Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University series «Еcоlogy» 2023-09-25T07:40:48+00:00 Крайнюков Олексій Миколайович (Krainiukov Oleksiy M.) Open Journal Systems <p><span lang="en"><span title="У віснику надаються результати теоретичних та прикладних досліджень у галузі екології, неоекології, екологічної безпеки, охорони навколишнього середовища та збалансованого природокористування. ">The Karazin University Journal of Еcоlogy provides the results of theoretical and applied scientific research in the field of ecology, geography, biology, environmental safety, environmental protection and sustainable use of nature.</span></span></p> <p>Priority is given to finding new ways for solution of existing environmental problems and identification of the best international practices, as well as issues of environmental management, medical-environmental researches, innovative research in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, human ecology, plant and animal physiology, constructive geography, ecology and sustainable environmental management. The issues of development and methodological researches in national higher education for geographic, biological and environmental sciences are presented.</p> <p>&nbsp;<span id="result_box" lang="en"><span title="Викладаються питання організації та методологічних досліджень національної вищої екологічної та природоохоронної освіти. "><span id="result_box" lang="en"><span title="Призначення: Для науковців і фахівців у галузі екології, охорони навколишнього середовища та раціонального природокористування ">For scientists and specialists in the field of ecology, <span title="У віснику надаються результати теоретичних та прикладних досліджень у галузі екології, неоекології, екологічної безпеки, охорони навколишнього середовища та збалансованого природокористування. ">geography, biology, </span>environment protection and rational use of nature.</span></span></span></span></p> <p>The journal is included in the List of scientific professional editions of Ukraine, in which the results of theses and dissertations for the scientific degrees of the Doctor and the Candidate in Geographical Sciences may be published.</p> Natural and historical aspects of the environmental monitoring in the city of Lviv 2023-07-27T09:22:00+00:00 M. M. Nazaruk O. V. Bota <p>Purpose. To study the natural-historical aspects of the organization of monitoring the components of the natural environment in the territory of the city of Lviv, to identify the peculiarities of its organiza-tion at different historical stages of the functioning of the urban system, to highlight the specifics of the organization of environmental monitoring in modern conditions.<br>Results Regular meteorological observations with the help of instruments began in Lviv in 1811, and observations and descriptions of the city's vegetation were carried out in the 1950s. Ya. Lagner. In 1944, the Department of Hydrometeorological Service of the Carpathian Military District was organized in Lviv. It included: weather bureau, group of hydrological forecasts, group of restoration of the network of stations. At the beginning of 1946, on the basis of this department, a hydrometeorological office was creat-ed, which since 1959 functioned as a hydrometeorological observatory (HMO) with groups: meteorologi-cal, hydrological forecasts and agrometeorological. In 1964, the Lviv Aerological Station became part of the GMO under the authority of the Aerology Department. Old, historical Lviv was located in the middle of large forests, had many streams, brooks, as well as rich flora. Such diversity is determined by the geo-graphical location, the history of the formation of the relief and climatic conditions in previous geological periods. The study of the landscape-natural primary basis in comparison with the built-up areas leads to the demarcation of the urban environment based on belonging to a certain type of natural landscape and thereby determines different approaches to its transformation. Background observation points located at nature conservation facilities provide information about the state and changes in the natural environment that occur outside of human activity. A comparative analysis of similar indicators obtained in areas with different degrees of urban influence will make it possible to reveal the real state of anthropogenic changes, identify their causes, predict the further consequences of urbanization, as well as build models of such social and production systems that would be the least harmful to the environment.<br>Conclusions. Environmental monitoring in the territory of the city of Lviv has a long history. Moni-toring the state of the atmospheric air, water environment, biodiversity was and remains an important component in the issue of the quality of the urban environment and does not lose its importance. Environ-mental monitoring must be considered as an integral part of the regional management system of nature management, which must perform the target functions of continuous observation and forecasting of the main socio-ecological processes for the purpose of their analysis, identification and identification of the main factors for the preparation and adoption of management decisions.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Назарук М. М., Бота І. В. The history of research and status of study of hyperhaline Kuyalnyk Estuary geoecosystem (Ukraine, North-Western Black Sea). 2023-09-08T09:49:31+00:00 G. M. Shikhaleeva Yu. Yu. Yurchenko G. M. Kiryushkina <p>There is devoted to the comprehensive analysis of studies of one of the oldest estuaries of North-West Black Sea — the hyperhaline Kuyalnyk Estuary (an analogue of the Dead Sea in Ukraine). The interest for its study is determined by the richness of its mineral and balneological resources. The special attention attracts the valuable sulphide muds, which value, according to preliminary estimates, is about 7 billion dollars. Currently estuary is suffering from an ecological disaster: it is drying up, its morphometric characteristics are changing catastrophically (the water area surface and the depth are decreasing), the brine mineralization reaches 300 ‰ or more, and the salt from the exposed bottom of the estuary is transported to considerable distances, which threatens the salinization of agricultural lands and homesteads of coastal settlements. In that conditions the estuary loses the ability to restore its invaluable natural resources. Comprehensive information on the assessment of Kuyalnyk Estuary state and the state of its resources is extremely important for the development of measures for protection, restoration and preservation of this unique treasury of natural resources and the implementation of strategy for their rational use. We carried out a critical analysis and generalization of Kuyalnyk Estuary geoecosystem research results for the over a nearly 200-year period (1829-2020) for the first time. Here are highlighted the main stages and reflected directions of research, presented their chronology. The research and publishing activities also highlighted. The role and the work of societies members which were created at the Imperial Novorossiysk University (now the Odesa National University named after I.I. Mechnikov) in direction of research into the nature of Odesa estuaries, and in particular Kuyalnyk Estuary, its mineral and balneological resources, are discussed. The contribution of scientific organizations and scientists to development of research on the current stage also analyzed. The main attention paid to the fundamental complex research of the geo-ecosystem of Kuyalnyk Estuary. It shown that the modern period characterized by quite powerful system of data collection and intensive accumulation of knowledge about this unique reservoir. This made possible to generalize the material accumulated over these two centuries, which reflected in the work started in 2018. "Encyclopedia of Kuyalnik estuary" (in 8 volumes) was published by the Physical-Chemical Institute of Environmental and Human Protection of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.&nbsp;</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shikhaleeva H. M., Yurchenko Yu. Yu., Kiryushkina H. M. Thermodynamic approaches in the study of environmental problems 2023-09-08T11:09:47+00:00 V. L. Bezsonnyi <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. Analysis from the thermodynamic point of view of the causes of global environmental problems and the possibilities of overcoming them.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The application of the laws of thermodynamics to attempts to solve environmental problems is analyzed. The existence of life and the biosphere as a whole is determined by the flow of energy, the intensity of which per unit weight of living beings significantly exceeds the specific intensity of energy transformation in the Sun. From the second law of thermodynamics, a conclusion is made about the objectivity of environmental pollution, since the efficiency of energy transformation is always less than 100%, and is 1-50%. The remaining part of the degraded energy is the main cause of environmental pollution. The emergence of many global environmental problems is directly related to this part of energy. There is continuous exponential growth in both population and energy consumption. A critical overview of the existence and development of global environmental problems is given. The development of population growth is predicted for the current century.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Possible ways to overcome global environmental problems are discussed. The need to develop a new paradigm of human interaction with the environment is confirmed.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bezsonnyi, V. L. Features of the of the Katowice city green infrastructure: problems and prospects 2023-09-08T11:10:34+00:00 N. V. Maksymenko G. V. Titenko D. O. Aleksandrova <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To assess the provision of green infrastructure in the city of Katowice (Poland) based on the analysis of the peculiarities of its formation and spatial distribution on the territory of urban landscapes.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Historical (study of the historical path of the formation of Katowice as a modern green city), mathematical and statistical for calculating the green index of the provision of the population with green infrastructure and methods of systematization and generalization.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Katowice is a city in southern Poland, which was formed in the middle of the 19th century as a result of the development of the coal industry in the Silesian region. It now has an area of 164.73 km2 and a population of 290 thousand people. In order to level the negative consequences of the industrial depletion of urban landscapes in the city, the development of green infrastructure has been introduced, which currently makes up 42% of the city's area, which is not evenly distributed. It has been established that green infrastructure has a significant positive impact on the quality of life of residents of urbanized areas of the city of Katowice. Among the districts, Podlasie stands out - more than 300 m2/person. Murky and Paderevsky-Mukhovets - more than 250 m2/person. Shopenice-Burovets, and Brynow - Os. Zgrzebnska - more than 100 m2/person and Domb, Zarzeche and Dombruvka Mala - from 50 to 100 m2/person. These areas have a sufficient level of provision of green infrastructure for the population according to WHO norms (50 m2). But Zavodze, Zelenska and Os districts. Tysenklech (ZI less than 10 m2/person) need to take measures to increase the provision of green infrastructure to the population.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> On the basis of the calculation of the Green Index, areas that meet greening standards and areas that require the use of the latest green infrastructure development technologies (installation of vertical gardens and greening of roofs, etc.) are determined.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Maksymenko N. V., Titenko G. V., Aleksandrova D. O. Implementation of modern environmental greening trends for the student park design project 2023-09-08T11:38:55+00:00 O. O. Gololobova O. V. Nevecherya <p>Today, student parks are an integral part of student life. However, many existing parks have shortcomings and problems that do not allow them to fully satisfy the needs and interests of the student community.</p> <p>Purpose. Development of a design project of a student park taking into account modern ecological trends in landscaping, the needs and interests of the student community</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Park user surveys, peer review, spatial analysis, modeling and visualization with Realtime Landscaping Architect.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> A detailed landscape design project of the student park near the dormitory has been developed. Taking into account the basic needs of students, it is advisable to create two main functional areas of the future park: a sports area and a recreation area. The landscape design of the student park is designed and visualized as a real-time 3D landscape model. The park is designed in a regular style, where all elements are strictly geometrically located on the site, all shapes are clear and symmetrical. In the design of the future park, many plant compositions from flowering perennials are proposed</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The landscape design of the student park is an important element of student life, as it contributes to the provision of a healthy and comfortable environment for learning and active leisure, a healthy lifestyle and the formation of environmental awareness.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Gololobova О. О., Nevecherya O. V. Remote monitoring of the consequences of hostilities on the territory of the Kharkiv region 2023-09-25T07:39:06+00:00 A. B. Achasov O. Yu. Seliverstov D. V. Diadin A. O. Siedov <p>With connection with the full-scale Russian military aggression, the issue of clear spatial fixation of violations of natural complexes and their components has become extremely urgent. The consequences of projectiles and rockets, fires that arose as a result of shelling, military fortification activities, etc. led to the direct disturbance of landscapes, as well as their chemical pollution. This, in turn, has an extremely negative impact on the state of the environment and leads to indirect impacts. The quality of drinking water and crop production is deteriorating, soil fertility is decreasing, and the biodiversity of the territories is decreasing.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong><strong>.</strong> The possibilities of fixing and monitoring damage to land resources based on the use of free space images and free geoinformation software.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Space images of the Planet Scope apparatus were taken as the information basis. Viewing, uploading and analysis of images took place in the free geographic information system (GIS) QGIS 3.12</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The research was conducted on the territory of Rohan settlement united territorial community (SOTG), which is located in the Kharkiv district of the Kharkiv region. According to the method of monitoring natural and agricultural land, deciphering data from space images shows that in 2022, 916 explosions were formed as a result of shelling of the territory of Rohansk SOTG. A set of maps related to the explosive danger and chemical contamination of the territory of the Rohansk SOTG was created, the decoding of space images of the territory of the Rogansk SOTG in different periods of time was carried out. Following the monitoring of agricultural lands, traces of bomb-trubbing were recorded. Maps of the results of recording the effects of bombing, a thermal map of the density of eddies, a map of the hydrological analysis of the territory that may be polluted as a result of bombing have been created.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The methodology for monitoring natural and agricultural lands based on space survey data was developed. The created set of maps related to the explosive danger and chemical pollution of the territory of Rohansk SOTG can be used for planning further studies of the state of the environment and rationalization of economic activity.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Achasov А. B. , Seliverstov О. Yu., Diadin D. V., Siedov А. О. Toxicological assessment of drilling wastewater treatment quality 2023-09-08T11:12:27+00:00 O. M. Krainiukov I. A. Kryvytska I. V. Zhytnetskyi <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>To determine the optimal combination and consumption of coagulants and flocculants in the treatment of drilling wastewater, followed by determination of the acute lethal toxicity of the obtained illuminated liquid phase.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Primary clarification of the liquid phase of drilling waste was carried out by the method of chemical coagulation using the organic coagulants "Magnafloc" and "ECOFLOC" as a coagulant. In case of insufficient degree of purification of drilling wastewater by coagulation method, an additional method of purification with Zetag 8180 flocculants and cellulose gum was used. After the cleaning process, a toxicological analysis of drilling wastewater was carried out using the biotesting method to determine the acute lethal toxicity of the water on the crustacean <em>Ceriodaphnia affinis</em> Lilljeborg.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> In the process of experimental research, a number of experiments were conducted to determine the optimal consumption of coagulants and flocculant for the treatment of drilling wastewater, followed by the determination of the acute lethal toxicity of the obtained illuminated liquid phase of drilling water. First, combinations of «Magnafloc» coagulant and Zetag 8180 flocculant were tested. The conducted studies showed that the most effective cleaning occurs during the primary clarification of the liquid phase of drilling waste by the method of chemical coagulation using the organic coagulant «Magnafloc» and additionally the flocculant Zetag 8180 in concentrations of 1.2 g/dm<sup>3</sup> and 1 kg/m3, respectively. When using these chemical reagents in the above-mentioned concentrations, the 2nd level of acute lethal toxicity was determined in purified drilling wastewater (water is slightly toxic). The following experimental studies were conducted in order to identify the most effective combination of coagulant «ECOFLOC» and flocculant cellulose gum. According to the results of the conducted research, it was established that the most effective cleaning occurs during the primary clarification of the liquid phase of drilling waste by the chemical coagulation method using the coagulant «ECOFLOC» and the flocculant - cellulose gum in concentrations of 1.2 g/dm<sup>3</sup> and 1.3 kg/m<sup>3</sup>, respectively. When using these chemical reagents in the above-mentioned concentrations, the 2nd level of acute lethal toxicity was determined in the purified drilling wastewater (the water is slightly toxic).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. In general, it should be noted that such wastewater requires more thorough treatment in case of possible discharge to water bodies, and its use is possible only in repeated technological processes of drilling. The results of biotesting must be used for screening highly toxic environmentally hazardous chemicals and controlling the toxicity of various categories of wastewater at all stages of their formation and discharges into water bodies as an integral indicator in their quality control.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Krainiukov O. M., Kryvytska I. A., Zhytnetskyi I. V. Assessment of intangible ecosystem services of the Ternopil region forests 2023-09-25T07:40:48+00:00 І. Y. Chebolda I. R. Kuzyk <p><strong>P</strong><strong>urpose.</strong> Assess the intangible ecosystem services &nbsp;of forests in the Ternopil region.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Descriptive, statistical, assess and geoenvironmental analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The article assess intangible ecosystem services forests of the Ternopil region: recreational capacity, oxygen production, carbon dioxide assimilation, greenhouse gas absorption. The region is dominated by operational forests, the average age of forests is 62 years. The main forest-forming species are oak, beech, hornbeam and ash. &nbsp;Ecologically permissible recreational capacity of forests of the Ternopil region is 824 400 people for all lands of the forest fund and 112 500 people for recreational-health forests. It is established that the average daily volume of oxygen production by forests of the region is 36,6 thousand tons, the volume of carbon dioxide assimilation – 45,8 thousand tons. Forests of Ternopil region, during the year, absorb 875 700 tons of greenhouse gases. The development of integrated use of forest resources and the expansion of the use of intangible forest resources remain priority areas for the forestry in the region.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> This area of research is promising and relevant, especially in the context of current global and regional climate change. Such studies should be detailed at the level of individual state forestry enterprises, administrative districts and territorial communities. The results of such research contribute to the monetization of forest ecosystem services and the rational management of forest ecosystems on the basis of sustainable development.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Chebolda І. Y., Kuzyk І. R. Tree cover dynamics on the socio-ecological gradient of Chernivtsi region 2023-09-08T11:15:30+00:00 A. V. Zhuk I. I. Myshiliuk <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> The differences in 20-year tree cover dynamics were analysed for the three experimental strata, which correspond to the former administrative districts and are located along the landscape socio-ecological gradient on the territory of Chernivtsi region.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>System analysis, statistical analysis, geospatial database of the Global Forest Watch service were used.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Three strata have been identified on the territory of Chernivtsi region to interpret the extremes of a socio-ecological gradient and the intermediate (transitional) zone. The tree cover dynamics was analysed on the studied strata (Traditional, Intermediate, and Intensive), which differ in terms of natural conditions, forest cover, and species composition, as well as varying degree of local communities’ dependency on the ecosystem services provided by forests. The mountain Traditional stratum is characterized by the predominance of logging over agricultural production; Intensive lowland stratum has a high degree of agricultural land use, developed agro-industrial complex and profitable farms. The Intermediate stratum combines both landscape complexes and economic features of the Traditional and Intensive strata. It was established that the loss of tree cover for the period from 2000 to 2021 amounted to 18% for the Traditional stratum, 17% for the Intermediate stratum and 7.7% for the Intensive stratum. The area of reforestation in 20 years at the Traditional stratum was 1,400 hectares with a loss of tree cover of 11,500 hectares; on the Intermediate – 1,250 hectares with a loss of tree cover of 10,800 hectares; on Intensive – 1,100 hectares with a loss of tree cover of 1,510 hectares.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The obtained results indicate the necessity of the local forest management systems revision taking into account the spatial features of the socio-ecological systems that has developed on the analyzed gradient.</p> 2023-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Жук А. В., Мишілюк І. І Hospitality and sustainable development: synergy for a successful tourism sector 2023-09-08T09:51:21+00:00 Y. I. Zhuk I. O. Bukhta <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> This scientific article aims to explore the relationship between hospitality and sustainable development and uncover the potential synergy of these two concepts for achieving a successful tourism sector.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>There are focuses on the following aspects: sociocultural interaction with local communities, ecological sustainability, economic development, and ensuring a quality experience for tourists. A conducted study has revealed that hospitality and sustainable development are closely interconnected and mutually influential, contributing to the positive growth of the tourism industry. Hospitality creates a pleasant and cozy atmosphere for visitors, enhancing their enjoyment of the journey and encouraging repeat visits. At the same time, sustainable development promotes the conservation of natural and cultural resources, reduces negative environmental impacts, and supports the local economy. It has been established that the positive and fruitful interaction between hospitality and sustainable development has beneficial effects on various aspects of the tourism sector, including the profitability of tourism enterprises, the rational use of resources, the reduction of negative ecological impacts, and the enhancement of tourist satisfaction and loyalty. A successful combination of hospitality and sustainable development enhances the competitiveness of the tourism sector, contributes to its growth, and helps preserve natural and cultural values for future generations. The successful integration of hospitality and sustainable development can bring benefits to both tourists and local communities, as well as to the natural environment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Hospitality and sustainable development can be crucial factors for success in the tourism industry. The interaction between these two concepts enables the development of innovative approaches to tourism, taking into account the needs of tourists and the principles of sustainable development, while also fostering the creation of a sustainable tourism product.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zhuk Y. I, Bukhta I. O. Ecological analysis of bird fauna in the territories of water treatment facilities at Kharkiv region 2023-09-08T11:17:23+00:00 Y. P. Mamedova A. B. Chaplygina <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> Analysis of the avifauna on the territory of water treatment facilities to assess their importance in the support and conservation of birds at Kharkiv region.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>Field survey: records of birds on permanent routes. Statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Avifauna of water treatment facilities (hereinafter WTF) at Kharkiv region in 2019 - 2023 amounted to 195 species from 17 orders and 44 families. Passeriformes birds dominated (37.7%; n=159), Charadriiformes (16.6%) and Anseriformes (12.1%) subdominated. A minority of other orders (Accipitriformes (4.5%), Ciconiiformes (3.2%), Columbiformes (3.2%)) was recorded. WTF are important for nesting of 80 species (53.3%; n=195), and are also a trophic base for 44 (27.7%) wandering, 28 (17.6%) migratory and 7 (4.4%) wintering bird species. Among 11 faunal groups, limnophilic 18.5% (n=159), boreal (15.9%) and tropical (13.4%) dominated. The nesting avifauna is formed mainly by tropical (16.9%; n = 80), limnophilic (13.0%) and forest-steppe - 13.0% groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The research suggests that man-made areas of water treatment facilities are important for maintaining species diversity of birds, as they are a place of concentration of both widespread and rare species during all seasons of the year. In total, 159 species of birds were found nesting or staying in different seasons on the territory of water treatment facilities at Kharkiv region, most of which are rare and endangered: listed in the Red Book of Kharkiv region (15 species) and the Red Book of Ukraine (13 species); species of concern in Europe (Bonn and Bern Conventions).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mamedova Y. P., Chaplygina A. B.