Accessibility of green spaces in the conditions of a compact city: case study of Kyiv
Purpose. The goal of the study is to develop an algorithm for assessing urban green space (UGS) accessibility in conditions of a compact city with high-density development by the example of Kyiv.
Methodology. The research technique provides for spatial and quantitative analysis of UGS distribution within city limits by using OpenStreetMap, Google Map geospatial data and the QGIS software. The pedestrian accessibility to greenery is determined as the distance walked from the residential building to the nearest green space. If the average speed of walking of all age groups is taken to be 3 km/hr, then 10 minutes are needed to cover a distance of 500 m, and 20 minutes, for 1,000 m. To account for curved paths and obstacles (buildings, fences, motorways), UGS were surrounded with buffer areas 300 m and 700 m wide. This equals the walking distances of 500 and 1,000 m respectively.
Results. We plotted on the map all available UGS within Kyiv limits, determined their total area and found a very uneven spatial UGS distribution in different city districts. Then we found the average provision of each Kyiv resident with greenery of all kinds, including not only parks, mini parks, and urban forests, but also cemeteries, flowerbeds and grass lawns, separate street bushes and trees, and roadside hedgerows.
Based on the data of the number of buildings and the population density within Kyiv’s residential development area, we calculated the actual provision of Kyiv residents with UGS of all kinds, and with greenery suitable for daily recreation. In so doing, we found that the provision of UGS, where short-term recreation is possible, is significantly smaller in area per head of population as compared to an identical indicator calculated for greenery of all kinds. This is confirmed by the built map charts.
Using the buffer approach, we determined the shortest distances to be covered to reach a UGS nearest to a residential building. Independently, we measured pedestrian accessibility to any green cover in Kyiv and UGS accessibility for public use, which are suitable for daily recreation in different Kyiv micro districts. The findings yielded a significant difference in these indicators.
According to the calculations of UGS accessibility of all kinds, Kyiv really looks like a “green” city where almost in all the developed territories the distance to the nearest UGS is within 1,000 m. However, an assessment of the accessibility to greenery suitable for short-term daily recreation is indicative of a deficiency of UGS in at least eleven residential complexes in the city. All the locations with different UGS accessibility are also plotted on relevant map charts.
Scientific novelty. The study has shown that only 45.4% of Kyiv residents are provided with high pedestrian accessibility within a distance of 500 m to UGS for daily recreation. The residents of different age and social groups who, within a 1-km radius, have no access at all to any recreation site make up 15.5% of Kyiv residents. Substantial disproportions in UGS accessibility were also found in different administrative districts and residential complexes. This is indicative that the management of the entire city’s green infrastructure is not perfect.
Practical importance. The algorithm for assessing green space accessibility that was developed and tested for Kyiv can be used for any compact city. This will help city planners to identify accurately the micro districts and other locations requiring priority planting of greenery.
Where in Kyiv is the closest to parks and squares? LUN City (2019). Available at: https://misto.lun.ua/ozelenennya
Zibtseva O., Yukhnovskyi V. (2019). Analytical evaluation of developed norms for greening of cities. Biological Resources and Nature Management, 11(5–6), 131–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.31548/bio2019.05.014
LUN City (2020). Available at: https://misto.lun.ua/#rec279021961
Ocheretnyj V., Potapova T., Kuzmina D., Solohor V. (2017). A modern tendency of reducing the space of green plants in the world. Modern Technology, Materials and Design in Construction, 2, 69-76.
Planning and development of territories. DBN B.2.2-12: 2019. Kyiv, Ministry of Regional Development of Ukraine (2019). Available at: https://dreamdim.ua/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/DBN-B22-12-2019.pdf
Draft Master Plan of the city of Kyiv. Official site of “Kyivgenplan” (2020). Available at: http://kyivgenplan.grad.gov.ua/
The draft Master Plan of Kyiv proposes to create 17 buffer parks near residential areas (+ list). Official portal of Kyiv (2020). Available at: https://kyivcity.gov.ua/news/proyekt_genplanu_kiyeva_proponuye_stvoriti_17_bufernikh_parkiv_bilya_zhitlovikh_masiviv_perelik/
On approval of the Integrated City Target Program of Environmental Well-being of the Kyiv City for 2019-2021: decision of the Kyiv City Council of 12/18/2018. Official website of the Kyiv City Council (2018). Available at: https://kmr.gov.ua/uk/content/rishennya-kyyivskoyi-miskoyi-rady-97
Kyiv City Development Strategy until 2025 (new edition). Available at: https://dei.kyivcity.gov.ua/files/2017/7/28/Strategy2025new.pdf
Tkachenko T. M., Hulei D. V. (2018). Green structures as an effective way to stabilize and improve the environment of urbocenoses (on the example of Solomyansky district of Kyiv). Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Re-sources, 1(17), 46-56.
Shyshchenko P.H., Havrylenko O.P., Tsyhanok Ye.Yu. (2020). Protected areas under the conditions of megapolis: digression and recovery ways (on the example of Kyiv). Ukrainian Geographical Journal, 4, 49-56. https://doi.org/10.15407/ugz2020.04.049
Yukhnovskyi V., Zibtseva O. (2018). Comparative analysis of settlements green plantations classification in Ukraine and post-Soviet countries. Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 16, 90-98. https://doi.org/10.15421/411810
Bibri S.E., Krogstiec J., Kärrholm M. (2020). Compact city planning and development: Emerging practices and strategies for achieving the goals of sustainability. Developments in the Built Environment, 4, 100021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dibe.2020.100021
Cities and climate change. UNEP Official site. Available at: https://www.unenvironment.org/explore-topics/resource-efficiency/what-we-do/cities/cities-and-climate-change
Hansen R., Olafsson A.S., van der Jagt A.P.N., Rall E., Pauleit S. (2019). Planning multifunctional green infra-structure for compact cities: What is the state of practice? Ecological Indicators, 96(2), 99-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.09.042
Jang K.M., Kim J., Lee H.-Y., Cho H., Kim Y. (2020). Urban Green Accessibility Index: A Measure of Pedestrian-Centered Accessibility to Every Green Point in an Urban Area. International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(10), 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9100586
Li X., Zhang C., Li W., Ricard R., Meng Q., Zhang W. (2015). Assessing street-level urban greenery using Google Street View and a modified Green View Index. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14(3), 675–685. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.06.006
Liang H., Chen D., Zhang Q. (2017). Walking accessibility of urban parks in a compact megacity. Urban Design and Planning, 170(2), 59–71. https://doi.org/10.1680/jurdp.16.00030
Lwin K.K., Murayama Y. (2011). Modelling of urban green space walkability: Eco-friendly walk score calculator. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 35(5), 408–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2011.05.002
Niu Q., Wang Y., Xia Y., Wu H., Tang X. (2018). Detailed Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Urban Parks According to Day and Travel Mode Based on Web Mapping API: A Case Study of Main Parks in Wuhan. Interna-tional Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8), 1725. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081725
Ranking: Kyiv. HUGSI Official site (2020). Available at: https://www.hugsi.green/city/?Kyiv
Stessens P., Khan A.Z., Huysmans M., Canters F. (2017). Analysing urban green space accessibility and quality: A GIS-based model as spatial decision support for urban ecosystem services in Brussels. Ecosystem Services, 28, 328-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.016
The 17 Goals. United Nations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Sustainable Development. Available at: https://sdgs.un.org/goals
Urban Green Space Interventions and Health. WHO Regional Office for Europe (2017). Available at: https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/337690/FULL-REPORT-for-LLP.pdf
Wüstemann H., Kalisch D., Kolbe J. (2017). Access to urban green space and environmental inequalities in Ger-many. Landscape and Urban Planning, 164, 124–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.04.002
Ye Y., Richards D., Lu Y., Song X., Zhuang Y., Zeng W., Zhong T. (2019). Measuring daily accessed street greenery: A human-scale approach for informing better urban planning practices. Landscape and Urban Planning, 191, 103434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.08.028
Yu Z., Wang Y., Deng J., Shen Z., Wang K., Zhu J., Gan M. (2017). Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy. Sensors, 17(6), 1304. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17061304