Evaluation of genotype-environment interactions for non-polar lipids and fatty acids in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds
Genotype-environment (G × E) interactions for non-polar lipids and fatty acids were studied in 28 chickpea accessions. The total nonpolar lipid content was determined by Soxhlet procedure; fatty acid profiles were investigated by gas chromatography. There were strong negative correlations between oleic and linoleic acids and between oleic and linolenic acids. The correlation between linoleic and linolenic acids was positive and either strong or moderate. Correlations between the other acids were differently directed and of various strengths. Line Luh 99/11 turned out to be an outlier in relation to the other genotypes due to an unusually high content of stearic acid. Cultivar CDC Jade was an outlier because of too low content of stearic acid and too high content of linoleic acid. Accession UD0502195 was an outlier due to a higher content of palmitic acid. Accessions UD0500022 and UD0502195 were outliers due to the low content of total nonpolar lipids. The variability in the total nonpolar lipid content was not affected by the environment, but the environment contributions to the variability of oleic and linoleic acids were very high. There were only statistically significant differences in the oleic and linoleic acid amounts between the cultivation years. There was a positive correlation between the oleic acid content and the average air temperature during the “anthesis – maturity” period and a negative correlation between the linoleic acid content and the average temperature during this period. There was also a negative correlation between the oleic acid content and precipitation during the “anthesis – maturity” period and a positive correlation between the linoleic acid content and precipitation during this period. The palmitic acid content was the most responsive to environmental changes in cultivar CDC Vanguard and the most resistant in cultivar Krasnokutskiy 123. The stearic acid content was the most sensitive to environmental changes in cultivar ILC 3279 and the most irresponsive in accession UKR001:0502116. As to oleic and linoleic acids, line L 273-18 had the bi (plasticity) and S2di (stability) values coupled with the corresponding mean contents, meaning that this genotype may be adapted to decreased temperature. The ecovalence values (Wi2) for the total nonpolar lipids, palmitic, stearic and linolenic acids indicated that these characteristics were little responsive to environmental fluctuations. As to oleic and linoleic acids, Wi2 values were much higher in many accessions, confirming the variability of these parameters depending on growing conditions. Having the highest Wi2 values, accession Garbanzo 2 is expected to show high degrees of the G × E interactions for oleic and linoleic acids. S2di was positively correlated with Wi2.
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