Assessment of microcomponent pollution of snow coverage of mountain tops of the Ukrainian Carpathians
Introduction. Today, the territory of Ukraine can be divided into urban areas and relatively clean, remote from major sources of industrial pollution, such as the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (KBR). It should be emphasized that in this case, the analysis is conducted only on the basis of a background approach. Given that there are no ongoing observations on the microcomponent composition of snow pollution, the aim of the work is to assess and analyze the level of snow pollution in 2019 and identify possible sources of pollution. The snow covers of the mountain tops of the KBR protected massifs ‒ Vezha mountain (Uholsko-Shirokoluzhansky), Stig, Dragobrat, Maly Menchul (Svydovetsky) mountains, Petros Chornohirsky mountains, Gropa, Hoverla (Chornohirsky) mountains, Menchul Rakhivsky mountains (Kuziysky), Petros Marmarosky mountain (Marmarosky).
Review of previous publications. Since 2010, we have been conducting research on the microcomponent composition of snowfall on the territory of KBR, the results of which are reflected in scientific articles and monographs. Over the past ten years, the results of determining the microcomponent composition of the snow cover KBR presented in articles and monographs by us ‒ "Geochemistry of environmental objects of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve" and "Ore and man-made geochemical anomalies of protected areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians (for example reserve)h".
Purpose. The aim of the study is to assess and analyze the level of pollution (microelement composition) of snow cover of mountain peaks of protected areas KBR - Marmarohs, Chornohirsky, Svydovetsky, Kuziysky and Uholsko-Shirokoluzhansky and identify possible sources of pollution.
Research methods. The study of the macrocomponent chemical composition and pH in the water waist is carried out in the laboratories of ecological monitoring of KBR, microelement composition ‒ using the method of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP‒MS) M.P at the Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Results. The coefficients of concentration (Kc) of chemical elements (Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi) relative to the background content were used for evaluation. The level of snow cover pollution was classified into categories – scattered (Kc<1), close to average concentrations (Kc 1–3.9), accumulating (Kc> 4–10) and strongly accumulating (Kc>10). As a result of the conducted researches the association of elements-pollutants of a snow cover (melting waters) is received: Pb, V, Ni, Co (mountain Vezha); Ni, Ba, Co (mountain Stig); V, Co, Ni, Ba, Cu (mountain Dragobrat); Zn, Cr (mountain Mali Menchul); Sr (mountain Gropa). In the snow cover of the mountain peaks Tempa, Menchul, Petros Chornohirsky, Petros Marmarosky – no pollution was detected (relative to the background content). As a result of the analysis of emissions (microelement composition) of stationary sources (industrial enterprises) their possible contribution to the pollution of snow cover is substantiated.
Conclusions. As a result of detection of elements-pollutants of snow cover of mountain tops and analysis of emissions (associations of microelements) of stationary sources (industrial enterprises) their possible contribution to pollution (microelement composition) of the KBR atmosphere is substantiated, which leads to snow cover pollution.
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