Causese and circumstances of the appearance of the Blac Sea Cossacsks

  • Беата Варга PhD, Habil, Associate Professor, Department of Modern World History University of Szeged – Szeged Egyetem u. 2. 6722 http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7244-0783
Ключові слова: Zaporozhian Sich, the Black Sea Cossacks, “Common Benefit Order”, steppe frontier, Cossack autonomy

Анотація

The article addresses the issues to what extent the region of the Northern Black Sea Region can be considered a classic frontier; how much the Black Sea Cossack Host can be considered the successor of the Zaporizhzhya Sich and what reasons can explain the appearance of the Black Sea army. It is concluded that the steppe frontier of the Northern Black Sea Region had a number of features that contradict the example of the classic frontier, where the emergence of political power was preceded by the arrival of settlers, and the region remained within the feudal framework and eventually lost its limited autonomy. In this region, the mass migration of people to the southern territory, where there was a special system of sentry and village service, was promoted by state policy; and in new places there was practically no local settled population. The establishment of the Black Sea Cossack Host on the southern border of the Russian Empire was necessary for the state. The need to again re-organize the Cossack army from the scattered Zaporozhian Cossacks was caused primarily by the 2nd Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) during the reign of Catherine II. However, this military formation by the Russian government was perceived as not quite a normal phenomenon, but which it tolerated because of the need to defend the southern borders and because of the military campaigns in the southern direction. The Zaporozhian Sich ceased to exist in 1775, but later revived its historical heritage in the form of the Black Sea Cossack Host. Тhe Black Sea Cossacks brought with them to their new residence - in the regions north of the Kuban River - the elements of self-government practiced in the former Zaporozhian Sich. The former Zaporozhian Cossacks transferred the traditions of Zaporizhia to new places of settlement. As a rule, these power orders limited “Cossack democracy” and put the entire Cossack structure within the framework of the Russian state system.

Завантаження

Дані завантаження ще не доступні.

Посилання

Avramenko, A. 2009. Diskussionnye voprosy istorii kazachesta v svete istoricheskoy geografii. [The debated questions of the history of the Cossacks in the light of historical geography]. Іstoriko-geografіchnі doslіdzhennya v Ukraїnі. issue 11, s. 52–93. (In Ukrainian).
Brekhunenko, V. 2011. Kozaky na stepovomu kordоni Эvropy` [Cossacks on the steppe border of Europe]. Kiyiv, Insty`tut ukrayins`koyi arxeografiyi ta dzhereloznavstva im. M. S. Grushevs`kogo, 505 s. (In Ukrainian).
Brikner, A. G. 1885. Puteshestvie Yekateriny II v Krym [The Journey of Catherine II to the Crimea ]. Istoricheskiy vestnik . Vol. 22, s. 205–256. (In Russian).
Chukhlіb, T. 2009. Kozaky` i Monarxy` – Mizhnarodni vidnosy`ny` rann`omodernoyi Ukrayins`koyi derzhavy` 1648–1721 rr. [The Cossacks and the Monarchs – The Foreign relations of the Early Modern Ukrainian state 1648–1721] Kíyív, Vid-vo іm. Oleni Telіgi, 616 s. (In Ukrainian).
Chornovol, І. 2015. Komparaty`vni fronty`ry`: svitovy`j i vitchy`znyany`j vy`mir [Comparative frontiers: world and national dimensions] Kíyív, Kritika, 376 s. (In Ukrainian).
Dmitrenko, I. I. 1896. Sbornik istoricheskikh materialov po istorii Kubanskogo kazachego voyska [Collection of historical materials on the history of the Kuban Cossack Army] T. 1. Kubanskiy kray. Kavkazskaya liniya. Chernomorskoe voysko kazache. Khoperskie kazaki: 1737–1801 gg. SPb, tip. Shtaba Otd. Korpusa Zhandarmov, 1896, т. 3. (In Ukrainian).
Frolov, B. Ye. «Poryadok obshchey polzy»: opyt istoricheskogo kommentariya [The order of the common good”: the conclusions of a historical commentary]. URL: http://www.cossackdom.com/articles/f/frolov_porjadok.htm 2013.10.02. (In Ukrainian).
GAKK – Gosudarstvennyy arkhiiv Krasnodarskogo kraya [State Archive of the Krasnodar Territory] F. 670, Kollektsiya dokumentov po istorii Kubanskogo kazachego voyska [Collection of documents on the history of the Kuban Cossack Army], op. 1. D. 17.
GAKK – Gosudarstvennyy arkhiiv Krasnodarskogo kraya [State Archive of the Krasnodar Territory] F. 249. Kantselyariya nakaznogo atamana Kubanskogo kazachego voyska [Office of the Ataman of the Kuban Cossack Army], оp. 1. D. 2830. (In Ukrainian).
Golobutskiy, V. A. 1957. Zaporozhskoe kozachestvo. [Тhe Zaporozhian Cossacks]. Kiev, Gosudarstvennoe izdatelstvo politicheskoy literatury USSR, 422 s (In Ukrainian).
Gribovskiy, V. V. 2005. Zaporozhci i nogajci v konteksti Vely`kogo Kordonu. [Zaporozhian Cossacks and Nogais in the context of the Great Border.] Kozatska spadshchina. Almanakh Nіkopolskogo regіonalnogo vіddіlennya Naukovo-doslіdnogo іnstitutu kozatstva Іnstitutu іstorії Ukraїni NAN Ukraїni. issue 1. Nіkopol–Zaporіzhzhya, RA “Tandem-U”, s. 95–131. (In Ukrainian).
Gribovskiy, V. V. 2012. Ponyattya “fronty`r” i “azijs`ky`j kordon” yak instrumenty` doslidzhennya ukrayins`kogo stepovogo porubizhzhya XVI–XVIII st. [The concept of „frontier“ and „Asian border“ as tools for the study of the Ukrainian steppe border of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries.] Naukovi zapy`sky`. Zbirny`k pracz` molody`x vcheny`x ta aspirantiv. Kiyiv, Insty`tut ukrayins`koyi arxeografiyi ta dzhereloznavstva im. M. Grushevs`kogo NAN Ukrayiny`, Vol. 25. s. 109–136. (In Ukrainian).
Kappeler, A. 2003. Yuzhnyy i vostochnyy Frontir Rosii v XVI-XVII vekakh [Southern and Eastern Frontier of Russia in the XVI-XVII centuries]. Ab Imperio, issue 1, s. 49. (In Russian).
Karácsonyi, D. A kelet-európai sztyep és a magyar Alföld mint frontier-területek. Földrajzi Értesítőq 2008, LVII, issue No. 1–2, s. 185–211.
Khodarkovsky, M. 2002. Russia’s Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500–1800. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 304 p.
Khoroshikhin, M. 1881. Kazachi voyska: Opyt voenno-statisticheskogo opisaniya» [Cossack troops: The conclusions of a military-statistical description]. SPb, Tip. A. S. Suvorina, s. 29–30. (In Russian).
Korolenko, P. P. 1896. Dvukhsotletie Kubanskogo kazachego voyska 1696-1896. Bicentennial of the Kuban Cossack Army 1696–1896). Yekaterinodar, Tip. Kuban. obl. pravl., s. 15. (In Russian),
Kunin, Yu. 1998. Sotsiokulturnoe znachenie Chernomorskoy kordonnoy linii v razvitii Kubanskogo kazachego kraya, konets XVIII – vtoraya polovina XIX vek. [Sociocultural significance of the Black Sea cordon line in the development of the Kuban Cossack Territory, in the late 18th - second half of the 19th century]. Avtoreferat dissertatsii, Krasnodar, 1998. URL: http://cheloveknauka.com/sotsiokulturnoeznachenie-chernomorskoy-kordonnoy-linii-v-razvitii-kubanskogo-kazachiego-kraya-konets-viii-vtorayapolovi. (In Ukrainian).
Lep’yavko, S. 2005. Ukrayins`ke kozacztvo i teoriya Vely`kogo kordonu / Kozacz`ka spadshhy`na [Ukrainian Cossacks and the Great Border Theory]. Kozatska spadshchina, № 2, s. 49–65. (In Ukrainian).
Markevich, A. I. 1893. Yuzhnaya Rus pri Yekaterine II. [Southern Rus under Catherine II.] Odessa, Tipografiya L. Kirkhner, 33 s. (In Russian).
Mizits, Yu. A. Kashchenko S. G. 2011. Problema formirovaniya russkogo frontira na yuge Rossii v XVI – pervoy polovine XVIII v. otechestvennoy istorigrafii [The problem of the formation of the Russian frontier in southern Russia in the 16th – first half of the 18th century in the national historiography]. Vestnik Sankt-Petrburgskogo universiteta. ser. 2: Istoriya, 2011, No. 1, s. 9–16. (In Russian).
Papkov, A. I. 2017. «Frontir» ili «ukraina»: dva podkhoda k izucheniyu istorii rossiyskoy kolonizatsii Dnepro-Donskoy lesopstepi v XVI–XVII vv. [„Frontier“ or „Ukraine“: two approaches to studying the history of the Russian colonization of the Dnieper-Don forest steppe steppe in the 16th–17th centuries] Rus, Rossiya: Srednevekove i Novoe vremya, issue 5, s. 176–182. (In Russian).
PSZRI. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy imperii [Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire], vol. XXIII. (In Russian).
RGVIA – Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy voenno-istoricheskiy arkhiv [Russian State Military Historical Archive], f. 52, op. 1/194, d. 304, part 1. (In Russian).
Rigelman, A. I. 1847. Letopisnoe povestvovanie o Maloy Rossii i ee narode i kazakakh voobshche [Annalistic narrative of Little Russia and its people and Cossacks in general], part IV. Moskva, Universitetskaya tip., 819 s. (In Russian).
Shamanaev, A. V. 2014. Puteshestviya v Krym Yekateriny II i Aleksandra I i stanovlenie sistemy sokhraneniya istorchiseskogo naslediya Severnogo Prichernomorya. [The Journey of Catherine II and Alexander I to the Crimea and the establishment of a system for preserving the historical heritage of the Northern Black Sea]. Izvestiya Uralskogo federalnogo universiteta. ser. 2, Gumanitarnye nauki, № 3 (130), s. 79–89. (In Russian).
Shaw, D. J. B. 1983. Southern Frontier of Moscow 1550–1770. Studies in Russian Historical Geography. London, New York, 1983, vol. 1. s. 117–142.
Shcherbina, F. A. 1883. Kolonizatsiya Kubanskoy oblasti [Colonization of the Kuban region]. Kievskaya starina, vol. VII, s. 529–545. (In Russian).
Shcherbina, F. A. 1884. Istoriya samoupravleniya u kubanskikh kazakov [/The history of the selfgovernment in the Kuban Cossacks]. Kievskaya starina. Kiev, Yanv, vol.VIII. s. 223-246. (In Russian).
Shcherbina, F. A. 1888. Kratkiy istoricheskiy ocherk Kubanskogo kazachego voyska [A short historical outline of the Kuban Cossack Army]. Kubanskoe kazache voysko 1696–1888 godakh, Voronezh, 1888, s. 1–240. (In Russian).
Shevchuk, V. P., Taranenko, M. G. 1999. Istoriya ukrayinskoyi derzhavnosti [History of the Ukrainian statehood]. Kiyiv, Libіd’, 1999. 448 s. (In Ukrainian).
Skalkovskiy, A. 1846. Istoriya Novoy Sechi ili poslednego kosha Zaporozhskogo [The story of Nova Sich, or the last Zaporozhian Kosh]. Odessa, 1846, vol. III, 386 s. (In Russian).
Skalkovskiy, A. O. 1994. Istoriya Novoyi Sichi, abo ostann`ogo Kosha Zaporoz`kogo. Dnіpropetrovsk, Sіch, 660 s. (In Ukrainian).
Sushchinskiy, B. 1998. Kozatskі vozhdі Ukraїni. [The Cossack leaders of Ukraine ]. Odesa, “Alfa – Omega”. 685 s. (In Ukrainian).
Turner, F. 2009. Frontir v amerikanskoy istorii. [The Frontier in American History]. Moskva, Izdatelstvo Ves mir, 304 s. (In Russian).
Vsepoddanneyshaya prosba 1882. Vsepoddanneyshaya prosba preobrazovannykh iz b. Zaporozhtsev chernomorskikh kozakov o poselenii ikh na Tamani. [The most complete request converted from b. Zaporozhets of the Black Sea Cossacks about their settlement on Taman]. Kievskaya starina, vol. III, s. 332–334. (In Russian).
Zhukov, D. S., Kanishchev, V. V. Lyamin, S. K. 2015. Konkretno-istoricheskoe obosnovanie rascheta znacheniy upravlyayushchikh faktorov dinamiki yuzhnorusskogo frontira v XVII – seredine XIX v. [A concrete historical justification for calculating the values of the driving factors of the dynamics of the South Russian frontier in the 17th – mid 19th century]. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Ser. Gumaniternye nauki. Tambov, vol. 20, issue 10, s. 16–30. (In Russian).
Zubkov, K. I. Frontir kak issledovatelskaya paradigma [The Frontier as a research paradigm]. Uralskiy Istoricheskiy Vestnik, 2018, 4(61), s. 63–70. (In Russian).
Опубліковано
2020-12-07
Як цитувати
Варга, Б. (2020). Causese and circumstances of the appearance of the Blac Sea Cossacsks. Дриновський збірник, 13, 97-105. https://doi.org/10.7546/DS.2020.13.12