The red blood cells cytometric characteristics of young fresh-water fish of various families
The morphometric indices of red blood cells of young fish of various species inhabiting coastal zones of the water bodies were studied. The subjects of the research were the fish of four families: Carp (Alburnus alburnus, Carassius gibelio, Rhodeus amarus, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus), Needles (Syngnathus abaster nigro lineatus), Centrarchidae (Lepomis gibbosus), Loaches (Cobitis taenia taenia), Gobies (Neogobius fluviatilis). The hydroecological conditions were characterized by an intense oxygen regime, high content of phosphates, and heavy metals (zinc). The fish peripheral blood was taken from the tail vein; smears were made according to the classical Romanowsky-Giemsa method. Our research showed that the red blood cells of young fish belonging to the ecological group of inactive and unpretentious species (Neogobius fluviatilis, Carassius gibelio) had the largest cross-sectional area and a high index of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. The indicators of erythrocyte eccentricity were the highest in the active fish with high energy costs (Alburnus alburnus, Lepomis gibbosus). The largest number of erythrocytes with pathological events (cytolysis, karyolysis, pyknosis, poikilocytosis) was observed in the young Alburnus alburnus (14%), and the smallest one in Rhodeus amarus and Lepomis gibbosus (2–4%). In the individuals of Syngnathus abaster nigro lineatus affected by parasitic nematodes of the genus Ascaris, the number of erythrocytes with pathologies increased to 81%. Under the toxic load, destabilization of the fish circulatory system begins with the appearance of the young forms of erythrocytes as compensation for depleted mature erythrocytes and ends with the mass destruction of mature erythrocytes. Given these patterns, as well as the relatively low number of young ballast forms of erythrocytes and mature erythrocytes with pathological features, we can assume that the state of the red blood cells in the studied young fishes meets the conditional norm, with the exception of the blood of Syngnathus abaster nigro lineatus infected with parasites. In our opinion, the main characteristics of the fish red blood that reflect the fishes’ adaptive capacities are as follows: eccentricity ratio of erythrocytes, the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, ratio of the young ballast forms of erythrocytes, and the relative number of erythrocytes with pathology.
Ahmed I., Reshi Q.M., Fazio F. (2020). The influence of the endogenous and exogenous factors on hematological parameters in different fish species: a review. Aquaculture International, 28, 869–899. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-019-00501-3
Belokon A.S., Marenkov O.N., Dvoretskij A.I. (2013). Contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in the fish roe of commercial fish of the Zaporizhya Reservoir. Yaderna Fyizika ta Energetika, 14(1), 81–85. (in Russian)
Ezzat A., Hafez S., El-Nady F., Abdel-Barr M. (2000). Effect of intoxification by some heavy metals on blood characteristics of Siganus rivulatus (Siganidae, Teleost). Materials of 5th International Egyptian Water Technology Conference, pp. 3–5.
Fazio F. (2019). Fish hematology analysis as an important tool of aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture, 500, 237–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.10.030
Fazio F., Lanteri G., Saoca C. et al. (2020). Individual variability of blood parameters in striped bass Morone saxatilis possible differences related to weight and length. Aquaculture International, 28, 1665–1673. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-020-00550-z
Fedonenko E.V., Esipova N.B., Marenkov O.N. (2016). Environmental assessment of young fish of Zaporozhian reservoir. Ecological Herald of the North Caucasus, 12(3), 8–14.
Fedonenko O., Marenkov O., Petrovsky O. (2019). The problem of biological obstacles in the operation of nuclear power plants (illustrated by the operation of Zaporizhzhya NPP techno-ecosystem). Nuclear and Radiation Safety, 2(82), 54–60. https://doi.org/10.32918/nrs.2019.2(82).10 (in Ukrainian)
Fedonenko O, Yakovenko V., Ananieva T. et al. (2018). Fishery and environmental situation assessment of water bodies in the Dnipropetrovsk region of Ukraine. Monograph, World Scientific News, 92(1), 1–138.
Gamito R., Teixeira C.M., Costa M.J., Cabral H.N. (2015). Are regional fisheries’ catches changing with climate. Fisheries Research, 161, 207–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2014.07.014
Ivanova N.T. (1983). Atlas of blood cells of fish. Moscow: Light and food Industry, 184 p. (in Russian)
Konkova A.V., Fedorova N. N. (2016). Pathomorphological changes in red blood cells of young fish Abramia brama of the Volga-Caspian basin. Proceedings VNIRO, (162), 12–17. (in Russian)
Kurchenko V.O., Sharamok T.S. (2020). The hematological parameters of the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, (Bloch, 1782)) under the Zaporizhzhian (Dnipro) reservoir conditions. Turkish Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20 (11), 807–812. http://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v20_11_04
Mineev A.K. (2013). Nonspecific reactions in fish from the reservoirs of the Middle and Lower Volga. Izvestia of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 15(3(7)), 2301–2318. (in Russian)
Mineev A.K. (2016). Hematopathology in the fish of Kuibyshevsky reservoir. Izvestia of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 51–59. (in Russian)
Moroz A.P., Yesipova N.B. (2011). Hematological changes in erythrocytes of fish under the influence of stress. 3rd International Ecological Forum «Clean City. Clean river. Clean PLANET», Kherson, 149–151.
Năstase А., Oţel V. (2017). Fish fauna status of the Natura 2000 sites proposed as new or for extension in the rivers Someș and Mureș (Romania). Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research, 19(3), 57–74. https://doi.org/10.1515/trser-2017-0021
Parfenova I., Soldatov A. (2011). Functional morphology of round goby circulatory erythrocytes under experimental hypoxia conditions. Marine Ecological Journal, 2 (10), 59–67. (in Russian)
Regulations on the Ethics Committee (bioethics). (2019). (Normative document of the Ministry of Education, Science, Youth, and Sports of Ukraine. Order of 19.11.2012 № 1287): Regulatory framework of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (official website). http://www.mon.gov.ua/ua/activity/63/64/normativno-pravova-baza. (in Ukrainian)
Sharon G., Zilberg D. (2012). Atlas of fish histology and histopathology. Central and Northern Arava Research and Development Centers, 78 р.
Sharamok T.S., Esipova N.B., Fedonenko O.V., Biletska O.V. (2016). Ecological and hematological characteristics of Сommon Roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Zaporozhye reservoir. Biological Bulletin of Bogdan Khmelnytskyi Melitopol State Pedagogical University, 6(2), 303–310. (in Ukrainian)
Soldatov A.A. (2005). Peculiarities of organization and functioning of the fish red blood system. Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, 41(3), 272–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10893-005-0060-0 (in Russian)
Speckner W., Schindler J.F., Albers C. (1989). Age-dependent changes in volume and haemoglobin content of erythrocytes in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Journal of Experimental Biology, 141(1), 133–149. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.141.1.133
Yilmaz Е. (2015). A Review on hematology and hemoglobin of fish. Cumhuriyet Science Journal, 36(2), 37–50.
Zelentsova A.S., Skorkina M.Y. (2004). Morphofunctional features of frogs R. ridibunda L. erythrocytes in physiological conditions. Successes of modern natural science, 8, 110. (in Russian)
Zeng L., Zhou L., Guo D.-L. et al. (2017). Ecological effects of dams, alien fish, and physiochemical environmental factors on homogeneity/heterogeneity of fish community in four tributaries of the Pearl River in China. Ecology and Evolution, 7(11), 3904–3915. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2920
Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the journal the right of its first publication under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0), that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship.