Jurassic system stratigraphy at the Kamianka village. Part 1. The Kozhulinska formation
Introduction. Despite the active research of Jurassic system deposits of Donbas during the last two centuries the issue of their stratigraphy principles is still debatable. The authors` analysis of the available scientific material revealed a conflict between the normatively established requirement to rely on lithostratigraphy during the sediment research, and the fact that the existing common system relies on biostratigraphy. This contradiction could be solved by the study of lithostratigraphic units of the Donetsk Jurassic deposits. Therefore, the purpose of the article was to research the Kozhulinska formation, establish its composition and describe its main features. The Lower Jurassic deposits from the outcrops near the village of Kamyanka (Izyum district) were studied, since the studyable stratotypes of most of the Jurassic strata, which are well exposed in the studied area, are available in this area.
Material and methods. The scientific search was based on the analysis of literature, results of previous drilling and mapping works, as well as own field, laboratory and analytical studies. Clay samples were taken from different stratigraphic levels of the formation and from different lithological varieties. Laboratory research was carried out in two directions: using an electron microscope and a spectrometer to detect the material composition of clays. A palynological analysis of these deposits was also carried out, namely, stratified deposits with the help of microphytofossils, including, for the first time, according to the orthostratigraphic group – dinocysts.
Results and discussion. The results showed that the Kozhulinska formation was mainly represented by shaly clays (gray, dark gray, sometimes blue-gray) that contained relatively thin layers of sandstones. The main mass of clays consisted of hydromicas, with an insignificant content of montmorillonite, and an even smaller amount of kaolin. The layers of quartz sandstones cemented with clay material were separately traced along the strike.
Paleontological remains in the clays of Kozhulinska formation were rare. Palynological groups are mainly represented by pollen and spores, as well as remains of dinophytes, green algae and acritarchs. According to paleoalgological analysis, the sediments of the Kozhulinska formation are dated for the first time.
Stratigraphy. Kozhulinska formation is represented by a fairly uniform layer of montmorillonite clays of hydromica composition. The clays are mainly siltstone, but there are, especially in the lower part, washed clean varieties. It is impossible to divide the formation into sub formation based on lithological features. According to biostratigraphic data, deposits are divided into Plinsbachian, Toarian and Aalenian.
Paleogeography. At the end of the Early Jurassic and the beginning of the Middle Jurassic era, the territory of the Kamianska area was a low-lying part of the seabed that was drained during low tides. The land that surrounded it was also low-lying and almost did not supply detrital material, however, there is a regular removal of plant detritus. The source of the terrigenous material was the sedimentary complexes of the Donetsk Ridge. Features of the chemical composition of the world are a significant amount of iron (siderite, ocher, chamosite) and the absence of calcium and magnesium carbonates. At the end of the early Aalene, this unstable basin finally regresses, which leads to the accumulation of a powerful subaerial pack of sandstones, which weigh and border the cores of anticlines - elevated areas of the bottom or small islands.
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