Polymorphism of the available potato gene pool for resistance to abiotic and biotic factors of the environment and its practical use
The article presents the results of 1954-2021 studies on the potato polymorphism as a consequence of species evolution and practical application of these investigations. The issue of adaptability of valuable genes of potato, which contributed to its preservation in nature for a long time, is covered, and the potato evolution is traced on living material. It is noted that some species of this crop do not exist any longer and, given this, the importance of the plant genetic bank as a depository of material and intellectual assets of the people of Ukraine is stressed. The studies allowed for identification of valuable potato accessions, analysis of the genealogy of individual cultivars, which provided an opportunity to investigate the relationships between modern cultivars and their ancestors. The identified or newly created valuable potato accessions found further practical use, as they were involved in breeding, scientific and educational programs. Due to multi-year research aimed at targeted involvement, effectively use and preservation of the authenticity of the valuable gene pool of potatoes as well as at optimization of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the National Bank of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, a pedigree database on 301 accessions from 18 countries with certificates for 35 valuable unique accessions was formed and registered with the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources. We also built-up collections of 6 different types, specifically, a trait collection for yield including 46 accessions from 8 countries; a trait collection for starch content and technological scores (61 accessions from 5 countries); a working trait collection for large tubers (121 accessions from 16 countries); a working trait collection for resistance to viral diseases (31 accessions from 7 countries); and a trait collection for distinctness traits (568 accessions from 15 countries). The above collections and accessions of the potato gene pool are a concentrated reserve of valuable genes as well as material and an intellectual asset of the people of Ukraine; they play an important role in improving the welfare of the nation and the strength of the state, increase its scientific, intellectual and spiritual potentials and need preserving in a viable state and genetic integrity.
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