Ecological problems of irrigated soils in the south of Ukraine
Problem formulation. Ecological quality of soils and agricultural products depends on the level of irrigation water mineralization. The quality of mineralized irrigation water has a negative impact on soils, agricultural products and ecosystems. This is especially negative in the conditions of Southern Ukraine within the Black Sea territories where the formation of irrigation waters in the Ingulets river basin depends on the influence of the Kryvyi Rih iron ore basin located in the river basin.
The aim of the article is to assess the impact of mineralized irrigation waters on soils and natural ecosystems.
Materials and methods. Field sampling of water and dark chestnut saline soils and southern chernozem soils to determine the impact of mineralized water quality on soils and ecosystems, statistical analysis of the obtained data.
Results. Discharges of highly mineralized mine waters into the river basin lead to a change in the flow velocity in the river from 4 m³/s to 20 m³/s, which negatively affects the flora and fauna living conditions. Depending on the chemical composition of the discharges, the mineralization of irrigation water varies from 1.393 g/dm³ to 1.7608 g/dm³, and sometimes reaches 4.349 g/dm³. In terms of chemical composition, irrigation water is formed as a hydrocarbonate-sulfate-chloride with almost the same content of sulfates and chlorides, calcium-magnesium-sodium with a significant advantage of sodium. The dynamics of irrigation water quality indicators during 2013-2021 testifies to an increase of the most dangerous indicators for soils: hydrogen index of soil solution (pH) from 7.7 to 8.4, chlorine ion content (Cl–) – from 9.52 to 10.77 meq/dm³ and sodium (Na+) from 9.52 to 13.33 meq/dm³. By means of correlation and regression analyzes, the regularities of water hydrochemical composition formation were revealed and a strong functional connection between mineralization and chlorine ions (r = 0.99) and sulfate ions (r = 0.99), between mineralization and hydrocarbonate ions was established (r = 0.47). As the mineralization of water increases, the content of chlorine ions and sulfate ions increases proportionally, and hydrocarbonate ions play a secondary role in the formation of the hydrochemical composition. To prevent the chlorine ions excess of more than 350 meq/dm³ and sulfate ions excess – 500 meq/dm³, irrigation water mineralization should not exceed 1500 mg/dm³, and to prevent the chlorine ions excess of more than 350 meq/dm³, water flow from the canal should be at least 9.0 m³/s.
Scientific novelty. New mathematical models of the irrigation water mineralization, its anionic composition, its chloride content dependence on water consumption from the Ingulets river and the interdependence between mineralization and cationic composition of water are offered.
Practical significance. The obtained results are of practical importance for the implementation of agro-ameliorative measures for soil and ecosystem conservation.
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