Study the Effect of Hydrofluoric (HF) Concentration on the Topography of the Porous Silicon Layer Prepared by Sunlight Photochemical Etching (SLPCE)

  • Rosure Borhanalden Abdulrahman Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk
  • Hassan A. Kadhem Ministry of Education, Open Educational College, Kirkuk Center, Iraq
  • Abdul Hakim Sh. Mohammed Department of Physics, college of Education for pure sciences, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq
  • Issa Z. Hassan Department of Physics, college of Education for pure sciences, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq
Keywords: Photochemical Etching, Porous silicon, Morphology studies, Sunlight photochemical, AFM, SLPCE


Silicon nanocrystals have a vast range of potential applications, from improving the efficiency of solar cells and optoelectronic devices to biomedical imaging and drug delivery, wastewater treatment, and antibacterial activities. In this study a photochemical etching technique was used to create layers of porous silicon on a donor silicon wafer with orientation (111) and resistivity equal to 1‑10 ohm·cm. The process involved focusing sunlight onto the samples using a telephoto lens with a suitable focal length of 30cm and a diameter of 90 mm, which provided sufficient energy to complete the chemical etching. By using a constant etching time of 60 minutes and different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (ranging from 25% to 40%), layers with varying properties were obtained. The resulting surfaces were studied using the atomic force microscope (AFM), revealing the formation of different nanostructures and particles with varying shapes, sizes, and thicknesses depending on the preparation conditions. The average size of the particles was found to be 90.43nm at a concentration of 40% acid, while decreasing to 48.7nm at a concentration of 25% HF acid.


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How to Cite
Abdulrahman, R. B., Kadhem, H. A., Sh. Mohammed, A. H., & Z. Hassan, I. (2023). Study the Effect of Hydrofluoric (HF) Concentration on the Topography of the Porous Silicon Layer Prepared by Sunlight Photochemical Etching (SLPCE). East European Journal of Physics, (3), 340-345.

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