DIGITAL SERVICES AND PORTALS FOR MIGRANTS IN THE SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM
The purpose of the study is to show the features of the digital transformation of society and the social sphere, in particular, using digital services and portals for migrants in the social security system. The following tasks have been set to achieve the goal: to find and analyze regulatory and legal documents that regulate and accompany the process of digital transformation of society and social sphere in particular. We proved the need for digital transformation of the social sphere as a way to improve social support for citizens in war conditions, including migrants, to justify the reasons for the sharp increase of Ukrainian migrants in the world and to determine their needs for social protection and social security. We analyzed official web portals, digital services and applications for migrants in terms of providing them with electronic services.
The work uses such research methods as content analysis, comparison, synthesis, method of systematization of scientific statements, statistical methods (index method, method of statistical grouping, analysis of dynamic series). We monitored and analyzed social networks in order to obtain and structure data. In particular, the resource approach made it possible to analyze the content of social networks, to analyze the network content focused specifically on the category of migrants, to classify it and to draw conclusions. We conducted web analytics of the official state portals of the Ministry of Social Policy, Ministry of Digital Affairs, Ministry of Reintegration, international and public organizations according to parameters such as information content with useful content, convenient navigation, design, analysis of site visit statistics, etc.
The study finds the importance of using digital services and portals for migrants in the social security system. We noted how the demand for digital transformation of the social sphere is a way to improve social support for citizens in war conditions, including migrants. The study analyzes the legal framework, in particular the Strategy of Digital Transformation of the Social Sphere (2020), the Law on the Unified Information System of the Social Sphere (2021), the Concept of Development of the Digital Economy and Society of Ukraine for 2018-2020, etc.
The article drew attention to a number of documents of the government and the Ministry of Social Policy regarding the simplification and reduction in time of the process of receiving social benefits and services for citizens, solving many social issues through access to the computer network, the use of digital services, portals and platforms.
The study provides data on internal and external migration and substantiates the reasons for the sharp increase in the number of Ukrainian migrants in the world caused by the global migration crisis and the Russian-Ukrainian war.
Ukraine recorded the largest number of internally displaced persons in Europe since the end of the Second World War, the eighth place in terms of internally displaced persons in the world. The active phase of the Russian-Ukrainian war since February 2022 became a pushing factor and led to the emergence of a new numerical category of the population - war refugees.
Examples of a large number of digital services, portals, applications and with useful information for migrants from Ukraine regarding their faster adaptation and obtaining the necessary e-services in the countries of Poland, the Czech Republic, and Lithuania are given.
The article demonstrates the joint efforts and effective steps of the Ministry of Digital Affairs and the Ministry of Social Policy regarding the digital transformation of the social sphere and analyzes the official web portal of the State Migration Service of Ukraine in terms of providing electronic services. Statistics of citizens' appeals confirms the effectiveness of digital electronic services. The article notes Ukraine's global innovations regarding the use of digital documents (e-passports) in the Diya application, which have the same legal force as their physical counterparts - a plastic ID card and a paper passport, despite some limitations. The action continues to develop, generating new applications e-Notary, e-Property, e-Migration, e-IDP, etc. Currently, 14 digital documents and 25 services are available in the application, and more than 90 services are available on the portal. The Ministry of Digital Affairs communicates with countries in Europe, Africa and Asia, which are interested in Ukraine's digital experience. The importance of migration forecasting using new analytical tools of Big Data, Google Trends, statistics of social network platforms (YouTube, Instagram, FB, Twitter) was noted, which can be used to assess and forecast flows of forced emigration of refugees from Ukraine, understanding their needs, intentions and plans.
The study expresses a warning that massive waves of migration caused, including the war in Ukraine, could become a destabilizing factor within the European Union community and proves on the example of domestic and foreign experience that global migration processes will require taking interests of migrants into account, as a large and growing community in the world, in the policy of providing electronic services and electronic governance of the host countries. The conclusion formulates that for world balance and security of individual regions and countries, the migration policy should contain digital tools for information and social security of migrants.
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