The biocentres of the ecological network of Vinnytsia сity
Formulation of the problem. Urban landscapes are distinguished from the surrounding territories by the radical transformation of all components under the influence of anthropogenic factor. Flora and fauna which are one of the most important factors in maintaining the ecological balance of urban landscapes are undergoing the largest changes in cities. Therefore, an urgent problem is the conservation of biota in cities. The solution of this problem involves protection of existing and restoration of degraded habitats of flora and fauna in cities; creation of the necessary migration conditions for the exchange of genetic information.
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of flora and fauna, landscape complexes of biocentres of Vinnytsia ecological network.
Methods. In order to achieve this purpose, a study of flora and fauna and landscape complexes of the urban territory was conducted; the habitats of rare species of flora and fauna, the areas of occurrence of the associations of the Green Book of Ukraine were revealed; features of quasi-natural areas valuable for the conservation of biodiversity were analyzed. The studies were conducted using the following methods: field research (key, area and route), analytical-cartographic analysis, collecting and processing of statistical information, literary-cartographic, theoretical generalization and systematization of facts, analysis, abstraction, analogy, synthesis.
Results. 25 biocentres are singled out in the structure of Vinnytsia local ecological network. They represent all the landscapes of the city: typical forest-steppe and mixed forests; river-beds, floodplains, above-floodplain terraces, slopes and watersheds; forest-steppe woodlands, passage valleys and upland oakery; conditionally natural and anthropogenic.
The characteristic features of urban ecological network biocentres are determined by their location within certain types of landscape terrain. Therefore, the floodplain, above-floodplain-terrace, slope, watershed and complex groups of biocentres of Vinnytsia are distinguished. Complex biocentres dominate in areas (70.7%). They cover several types of landscape terrains. But slope and watershed types prevail among them. Large areas (22.8%) are covered by biocentres of the above-floodplain-terrace group. Slope (1.9%) and watershed (1.3%) biocentres are the least common. Biocentres are represented by quasi-natural areas where rare species of living organisms and plant associations are frequently seen.
Scientific novelty. For the first time since 2015, after increasing the area of Vinnytsia, local biocentres of the city's ecological network have been singled out. The peculiarities of landscape complexes, flora and fauna of biocentres have been revealed, in particular the list of rare species of flora and fauna has been defined.
Practical importance. Distinguished biocentres of Vinnytsia local ecological network will help preserve the biotic and landscape diversity of the city, maintain ecological balance of the city territory.
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