The Urban Рaradynamic Anthropogenic Landscape Systems
Purpose. To identify the peculiarities and structure of urban paradynamic anthropogenic landscape systems (PDALS). Methods: field, theoretical generalization, analytical and cartographic analysis, logic, finding of empirical relationships, cartographic. Results. Urban-building activity is accompanied by radical transformations of all components of nature, significant changes of the natural landscape structure. As a result, urban paradynamic anthropogenic landscape systems are formed. Inner urban and suburban PDALS are singled out. Inner urban paradynamic anthropogenic landscape systems are formed and operate within the administrative boundaries of cities. Suburban PDALS extend far beyond the boundaries of urban settlements. They cover the suburban area.
Paradynamic anthropogenic landscape zones (PDALZ) of mineral, air, climatic, hydrological, hydrogeological, biotic, social and economic impacts on the natural environment are distinguished in the structure of urban PDALS. Paradynamic anthropogenic landscape areas (PDALA) of low, medium, high and intensive pollution levels are formed within the zones of mineral and air impacts of the technical block of urban landscape-technogenic systems on their landscape block. They are interconnected by water, mineral and air streams.
Eleven paradynamic anthropogenic landscape areas with low (total soil pollution index (TPI) - 8-16 units), eighteen areas with medium (TPI of 16-32 units) and five areas with high (TPI of soil 32-128 units) pollution levels of the environment were formed on the territory of Vinnytsia city. Paradynamic areas of low pollution are genetically related to the "sleeping" quarters of the city. Paradynamic areas of medium pollution are associated with industrial enterprises and high-speed motorways. Areas with a high level of pollution are paradynamically connected with the industrial landscapes of the enterprises Vinnytsia Household Chemicals and Vinnytsia Lamp Plant.
PDALA with a high degree of atmospheric air pollution were formed in the Northern and Central industrial districts of Chernivtsi. Areas of low and medium pollution levels were formed in the areas of the old buildings of the modern city center.
On the territory of the city of Mariupol, 2 paradynamic anthropogenic landscape areas of intensive (TPI 128-600) and 4 PDALAs of high (TPI 32-128) levels of pollution were detected. They are genetically related to the industrial landscapes of Azovstal Iron and Steel Plant and the Mariupol Iron and Steel Plant named after Ilyich.
Paradynamic relationships between certain types of urban landscapes and ecological situation around them are defined. 58% of the city of Sumy is characterized by unsatisfactory ecological situation. These areas are paradynamically connected with the urban industrial landscapes of the Northern and Southern industrial zones.
A direct paradynamic relation between the morbidity of urban population and the ecological state of urban landscapes was found. The condition of the urban environment causes from 30 to 70 % of all diseases.
Paradynamic relations lead to the formation of a paradynamic anthropogenic landscape ecotone "urban landscapes – landscapes of suburban areas" around a city. Within this paradynamic landscape system, pollution of atmospheric air, soils, surface and groundwater from urban landscapes is well noticed. It was proved that the city's interaction with the surrounding landscapes is bilateral. As a result, suburban paradynamic landscape zones of social and economic impact are formed.
Conclusion. It is revealed that urban paradynamic anthropogenic landscape systems are formed due to the development and functioning of the landscapes of urbanized territories. Paradynamic anthropogenic landscape zones of mineral, air, climate, hydrological, hydrogeological, biotic, social and economic impacts on the natural environment are distinguished in their structure. Paradynamic anthropogenic landscape areas with different levels of anthropogenic transformation of landscapes, in particular contamination of natural components, are defined within them. The existence of a direct paradynamic connection between the state of the urban landscapes and the level of morbidity of the urban population has been established. As a result, an extremely dynamic paradynamic anthropogenic landscape zone of the social impact of urban landscape-technogenic systems (LTS) is formed.
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