The Journal of V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series «Biology» 2023-03-16T23:38:07+00:00 В.В.Навроцька / V.V.Navrotskaya Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series "Biology" is a collection of scientific works containing results of experimental research and reviews on biology, including biochemistry and genetics, zoology and botany, animal and plant physiology, mycology, microbiology, soil science, cryobiology, etc., as well as materials about events in scientific life and descriptions of original methods and devices in the field of biology.</p> <p>The Journal is intended for teachers, scholars, students and post-graduate students, specializing in biology or adjacent fields of science.</p> <p>The Journal has been registered by the order of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine&nbsp;No. 1643 of 28.12.2019, and included in the list of scientific&nbsp;specialized editions of Ukraine (category “B”, specialty: 091).</p> In memory of Vasyl Vasylyovych Zhmurko, scientist and teacher 2023-01-20T19:05:38+00:00 Editorial Team <p>In memory of Vasyl Vasylyovych Zhmurko, scientist and teacher</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Inheritance of spike color in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.) 2023-03-16T23:36:59+00:00 Hao Fu <p>Aim: specify the spike color inheritance in einkorn wheat (<em>Triticum monococcum</em> L.) hybrids. Methods: reciprocal hybrids between the black-spikeed UA0300282 and white-spikeed UA0300311 cultivated einkorn accessions were created with the use of the “single cross” method. Four generations were analyzed using the segregation analysis method: P<sub>1</sub>, P<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>1</sub>, and F<sub>2</sub> at autumn and spring sowing. Results: it was found that for the combination UA0300311 × UA0300282 at autumn sowing, the most suitable inheritance model is MX2-EA-AD, which implies the presence of two main genes with an equal additive effect plus polygene systems with an additive-dominant effect. In the plants of spring sowing, spike color is described by the MX2-CD-AD model, which suggests the presence of two major genes with full dominant effect plus polygenes with additive-dominant effect. In the reciprocal combination UA0300282 × UA0300311, the optimal model that describes best the spike color dispersion in plants of autumn sowing is MX2-ADI-AD, which suggests the presence of two main genes with an additive-dominant-epistatic effect plus polygenes with the additive-dominant effect. Distribution of the spring-sowing plants in terms of the spike color is well described by the MX2-ADI-ADI model&nbsp;– two main genes with an additive-dominant-epistatic effect plus a system of polygenes also with an additive-dominant-epistatic effect. The genes manifest themselves differently in the trait control depending on the weather conditions determined by the sowing time. In the group of direct combination plants (UA0300311 × UA0300282) of autumn sowing, heritability determined by the main gene is 97%, while that determined by polygenes is 2.7%; at spring sowing, these values are 67% and 32% respectively. In the reciprocal combination (UA0300282 × UA0300311) of autumn sowing, the main genes heritability effect is 99%, and the polygenic system accounts for 1%; in plants of spring sowing, respectively, 72%, and 28%. Conclusions: on the basis of the spike color expressiveness in the crossing combination of the einkorn kinds of wheat UA0300311 × UA0300282, the parental forms differ in two main genes and polygenes. The ratio of spike color heritability components depends on the growing conditions: at autumn sowing, 97–99 % of heritability is determined by the main genes, the polygenes account for 1–3 % of phenotypic variability; at spring sowing, the heritability component increases to 28–33 % due to the polygenic complex.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of low temperature storage conditions on the viability of microalgae Chlorococcum dissectum 2023-03-16T22:55:34+00:00 K. Vozovyk N. Shevchenko <p><em>Chlorococcum</em> <em>dissectum</em> Korshikov, 1953 is a unicellular freshwater green alga capable of accumulating and depositing lipids in cells. Regardless of their origin and taxonomic classification, biotechnologically important microorganisms and cell lines are biological resources that are used to produce various products. The aim of the work was to determine the effect of low-temperature storage conditions on the alga viability. The temperatures used were as follows: –18, –40, –70, and –196°C. An ordinary household freezer was used to provide –18°C. Cooling to –40 and –70°C was carried out with uncontrolled cooling rates by placing the cryotubes directly into the freezers or using a Mr. Frosty freezing container, which provides a temperature decrease rate of 1 deg/min. Freezing to –196°C was carried out by direct immersion of cryotubes in liquid nitrogen and two-stage cooling at 1 and 20 deg/min to –40°C with subsequent transfer to a cryostorage. The viability of <em>C. dissectum</em> was determined by counting the colonies formed on BG-11 agarized nutrient medium. It was found that the cells completely lost their viability after freezing to –18°C and storage for two days. Cryopreservation to –196°C for all studied variants and uncontrolled cooling rate to –40 and –70°C, as well as further storage of such samples at these temperatures, led to significant or complete loss of their viability. Cooling in a Mr. Frosty freezer container to –40 and –70°C did not affect the ability of cells to grow. Moreover, storing <em>C. dissectum</em> at –40°C did not cause a significant loss of viability throughout the study period, and its storage at –70°C did not change the viability index at all. The obtained results showed that the controlled cooling and the use of freezers at –40°C and –70°C, respectively, are promising for medium-term and long-term storage of <em>C. dissectum</em> suspension culture. To increase the viability of samples after cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature, it is necessary to develop cryopreservation modes using cryoprotectants.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of genotype-environment interactions for non-polar lipids and fatty acids in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds 2023-03-16T23:38:07+00:00 L. Relina O. Suprun R. Bohuslavskyi L. Vecherska O. Bezuhla L. Kobyzeva O. Vazhenina V. Kolomatska S. Ponurenko N. Ilchenko <p>Genotype-environment (G × E) interactions for non-polar lipids and fatty acids were studied in 28 chickpea accessions. The total nonpolar lipid content was determined by Soxhlet procedure; fatty acid profiles were investigated by gas chromatography. There were strong negative correlations between oleic and linoleic acids and between oleic and linolenic acids. The correlation between linoleic and linolenic acids was positive and either strong or moderate. Correlations between the other acids were differently directed and of various strengths. Line Luh 99/11 turned out to be an outlier in relation to&nbsp;the other genotypes due to an unusually high content of stearic acid. Cultivar CDC Jade was an outlier because of too low content of stearic acid and too high content of linoleic acid. Accession UD0502195 was an outlier due to a higher content of palmitic acid. Accessions UD0500022 and UD0502195 were outliers due to the low content of total nonpolar lipids. The variability in the total nonpolar lipid content was not affected by the environment, but the environment contributions to the variability of oleic and linoleic acids were very high. There were only statistically significant differences in the oleic and linoleic acid amounts between the cultivation years. There was a positive correlation between the oleic acid content and the average air temperature during the “anthesis – maturity” period and a negative correlation between the linoleic acid content and the average temperature during this period. There was also a negative correlation between the oleic acid content and precipitation during the “anthesis – maturity” period and a positive correlation between the linoleic acid content and precipitation during this period. The palmitic acid content was the most responsive to environmental changes in cultivar CDC Vanguard and the most resistant in cultivar Krasnokutskiy 123. The stearic acid content was the most sensitive to environmental changes in cultivar ILC 3279 and the most irresponsive in accession UKR001:0502116. As to oleic and linoleic acids, line L 273-18 had the bi (plasticity) and S<sup>2</sup>di (stability) values coupled with the corresponding mean contents, meaning that this genotype may be adapted to decreased temperature. The ecovalence values (Wi<sup>2</sup>) for the total nonpolar lipids, palmitic, stearic and linolenic acids indicated that these characteristics were little responsive to environmental fluctuations. As to oleic and linoleic acids, Wi<sup>2</sup> values were much higher in many accessions, confirming the variability of these parameters depending on growing conditions. Having the highest Wi<sup>2</sup> values, accession Garbanzo 2 is expected to show high degrees of the G × E interactions for oleic and linoleic acids. S<sup>2</sup>di was positively correlated with Wi<sup>2</sup>.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)