East European Journal of Physics https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp <p>Indexed in Web of Science Core Collection.</p> <p>International peer-reviewed journal devoted to experimental and theoretical research on the nuclear physics, cosmic rays and particles, high-energy physics, solid state physics, plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion, physics of charged particle beams, plasma electronics, radiation materials science, physics of thin films, condensed matter physics, functional materials and coatings, technical thermophysics and industrial power,&nbsp;medical physics and physical technologies in an interdisciplinary context.</p> en-US <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /></p><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul></ol> serhii.hirnyk@karazin.ua (Serhii Hirnyk) serhii.hirnyk@karazin.ua (Serhii Hirnyk) Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 CHRONOLOGICAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSORS OF SCALAR FIELDS FOR PARTICLE GENERATIONS, AND INDEFINITE METRICS https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10751 <p>The solutions of generalized Klein-Gordon equations are considered. The generalizations of the Klein-Gordon equation allow one to&nbsp;derive convergent integrals for the Green functions of these equations. The generalized equations are presented as products of the&nbsp;operators for the Klein-Gordon equation with different masses. The solutions of derived homogeneous equations (total fields) are&nbsp;sums of fields corresponding to particles with the same values of the spin, the electric charge, the parities, but with different masses.&nbsp;Such particles are grouped into the kinds (families, dynasties) with members which are the generations. The chronological products&nbsp;of the scalar fields for kinds of particles are obtained at arbitrary quantity of the generations. These chronological products are the&nbsp;causal Green functions of generalized Klein-Gordon equations. The Lagrangians for the generalized Klein-Gordon equations of&nbsp;arbitrary order are derived. These Lagrangians are used to obtain the energy-momentum tensors for the particle kinds at arbitrary&nbsp;quantity of generations. It is shown that the generalized Hamiltonians (for total fields) have got positive eigenvalues for all the&nbsp;generations. These results are derived with the use of the indefinite metrics.</p> Yu. V. Kulish ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10751 Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF SCALAR BOSON IN ELASTIC PROTON-ELECTRON SCATTERING https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10752 <p>The differential cross section for the elastic scattering of unpolarized protons on unpolarized electrons at rest is calculated taking into&nbsp;account two mechanisms: one-photon and scalar-boson exchange. The spin correlation coefficients, when the proton beam and the&nbsp;electron target are both arbitrarily polarized, have also been calculated. These observables are calculated in terms of the proton&nbsp;electromagnetic form factors, namely magnetic and electric ones. Some peculiarities of the inverse kinematics (the mass of the&nbsp;colliding particle is larger than mass of the target particle) have been discussed. It was shown that all the spin correlation coefficients&nbsp;in the elastic proton electron collisions are proportional to the proton magnetic form factor. The same behaviour takes place for the&nbsp;spin correlation coefficients in the elastic electron proton scattering (the electron beam and proton target are both polarized). It was&nbsp;shown that only the interference of the two mechanisms (one-photon and one-boson) gives nonzero contribution to the spin&nbsp;correlation coefficients. If the spin vectors of the proton beam and electron target lie in the reaction plane then the corresponding spin&nbsp;correlation coefficients are zero for the case when scattered electron momentum is in the direction of the proton beam momentum.&nbsp;</p> A. G. Gakh ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10752 Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 APPROACH TO EVALUATE THE RISK OF CANCER FOR DIFFERENT NUMBER OF TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES IN THE INDIVIDUAL https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10742 <p>Significant progress in understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis is associated with the discovery of tumor suppressor genes&nbsp;(or antioncogenes). It is known that in the human population, the number of normally functioning suppressor genes varies in different&nbsp;individuals at birth. The aim of the study was to assess the probability of cancer development in an individual with a different initial&nbsp;number of undamaged normally functioning antioncogenes. On the basis of the probabilistic mathematical model of carcinogenesis,&nbsp;the most probable age of cancer development depending on the number of intact antioncogenes was assessed. As a result of the studies, the probability of cancer development depending on the age of the patient is estimated. The dependence of the probability of&nbsp;cancer development in an individual on the number of undamaged antioncogenes is also investigated. The analysis of the&nbsp;significance of the number of tumor suppressor genes, the damage of which may be the cause of initiation of cell malignancy, has been carried out.</p> M. Bondarenko, V. Knigavko, O. Zaytseva ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10742 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 EFFICIENT DETECTOR OF NEUTRONS FOR 9Ве(d,n)10В GENERATOR https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10743 <p>Two 9Ве(d,n)- neutron sources have been developed and produced at the NSC KIPT. Neutrons result from the interaction of accelerated deuterons with the nuclei of beryllium target in reaction 2Н+9Ве→10В+n. One of the sources is large-sized neutron source&nbsp;(LNS) with the medium energy of 5 MeV [1]. The neutron source is aimed to produce 99Мо by the reaction 98Мо(n,γ)99Мо. The&nbsp;maximum fluence in a limited volume is provided by the polyethylene or Be moderator. The 9Be moderator, except deceleration,&nbsp;provides reproduction of nucleons due to the (n,2n) reaction. The second source is a portable (PNS) with a medium energy of&nbsp;2,5 MeV [2]. It is intended for the treatment of a number of oncological diseases. The major part of the dose in the phantom is&nbsp;absorbed in close vicinity of the neutron source ∼(1,5-2 сm). The fast neutron yield is about 109 neutron/s. The present paper deals&nbsp;with the possibility of using modern techniques of measuring of neutron radiation to build of relatively simple, compact, sensitive&nbsp;neutron detector on the proposed sources. It is shown that the neutron detector based on LiI(Eu) can be considered as one of the effective options for the measurements of neutron fields.</p> A. N. Dovbnya, E. L. Kuplennikov, S. S. Kandybei ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10743 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A NEW SYMMETRY OF ELECTROWEAK LAGRANGIAN https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10744 <p>Problems of the Standard Model, associated with the introduction of an electromagnetic field as a linear combination of fields on&nbsp;which various gauge groups representations are implemented, are analyzed. In this paper, we pay attention to the fact that in any&nbsp;model with gauge fields, the generators which are included in the covariant derivatives can be given only up to the transition to the&nbsp;equivalent representation. It is proposed that dynamic models with equivalent representations of generators should be physically equivalent. It means the requirement of the Lagrangian symmetry with respect to the transition from one equivalent generators&nbsp;representations to another. In particular, in the Lagrangian of the Standard Model, we have raising and lowering SU (2) group&nbsp;generators. The group multiplication law determines only the matrix elements modules of these generators while the arguments&nbsp;remain uncertain. In the paper, such uncertainty is considered as a local one. At different points of space-time, generators can be&nbsp;expressed in various equivalent representations. The compensation of the uncertain matrix elements arguments of the SU (2) group&nbsp;generators can be carried out with a local U (1) - transformation with the introduction of the corresponding gauge field, which can be&nbsp;considered as the electromagnetic field. The advantages of such electromagnetic field introduction in comparison with the method&nbsp;used in the Standard Model are analyzed.</p> K. K. Merkotan, T. M. Zelentsova, N. O. Chudak, D. A. Ptashynskiy, V. V. Urbanevich, O. S. Potiienko, V. V. Voitenko, O. D. Berezovskyi, I. V. Sharph, V. D. Rusov ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10744 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 PROCESSES OCCURRING IN THE POLYIMIDE FILMS PM-A (AS KAPTON H) DURING THE DEFORMATION AND COOLING https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10745 <p>The evolution of the film structure of polyimide PM-A (Kapton H type) after deformation at T = 300K, the effect of low&nbsp;temperatures and subsequent deformation at liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures is studied. Particular attention is paid to&nbsp;comparative analysis of structural changes in the process of various external influences. The starting material was a film synthesized&nbsp;from solutions of prepolymers with a thickness of 0.08 mm. Part of the samples were subjected to a successively of temperature deformation and uniaxial deformation. For the original samples, we observed a symmetrical halo on the x-ray diffraction pattern on&nbsp;the small angles. The cooling of the polyimide film at T = 77 K 4.2K leads to the appearance of an additional peak in the region of&nbsp;smaller angles. The deformation of the sample at room temperature leads to the appearance of an additional peak in the region of&nbsp;large angles. Low-temperature deformation at temperatures of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium affects the structural state of the&nbsp;samples in different ways. Proposed two "mechanism", which are qualitatively, describe the processes in this polyimide films after&nbsp;deformation at low temperatures. It is assumed that as a result of cooling, "bundles" are formed, consisting of a different number of&nbsp;polymer segments. Low-temperature deformation at 77K and 4.2K, respectively, leads to compression and rupture of these bundles.</p> I. S. Braude, V. G. Geidarov, Yu. M. Pogribnaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10745 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 INFLUENCE OF BIAS POTENTIAL AND SUBSTRATE ORIENTATION ON CHARACTERISTICS OF DEPOSITED COATING: THE ROLE OF SPUTTERING https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10746 <p>Influence of atomic sputtering on intrinsic stress and growth rate of the coating made by method of plasma - ion deposition with use&nbsp;of pulsed bias potential and at different incidence angles of ions is theoretically investigated. The formula for intrinsic stress&nbsp;calculation in deposited coating obtained in the model of the nonlocal thermoelastic peak of the ion, taking into account atomic&nbsp;sputtering processes, was used to calculate the stresses in TiN and CrN coatings deposited from Ti+ and Cr+ ion beams, respectively.&nbsp;The stress value for the coatings considered correlates with the modulus of elasticity of the coating material. The stress curve&nbsp;maximum decreases and shifts to the region of higher potentials with increasing angle of incidence. This behavior is due to the&nbsp;sputtering of quasi-stable interstitial defects that determine the level of stress in the deposited coating. A formula is proposed for the&nbsp;coating deposition rate, which takes into account the sputtering of the coating atoms at arbitrary bias potential and the angle of&nbsp;incidence of the ions. It is shown that sputtering sharply reduces the coatings deposition rate and makes it impossible to deposit TiN&nbsp;and CrN coatings in the DC mode at potentials on the substrate exceeding 1.7 kV and 0.7 kV, respectively, and with normal ion&nbsp;incidence. Sputtering has the greatest influence on the intrinsic stress and the growth rate of the coating at ion deposition at inclined&nbsp;angles of incidence α = 45°...70° . The results of the calculations are compared with the available experimental data.</p> A. I. Kalinichenko, E. N. Reshetnyak, V. E. Strel’nitskij ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10746 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 CHANGE OF QUALITY OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE UNDER LONG STORE TERMS https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10747 <p>By calculation methods, the dose rate of the radioactive waste, behind concrete protection, was evaluated in current work. Parameters,&nbsp;which were taken in account in the calculations, are geometry of the protection shell, size of the source and its isotopic composition.&nbsp;As model geometrical parameters the spent fuel assembly’s size and thickness of the concrete wall of the ventilated storage container&nbsp;(VSC)-VVER were taken. The computer program that does numerical calculation was composed in the Wolfram Alpha environment.&nbsp;The program takes into account change of the isotopic composition and spectra of gamma-radiation with time. Calculation results&nbsp;were compared to the known data on the spent nuclear fuel heat dissipation. Approach described in this work can be used for fast&nbsp;estimation of change in the quality of radioactive waste (RAW) in the long-term storage without recycling, for different initial&nbsp;isotopic composition. Obtained results were analyzed on the matter of change in gamma-radiation of RAW.</p> M. S. Malovytsia, S. A. Pismenetskiy, G. S. Hrushch, O. P. Shchus ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10747 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 SURFACE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN A GAP BETWEEN TWO LEFT-HANDED MATERIALS https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10748 <p>The slow surface electromagnetic waves that propagate along the planar waveguide structure that contains two identical isotropic&nbsp;left-handed material with the vacuum (or air) gap has been considered. The possibility of propagation of slow surface&nbsp;electromagnetic waves of TM and TE polarizations in the frequency range at which the dielectric permittivity and magnetic&nbsp;permeability are negative are shown. By selecting a frequency, one, two or three modes can be excited simultaneously. The group&nbsp;and phase velocities of the TE polarization waves are directed in opposite directions. The frequency range of the existence of the TE&nbsp;mode with an antisymmetric field distribution lies above the frequency range of the existence of the TE mode with a symmetric field&nbsp;distribution. The TM wave, depending on the wavelength, can be either forward or backward, or have zero group velocity. The wave&nbsp;of TM-polarization has a slightly varying group velocity in a sufficiently wide frequency range. A rich set of different properties of&nbsp;these waves make them promising in applications.</p> V. K. Galaydych ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10748 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 TRANSFORMER RATIO DEPENDENCE ON BUNCH LENGTH AT NON-LINEAR WAKEFIELD EXCITATION IN PLASMA BY ELECTRON BUNCH WITH GAUSSIAN CHARGE DISTRIBUTION https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10749 <p>Using 2d3v code LCODE, the numerical simulation of nonlinear wakefield excitation in plasma by shaped relativistic electron bunch&nbsp;with charge distribution, which increases according to Gaussian charge distribution up to the maximum value, and then decreases&nbsp;sharply to zero, has been performed. Transformer ratio, as the ratio of the maximum accelerating field to the maximum decelerating&nbsp;field inside the bunch, and accelerating the wakefield have been investigated taking into account nonlinearity of the wakefield. The&nbsp;dependence of the transformer ratio and the maximum accelerating field on the length of the bunch was investigated with a constant&nbsp;charge of the bunch. It was taken into account that the length of the nonlinear wakefield increases with increasing length of the&nbsp;bunch. It is shown that the transformer ratio reaches its maximum value for a certain length of the bunch. The maximum value of the&nbsp;transformer ratio reaches six as due to the profiling of the bunch, and due to the non-linearity of the wakefield.</p> D. S. Bondar, I. P. Levchuk, V. I. Maslov, I. N. Onishchenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10749 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OCCURRENCE OF ACCELERATING FIELD, FORMATION AND DYNAMICS OF RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAM NEAR JUPITER https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10750 <p>The possible dynamics of the electron beam, formed in the vicinity of Io, the natural satellite of Jupiter, and injected toward Jupiter,&nbsp;has been investigated analytically. When a beam penetrates the Jupiter plasma to a certain depth, the beam-plasma instability can be&nbsp;developed. In this case, the distribution function of electrons is expanded additionally by excited oscillations. These electrons, when&nbsp;their energy is of order of a required certain value, cause UV polar light. For closing of a current, the formation of a double electric&nbsp;layer is necessary. The necessary parameters and conditions for the formation of a double layer with a large jump of an electric&nbsp;potential at a certain height have been formulated, its properties, stability, behavior over time and beam reflection in its field for&nbsp;closing of a current have been described. Reflection of the beam can lead to its vortex dynamics.</p> V. I. Maslov, I. P. Levchuk, S. Nikonova, I. N. Onishchenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/10750 Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000