Determination of Calibration X-Ray Beam Qualities and Establish a Set of Conversion Coefficients for Calibration of Radiation Protection Devices Used in Diagnostic Radiology
The use of X-ray facilities in calibrating radiation measuring equipment in diagnostic radiology requires an exact knowledge of the radiation field. X-ray spectrums are made narrow beam by proper filtration recommended by several international organizations. In the present study, the experimental determination of X-ray calibration qualities and analysis of conversion coefficients from air Kerma to ambient and personal dose equivalent is carried for X-ray beam irradiator X80-225kV as per ISO narrow spectrum series at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) in Bangladesh. The X-ray beam involved in half value layer, effective energy, beam homogeneity coefficient and consistency of X-ray production from the generator (kV and mA) is conducted. A discrepancy of half value layer has been observed for N200 beam code by -8.5% which leads to the deviation of effective energy by -7.7% with a standard deviation of 1.3%. The conversion coefficients from the air kerma to dose equivalent that satisfying the condition of ICRU sphere is established to obtain radiation qualities and compared with values referred by other standard laboratories. A deviation of 0.87% has been observed for H*(10) and H¢(0.07) in between ISO and BCRU empirical relation which is insignificant. A set of conversion coefficients for Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) has also been calculated for ICRU four element tissue.
X-ray and Gamma Reference Radiations for Calibrating Dosimeters & Dose rate meters and for determining their response as a Function of Photon Energy, Part-3: Calibration of Area and Personal Dosimeters and the Determination of Their Response as a Function and Angle of Incidence, ISO 4037-3 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1999).
R.D. Evans, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Interactions; in: Radiation Dosimetry I, edited by Attix and Roesch, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, New York and London, 1968).
Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources, ICRU Report 39, (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 1985).
Determination of Dose Equivalents from External Radiation Sources, ICRU Report 43, (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 1988).
Measurement of Dose Equivalents from External Photon and Electron Radiation, ICRU Report 47, (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 1992).
Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection, ICRU Report 51, (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 1993).
Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection against External Radiation, ICRP Publication 74, Annals of the ICRP 26 (3-4), (International Commission on Radiological Protection, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1996).
X-ray and Gamma Reference Radiations for Calibrating Dosimeters & Dose Rate Meters and for Determining their Response as a Function of Photon Energy, Part-2: Dosimetry for Radiation Protection Over the Energy Range 8keV to 1.3MeV and 4MeV to 9MeV, ISO 4037-2, (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1997).
Calibration of Radiation Protection Monitoring Instruments, Safety Report Series-16, (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1999).
Data for Use in Radiation Protection against External Radiation Report, (International Commission on Radiological Protection, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1987).
S.R. Wagner, B. Grosswendt, J.R. Harvey, A.J. Mill, H.J. Selbach, and B.R. Siebert, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 12, 231 (1985), https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17027979.
I.M.G. Thompson, Journal of Radiation Protection, 9(3), 203 (1989), https://doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/9/3/007.
Anon – BCRU, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 14, 337 (1986), https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a079667.
Data for Use in Protection against External Radiation, ICRP Publication 51, (International Commission on Radiological Protection, Oxford: Pergamon, 1987).
W.J. Iles, Conversion Coefficients from Air-kerma to Ambient Dose Equivalent for the International Standards Organizations Wide, Narrow and Low series of Reference Filtered X-Radiation, NRPB-R206 (1987).
W.W. Seelentag, W. Panzer, G. Drexler, L. Plantz and F. Santer, A Catalogue of Spectra for the Calibration of Dosimeters, GSF Report 560 (1979).
National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program bulletin. Dosimetry, II:1, NVLAP (1995).
Personnel Dosimetry Performance – Criteria for Testing, McLean, ANSI/HPS N13 11, (Health Physics Society, Virginia, 1993).
R.J. Traub, J.C. McDonald, and M.K. Murphy, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 74, 13 (1997), https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a032176.
H.M. Kramer, J. Böhm, W.J. Iles, and I.M.G. Thompson, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 54, 267 (1994), https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a082348.
R.F. Nelson, and A.B. Chilton, Low-energy Photon Dose Deposition in Tissue Slab and Spherical Phantoms, Report NUREG/CR-3425, (Washington, DC; US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983).
D.T. Bartlett, P.J. Dimbylow, and T.M. Francis, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 32, 123 (1990), https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a080727.
M.S. Rahman, Report of MEXT Fellowship Program. Calibration and Standardization of Radiation Measuring devices, (JAEA, 2003), pp. 23.
Anon – BCRU, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 14(4), 337 (1986), https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a079667.
M. Ginjaume, X. Ortega, and A. Barbosa, in: IRPA-10: 10 International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, (Japan Health Physics Society, Japan, 2000), pp. 1-7.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).