Economic Implications of Anthropogenic Water Pollution ( by Using Pechenizky Reservoir as an Example)
Purpose. The purpose is to study and analyse up-to-date publications related to the study of pollution of water bodies by organic and inorganic substances, which deals with the correlation of fish productivity reduction due to the fodder organisms death. Based on the experimental studies results on the anthropogenic pollution impact on the livelihoods of fodder organisms, we have calculated the losses caused by water body pollution by using the indicator of bioproductivity decrease (using the Pechenizky reservoir as an example). Methods. To obtain data for calculating the damage caused to the Pechenizky reservoir by using the commercial fish catches indicator that use zooplankton and zoobenthos as natural feeds, we have performed toxicological study of water samples that were selected on four different hydrographic and morphological features of the Pechenizky reservoir. Biotesting of water samples was carried out by using zooplankton (Daphnia Magna Straus) and zoobenthos - insect larvae (Chironomus dorsalis Meig.) as a test-organisms for fodder organisms for fish. Results. The potential causes and consequences of the reduction of the natural forage base for the ichthyofauna are identified by ecological and toxicological assessment of the level of danger of the habitat of the main species of fodder organisms - zooplankton and zoobenthos representatives. The damages caused to Pechenizky reservoir by the indicator of reduction of catches of three species of fish (carp, bream, crucian carp) as a result of the fodder organisms death and the size of the damage to the Pechenizky reservoir by the indicator of reduction of catches of commodity fish (in value form) were calculated. Conclusions. It is shown that as a result of pollution of the reservoir, heavy metals accumulation in fodder organisms is observed and there is a chronic cumulative toxicosis, which leads to their death. In this connection, one of the main factors of reducing the catch of such species of fish as crucian carp, carp, bream and others, is the reduction of fodder organisms biomass, in particular, zooplankton and zoobenthos representatives.
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