• Tetiana V. Podolska PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Professor J. B. Schad Department of Theoretical and Practical Philosophy V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
  • Kateryna H. Fisun PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Theory of Culture and Philosophy of Science V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Keywords: feminism, postcolonialism, the Philippines, gender, LGBTIQ, culture


The article is dedicated to the study of problems of postcolonial feminism in the Philippines and revealing of reasons why they need creation of a separate program that differs from the program of pioneering theorists of postcolonial criticism (Edward Said, Gomi Bgabga, Gayatri Spivak, etc.). The problem of the article is unsufficiently studied postcolonial feminism. The example of the Philippines shows scientific limitations of local articles, however, there is an urgent need to update the whole field of acute issues in the lives of the Filipinos on whom feminist criticism is most focused today. The relevance of the article is due to the interest in development of feminism in the Philippines – postcolonial country which suffered both from colonial West policy and American domination, and had a matriarchal culture in pre‐colonial times. The aim of the article is to analyze the problems, ideas, and strategies of postcolonial feminism in the Philippines in terms of postcolonial philosophy and gender theory. Authors analyze social problems in the lives of the Filipinos, including unresolved women’s issues at all levels of society and LGBTIQ community, sex tourism and prostitution, etc. Cultural foundations of gender perceptions are analyzed in the Philippines and reasons are found for distrust of the Filipinos to Western critics of patriarchy in artificial imposition of patriarchy by Spanish conquerors in colonial times. Authors consider paradoxical situation of LGBTIQ community in the Philippines emphasizing non‐violent and non‐homophobic nature of Philippine society which is represented by the figure of babaylan – transgender woman or feminine shamanic man known even in pre‐colonial times. In addition, authors analyze in detail the problems of sex tourism, prostitution, abandoned children from “white men” who represent not only saved forms of colonialism in the East (they represent the model of symbolic relations between West and East as a relationship between the dominant and the subordinate), but also have transformed into social problems which require regulation by the authorities. The novelty of the study is in an attempt to find interdependencies between historical and cultural characteristics, gender perceptions, and strategies of postcolonial feminism in the Philippines.


Download data is not yet available.


Introduction into Gender Studies (2001). (ed. by Iryna Zherebkina, Part 1. Manual). Kharkov, KСGS;Saint‐Petersburg, Aletheia. 708 p. (In Russian).

Marceniuk Tamara (2018). Why one should not be afraid of feminism. Kyiv, KOMORA. 326 p. (In Ukrainian).

Said, Edward (2012). Culture and Imperialism (transl. from English A. Govorunov; original work published 1976). Saint‐Petersburg, Vladimir Dal. 738 p. (In Russian).

Said, Edward (2005). Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient (transl. from English; original work published 1978). Saint‐Petersburg, Russian world. 636 p. (In Russian).

Spivak, Gayatri (2001). Can the Subaltern Speak? In: Introduction to the Gender Studies (Part 2. Chrestomathy, рр. 649‐670; original work published 1988). Kharkiv, KCGR; Saint‐Petersburg, Aletheia. (In Russian).

Stavrakakis, Yannis, Chrysoloras, Nikos (2008). (I Can't Get No) Enjoyment: Lacanian Theory and the Analysis of Nationalism. In: Gender Studies (ed. by Iryna Zherebkina, № 18, рр. 242‐265; original work published 2006). Kharkiv, KCGR. (In Russian).

Foucault, Michel (1997). The Will to Knowledge. In: The History of Sexuality (transl. from French, Vol. 1; original work published 1976). 235 p. (In Ukrainian).

Aguilar, Delia (1995). Toward a Reinscription of Nationalist Feminism. In: Review of Women’s Studies (Vol. 4. № 2. pp. 1‐14). Retrieved from: (In English).

Arnado, Janet M. (2008). Women's Emancipation in the Philippines: A Legacy of Western Feminism? In: Globalization and its Counter‐forces in Southeast Asia (ed. T. Chong, pp. 296‐312). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. (In English).

Biana, T. Hazel, Leni, dIR Garcia, Ninotchka, Mumtaj B. Albano (2021). Beyond the bump: Reconceiving the philosophy of pregnancy. Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy (PIJP) (Vol. 22, 1: 2021, pp. 19‐34). (In English).

Cullen, Shay (2019). The curse of sex tourism. Asian Catholic Dioceses Directory. UCA News. Retrieved from:‐curse‐of‐sex‐tourism/85252#. (In English).

Leonardo Estacio Jr., Jan Zsanila Estacio, Rowalt Alibudbud (2021). Relationship of Psychosocial Factors, HIV, and Sex Work Among Filipino Drug Users. Sexuality Research and Social Policy (Vol. 18, issue 4, pp. 933‐940).‐021‐00563‐0. (In English).

Neil Garcia, J. (2004). Male homosexuality in the Philippines: a short history. IIAS Newsletter (№ 35,May 8). Retrieved from: default/files/IIAS_NL35_13.pdf. (In English).

Hega, Mylene D., Alporha, Veronica C., Evangelista, Meggan S. (2017). Feminism and the Women’s Movement in the Philippines: Struggles, Advances, and Challenges. PasigCity, Friedrich‐ Ebert‐Stiftung – Philippine Office. 28 p. Retrieved from:‐ files/bueros/philippinen/14072.pdf. (In English).

Jacobsen, Scott Douglas, Hill, Danielle Erika (2019). Empowerment in Progress: Feminisms in the Philippines from the Pre‐Hispanic Period to the Duterte Regime (Part I). Humanist Voices. Official Secular‐Humanist publication by Humanist Voices. Retrieved from:‐voices/empowerment‐in‐progress‐feminisms‐in‐the‐ philippines‐from‐the‐pre‐hispanic‐period‐to‐the‐duterte‐c69a0bc3676d. (In English).

Ladrido, Portia (2017). What is the future of LGBTIQ rights 19. in Southeast Asia? CNN Philippines. Retrieved from:‐sogie‐report.html. (In English).

Mark GWA (2019). Sex Tourism in the Philippines: A Basis for Planning, and Policy Making and Amendments. J Tourism Hospit (8:416, pp. 1‐12). DOI: 10.35248/2167‐0269.19.8.416. (In English).

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty (2011) (with an introduction by W. L. Courtney, LL.D., The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd.; original work published 1859). The Project Gutenberg EBook. Retrieved from:‐h/34901‐h.htm. (In English).

Nads, Esteva (2019). The women who helped shape Philippine feminism. CNN Philippines. Retrieved from:‐women‐ who‐helped‐shape‐Philippine‐feminism‐.html?fbclid=IwAR2eMQHKXA57tsY‐ brSHNtWmna5eZVV3j3fNDk6MkCJydAIEWyNyIwLLfBQ. (In English).

Redfern, Corinne (2019). In Philippine red-light district, an uphill struggle to battle trafficking and abuses. The Washington Post. Retrieved from:‐ pacific/in‐philippine‐red‐light‐district‐an‐uphill‐struggle‐to‐battle‐trafficking‐and‐ abuses/2019/11/17/43a6470a‐bad3‐11e9‐b3b4-2bb69e8c4e39_story.html. (In English).

Sik Ying Ho, Petula, Jackson, Stevi (2021). Locating sexual politics and gendered lives: East Asian perspectives. Journal of Gender Studies (Vol. 30. Issue 5. pp. 503-511). (In English).

Tacon, Dave (2015). Philippines’ generation of sex tourism children. Al Jazeera. Retrieved from:‐generation‐of‐ sex‐tourism‐children. (In English).

Umali, Jastin (2021). Women’s Suffrage: How the Filipina Won the Right to Vote. Esquire Mag. Retrieved from:‐reads/features/womens‐suffrage‐philippines‐ a2212‐20210505‐lfrm. (In English).

Women in the Philippines: Inspiring and Empowered (2021). Asia Society. 2021. Retrieved from:‐philippines‐inspiring‐and‐empowered. (In English).

Zafft, Carmen R., Tidball, Sriyani (2010). A Survey of Child Sex Tourism in the Philippines. In: Second Annual Interdisciplinary Conference on Human Trafficking. Retrieved from: text=humtrafconf2. (In English).

How to Cite
Podolska, T. V., & Fisun, K. H. (2021). TO THE PROBLEMS OF POSTCOLONIAL FEMINISM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES). The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series "Theory of Culture and Philosophy of Science", (64), 14-24.