Structural Properties of Silicon Doped Rare Earth Elements Ytterbium

  • Khodjakbar S. Daliev Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “National Research University MPEI”,, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  • Sharifa B. Utamuradova bInstitute of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics at the National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  • Jonibek J. Khamdamov Institute of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics at the National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  • Mansur B. Bekmuratov Nukus State Pedagogical Institute named after Ajiniyaz, Nukus, Uzbekistan
Keywords: Silicon, Ytterbium, Rare Earth Elements, Raman, Diffusion, Thermal Coolant, Temperature


This paper presents the results of a study of the state of ytterbium atoms in silicon, carried out using the methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). Silicon samples doped with ytterbium impurities were analyzed using FSM-2201 and SENTERRA II Bruker spectrometers. Registration and identification of both crystalline and amorphous phase components in the samples was carried out. The results of the study confirm that doping silicon with ytterbium impurities leads to a decrease in the concentration of optically active oxygen  by 30-40%, depending on the concentration of the introduced impurities. It was also found that an increase in the number of defects leads to a broadening of the amorphous zone. It is assumed that similar dependencies exist for the Si-Yb system; however, to the best of our knowledge, similar results have not been reported previously. It is noted that the relative intensity of the three Raman bands in Si-Yb systems in the LTIOS (The light and temperature induced ordered state) state changes, and the relative intensity of Si-Si decreases. This indicates that pendant bonds are mainly formed by the breaking of Si-Si bonds. It was also observed that the light intensity causing this condition is far from that required for laser or solid phase crystallization. Using the Raman spectroscopy method, a structural transformation was discovered, expressed in a densely packed array of nanocrystals with a size of less than 11 lattice parameters. Small clusters were under strong internal stress (up to 3 GPa), which probably prevents the cluster size from increasing beyond the critical value for irreversible crystallization.


Download data is not yet available.


S.B. Utamuradova, Kh.J. Matchonov, J.J. Khamdamov, and Kh.J. Utemuratova, “X-ray diffraction study of the phase state of silicon single crystals doped with manganese,” New Materials, Compounds and Applications, 7(2), 93–99 (2023).

N.V. Latukhina, and V.M. Lebedev, “Diffusion doping of silicon with rare earth elements,” Materials of electronic technology,” No.1, (2011).

Kh.S. Daliev, Sh.B. Utamuradova, Z.E. Bahronkulov, A.Kh. Khaitbaev, and J.J. Hamdamov, “Structure Determination and Defect Analysis n-Si, p-Si Raman Spectrometer Methods,” East Eur. J. Phys. 4, 193 (2023).

Kh.S. Daliev, Z.E. Bahronkulov, and J.J. Hamdamov, “Investigation of the Magnetic Properties of Silicon Doped with Rare-Earth Elements,” East Eur. J. Phys. 4, 167 (2023),

M.B. Gongalsky, N.V Pervushin, D.E. Maksutova, U.A. Tsurikova, P.P. Putintsev, O.D. Gyuppenen, Y.V Evstratova, et al., “Optical Monitoring of the Biodegradation of Porous and Solid Silicon Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials, 11, 2167 (2021).

C.-H. Shih, and S.-P. Yeh, “Device considerations and design optimizations for dopant segregated Schottky barrier MOSFETs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 125033 (2008).

D.L. Staebler, and C.R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge‐produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292–294 (1977).

M.V. Kuz’min, M.A. Mittsev, and A.M. Mukhuchev, Fizika Tverdogo Tela, 57(10), 2056–2060 (2015).

I. Abdulhalim, R. Beserman, and R. Weil, “Structural changes and crystallization of amorphous hydrogenated silicon generated by laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B, 39, 1081 (1989).

M. Stutzmann, W.B. Jackson, and C.C. Tsai, “Light-induced metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A systematic study,” Phys. Rev. B, 32, 23 (1985).

H. Richter, Z. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun. 39, 625-629 (1981).

I.H. Campbell, and P.M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 58, 739-741 (1986).

J. Jimenez, I. De Wolf, and J. P. Landesman, Microprobe Characterization of Semiconductors, Ch. 2. edited by J. Jimenez (Taylor, and Francis, New York, 2002).

J.E. Griffiths, G.P. Espinosa, J.P. Remeika, and J.C. Phillips, “Reversible quasicrystallization in GeSe2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B, 25, 1272 (1982).

P. Klebinski, S.R. Pillpot, D. Wolf, and H. Gleiter, “Thermodynamic Criterion for the Stability of Amorphous Intergranular Films in Covalent Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2965 (1996).

S. Hazra, I. Sakata, M. Yamanaka, and E. Suzuki, “Formation of nanocrystallites governed by the initial stress in the ultrathin hydrogenated amorphous silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1067-1069 (2001).

G.Z. Yue, J.D. Lorentzen, J. Lin, D.X. Hau, and Q. Wang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies in thin-film materials: Transition from amorphous to microcrystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 492-494 (1999).

S. Veprek, F.A. Sarott, and Z. Iqbal, “Effect of grain boundaries on the Raman spectra, optical absorption, and elastic light scattering in nanometer-sized crystalline silicon,” Phys. Rev. B, 36, 3344 (1987).

M. Borowicz, W. Latek, A. Rzodkiewicz, A. Laszcz, Czerwinski, and J. Ratajczak, “Deep ultraviolet Raman investigation of silicon oxide: thin film on silicon substrate versus bulk material,” Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 3, 045003 (2012).

P.A. Temple, and C.E. Hathaway, “Multiphonon Raman spectrum of silicon,” Physical Review B, 7(8), 3685–3697 (1973).

A.G. Revesz, and H.L. Hughes, “The structural aspects of non-crystalline SiO2 films on silicon: a review,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 328(1-3), 48–63 (2003).

K.J. Kingma, and R.J. Hemley, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcrystalline silica,” American Mineralogist, 79(3-4), 269 273 (1994).

G.E. Walrafen, Y.C. Chu, and M.S. Hokmabadi, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of irreversibly compacted vitreous silica,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, 92(12), 6987–7002 (1990).

How to Cite
Daliev, K. S., Utamuradova, S. B., Khamdamov, J. J., & Bekmuratov, M. B. (2024). Structural Properties of Silicon Doped Rare Earth Elements Ytterbium. East European Journal of Physics, (1), 375-379.