH of the water extract by the potentiometric method, the content of humus and gross nitrogen according to the Tyurin method, the granulometric composition according to Kachynskyi, the mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium according to Machigin. The content of mobile forms of heavy metals was determined by the atomic absorption method.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> There is a certain dependence of the post-pyrogenic transformation on the age of fire impact on the soil. Relatively recent consequences of a fire of medium intensity on the soil were marked by a clear reaction of the complex of their properties. Physical-chemical properties of soils in the post-fire period deteriorate due to a significant decrease in the amount of nutrients in the soil: humus burns, nitrate nitrogen content decreases. The acid-alkaline reaction according to the pH index in the soils affected by fires shifts to neutral, which should be explained by the saturation of the absorbing complex of soils with alkaline earth elements. Forest lowland fires significantly transform the morphological appearance of the upper part of the soil profile. Under the influence of fires, there are changes in pH, the content of exchangeable cations, gross and mobile forms of nitrogen, etc. The behavior and content of heavy metals in the forest floor is determined, in addition to the effect of fire and the geochemical state of the region, the speed of water migration and biological absorption, and the topography of the area. The concentration of heavy metals in the surface horizons of the soils of pine forests increases several times and exceeds the background concentrations as a result of the mineralization of the forest floor and grassy vegetation from combustion and subsequent migration of chemical elements.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> As a result, the surface horizons of soils change, in particular, a new pyrogenic horizon is formed, which differs in a certain way from natural analogues. Fires, on the one hand, improve the conditions for seed penetration into the soil, but worsen the conditions for the germination, growth and development of coniferous tree species. The concentration of heavy metals in the surface horizons of pine forest soils is an ecological hazard. Further research on the transformation of soil properties under the influence of pyrogenic factors is of significant theoretical and practical importance in the development of scientific approaches to the restoration of ecosystems in the post-fire stage of development.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Buts Y. V., Krainiuk O. V., Lotsman P. I., Senchykhin Y. M. Assessment of the prospects of creating new forests in Ternopil region 2023-05-01T12:28:33+00:00 L. P. Tsaryk Y. V. Smerechynskyi <p>Modern globalization processes, both in Ukraine and around the world, are leading to the increasing use of natural resources, including forests. That is why there is a question of assessing the restoration and increase of forest areas, which will ensure sustainable forest development.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong> of the work is to evaluate the creation of forest resources within the Ternopil region and propose their optimization.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Descriptive, statistical,&nbsp; comparative-geographical, analysis and optimization modeling.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The Ternopil region is one of the sparsely forested regions of Ukraine. Forestry enterprises of the region create new forests in the areas available for afforestation in the course of implementation of forestry management programs of the region, but the main limiting factor is the availability of land plots to meet the needs of afforestation. In order to optimize the process of increasing forested land, it is necessary to afforest lands unsuitable for agricultural production and to transfer self-forested lands to forestry enterprises. However, one of the obstacles to the transfer of land for the use of forestry enterprises is the reluctance to lose valuable assets in the form of land, and the vague prospect of receiving dividends. The state forestry enterprises of the region submitted applications to the city, village and village councils for the allocation of land plots, only some positive responses were received. It is also worth mentioning the problem &nbsp;of collective farm forests, which are currently not provided for use by forestry enterprises of the region and within which neither protection nor use of forest resources is carried out. The main problem for such forests is their transfer for permanent use to state or communal forestry enterprises, or communal enterprises with created specialized forestry units. Therefore, the optimal way out of such a situation can be considered the creation of communal forestry enterprises in territorial communities of the region, which would have the opportunity to gradually create new forests on such a basis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Thus, the identified problems and trends and problems of meeting the needs of the region in forests and achieving the optimal indicator of forest cover of the region allowed to open an alternative way to solve this problem on the basis of direct managers of potential land plots that can be afforested.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tsaryk L. P., Smerechynskyi Y. V. Biotic homogenization of dendroflora in the conditions of the megapolis (Dnipro, Ukraine) 2023-05-01T12:30:00+00:00 M. V., Shamray O. O. Didur <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> Biodiversity assessment and clarification of the trend towards homogenization of the dendroflora of the Shevchenko Park (Dnipro, Ukraine).</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Floristic methods of research are applied - elucidation of the taxonomic composition and selection of the adventitious fraction of dendroflora, methods of species richness assessment (according to the Menkhinik index and Margalef index), determination of floristic commonality (according to the Jaccard index) and floristic homogeneity (according to the Koch index of biotic dispersion), methods of ecological analysis (by biomorphs and ecomorphs), physical, physicochemical, chemical methods of soil analysis, soil biological activity, statistical methods of data processing (descriptive statistics and correlation analysis).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>.</strong> It was established that artificial stands of trees in the Shevchenko Park are capable of forming a sufficient amount of viable undergrowth of autochthonous and introduced (adventurous) species, the ratio of which is 37.0% to 63.0%. The amount of tree growth of adventive sites in the areas according to the level of recreational load is distributed as follows: with no load - 38.5% of the number of self-regenerating trees, with moderate - 68.2%, with strong - 80.5%. The indexes of species richness of Margalef and Menkhinik of self-regenerating tree species for the site with a strong recreational load turned out to be the largest (due to adventitious species) compared to the sites with no and moderate recreational load. Koch index of biotic dispersion is 50.0%. Correlation coefficients between the number of allochthonous and autochthonous tree species that have self-regenerated for the studied areas with strong, moderate and no recreational load are statistically significant (0.73, 0.76, 0.77 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>. </strong>On the territory of the investigated areas of the park, there are 14 tree species capable of seed self-regeneration, which taxonomically belong to 12 genera and 10 families. Of them, 9 adventive species were registered, represented by 9 genera and 7 families with the leading family Sapindaceae. The calculated index of biotic dispersion testifies to the presence of a process of floristic homogenization of the forest stand on the territory of the park. As part of the adventitious fraction of the self-regenerating dendroflora, there is an increased invasion of <em>Ailanthus altissima</em> and the occurrence of such neophyte species as <em>Celtis occidentalis</em> and <em>Acer negundo</em>, which indicates the penetration of alien species into the local flora and a potential threat to natural floristic diversity.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shamray M. V., Didur O. O. Regarding the publication of a collective monograph under the project of the International Vysegrad Fund 2023-05-01T12:29:17+00:00 N. V. Maksymenko A. D. Shkaruba <p>The team of scientists from Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Estonia in the framework of the International Visegrad Fund project «Green &amp; Blue Infrastructure in Post-USSR Cities: exploring legacies and connecting to V4 experience» implemented in the Karazin Institute of Environmental Sciences, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University was prepared a Collective monograph with the same title.</p> <p>Authors explored the ways V4 countries have coped with institutional and infrastructural legacies related to Green &amp; Blue infrastructure in cities, have analysed relevant knowledge production and governance situations in Ukraine, have come up with critical reflections and policy recommendations, and have written this monograph for dissemination of findings to a broad range of national and international stakeholder groups.</p> <p>All authors with excellent expertise in a full range of issues related to the GBI development and management. They are fully qualified to explore the ways V4 countries coped with institutional and infrastructural legacies related to Green &amp; Blue infrastructure in cities, to run research for making analysis of the relevant knowledge for production and governance of various situations in Ukraine, to develop critical reflections and policy recommendations.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maksymenko N. V., Shkaruba A. D.