Probabilistic-forecasting method for determination of low flow discharge of Pivdennyi Buh, Black Sea area, and Lower Dnieper rivers
The aim of the study is to substantiate the probabilistic-forecasting method for forecasting the low flow discharge and its implementation for the Pivdennyi Buh, Black Sea area and Lower Dnieper rivers, taking into account climatic patterns of precipitation distribution and establishing probabilistic characteristics of low flow discharge in multi-year period. The study area is in a zone of significant risk due to the shortage of water resources, the formation of extremely low runoff in the dry flow period, which requires its definition and forecasting.
The methodological basis of forecasts is to solve the equation in determining the components of the low flow of rivers by constructing regional dependences for forecasting the average decade summer-autumn low flow from previous water discharge (in runoff modules), establishing their probabilities water discharge for a number of intakes.
Results. The paper substantiates the probabilistic-forecasting method for forecasting low flow discharge (in summer, autumn and winter periods) based on the construction of regional dependences of average decadal runoff modules on previous water discharge for groups of basins of studied rivers taking into account climatic dependences of precipitation distribution in the territory and the establishment of probabilistic characteristics of the low flow water discharge in a multi-year period. The methodology of territorial short-term forecasts of average decade water discharge of low flow of summer, autumn and winter river runoff is assessed as satisfactory with a margin of error of 70 % to 97 %, with a number of members of more than 500 points. To determine the cumulative probability of the forecast values of the average decade water discharge of the summer, autumn and winter dry weather flow, the empirical distribution of the average monthly water discharge in the limited seasons, which are generalized in the basins of the studied rivers of Ukraine, is established.
Scientific novelty. For the first time for the zone of insufficient natural water content of rivers the method of territorial forecasts of low flow discharge, determination of their probability of occurrence in a multi-year period and cartographic representation of prognostic values have been developed and practically implemented.
The practical importance is the use of forecast modules maps of low flow for spatial monitoring and assessment of low water levels on rivers in the whole region, including ungauged rivers, and their probabilistic characteristics – to assess the possible occurrence of low runoff, even when it reaches values close to the environmental runoff, which are critical for the functioning of the river ecosystem.
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