The Effect of Doping on the Electrical Conductivity of Vanadium Oxide (V2O5) Films Doped with Nickel Oxide (NiO) Prepared via Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD).

Keywords: Thin films, Vanadium oxide (V2O5), Pulsed laser deposition (PLD), Annealing, Electrical properties


In this research, the focus was on examining thin films of vanadium oxide (abbreviated as V2O5) with different levels of doping using nickel oxide (NiO) (X = 0, 6, 8)%. The films were created through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The thin films were made and subjected to annealing at 450°C for a duration of one hour. The structural properties of the films were examined using the XRD diffraction technique, whereby the films' composition was found to be polycrystalline, featuring an orthorhombic structure. Notably, the films displayed a prominent alignment along the (111) plane, manifesting at an angle measuring approximately 27.889˚. The FE-SEM technology was utilized to explore and evaluate the surface morphology of the thin films. This showed a nanotube-to-spherical shape transformation. Following the implementation of EDX x-ray technique, it was determined that the films comprised the elemental components of vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), and oxygen (O), consistent with the doping ratios. The assessment of the films' optical properties was carried out through the utilization of UV–visible spectrophotometer, demonstrating decreased absorbance and absorption coefficient, as well as an increased energy gap from 2.32 eV to 2.93 eV. The electrical conductivity results indicated a decrease in direct current conductivity (σd.c) with increasing doping ratio, while the activation energy (Ea) increased. Consequently, these films can be utilized in thermoelectric generators.


Download data is not yet available.


H.M.R. Giannetta, C. Calaza, D.G. Lamas, L. Fonseca, and L. Fraigi, "Electrical transport properties of V2O5 thin films obtained by thermal annealing of layers grown by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature," Thin Solid Films, 589, 730-734 (2015).

Z. Zheng et al., "The Optical Properties of V2O5 Films Deposited on Single Crystal Diamond Under Homogenizing Preparation Technology," Integrated Ferroelectrics, 235(1), 100-105 (2023).

S. Senapati, and S. Panda, "Effect of aging of V2O5 sol on properties of nanoscale films," Thin Solid Films, 599, 42-48 (2016).

B. Priya, P. J. Arunima, and T. Kumar, "Structural, morphological and optical properties of V2O5 thin films for," Growth And Characterization Of Semiconductor Nanostructure For Device Applications, p. 106, 2023.

J. Huotari, J. Lappalainen, J. Eriksson, R. Bjorklund, E. Heinonen, I. Miinalainen, J. Puustinen, et al., "Synthesis of nanostructured solid-state phases of V7O16 and V2O5 compounds for ppb-level detection of ammonia," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 675, 433-440 (2016).

R. Moskalyk, and A.M. Alfantazi, "Processing of vanadium: a review," Minerals Engineering, 16(9), 793-805 (2003).

H. Khmissi, S.A. Mahmoud, and A.A. Akl, "Investigation of thermal annealing effect on the microstructure, morphology, linear and non-linear optical properties of spray deposited nanosized V2O5 thin films," Optik, 227, 165979 (2021).

Y. Yue, L. Ma, J. Sun, H.-K. Jeong, and H. Liang, "Super-hierarchical Ni/porous-Ni/ V2O5 nanocomposites," RSC Adv. 7(64), 40383-40391 (2017).

S.F. Cogan, N.M. Nguyen, S.J. Perrotti, and R.D. Rauh, "Optical properties of electrochromic vanadium pentoxide," Journal of Applied Physics, 66(3), 1333 1337 (1989).

K. Schneider, "Optical properties and electronic structure of V2O5, V2O3 and VO2," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 31(13), 10478-10488 (2020).

V.S. Vijay, R. Varghese, A. Sakunthala, S. Rajesh, and B.J.V. Vidhya, "Highly crystalline V2O5 and V6O13 thin films by PLD and a study on morphology transition of V2O5 by post annealing," Vacuum, 187, 110097 (2021).

M. Zou, "Deposition Methods and Thermoresistive Properties of Vanadium Oxide and Amorphous Silicon Thin Films," M.Sc. Thesis, University of Dayton, 2015.

H. Lv, X. Tian, M.Y. Wang, and D. Li, "Vibration energy harvesting using a phononic crystal with point defect states," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 034103 (2013).

M. Bonomo, "Synthesis and characterization of NiO nanostructures: a review," Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 20(8), 222 (2018).

H. Xuemei, S. Yukun, and B. Bai, "Fabrication of cubic pn heterojunction-like NiO/In V2O3 composite microparticles and their enhanced gas sensing characteristics," Journal of Nanomaterials, 2016, 7589028 (2016).

A.N. Mohsin, B.H. Adil, H.Q. Khaleel, R.A. Al-Ansari, and I.R. Swadi, "Non-Thermal Plasma Effect Of Li Doped Nio Thin Films Prepared By The Spray Pyrolysis Technique For Sensor Applications," International Journal of Applied Sciences and Technology, 4(1), 80-97 (2022).

A.S. Fathima, I.K. Punithavthy, A. Rajeshwari, A. Sindhya, and A. Muthuvel, "Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of V2O5 Thin films at different Molarities by Spray pyrolysis method," Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences, 4(4), 1050 (2022).

B. Priya, P. Jasrotia, I. Sulania, D.K. Chaudhary, R. Gupta, A.S. Verma, R. Kumar, et al., "Tuning of Structural and Morphological Characteristics of V2O5 Thin Films Using Low Energy 16 keV N+ for Optical and Wetting Applications," ECS Advances, 2(2), 021002 (2023).

Y.S. Thakur, A.D. Acharya, and S. Sharma, and Bhawna, "Reinforcement of V2O5 nanoparticle in polyaniline to improve the optical and UV-shielding properties," Results in Optics, 11, 100400 (2023).

R. Ramadan, M. Ahmed, and M.M. El-Masry, "PVDF-based (V2O5)x(Mn0.4Fe2.6O4)(2−x), x=[0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1] nanocomposites for tailoring the optical and nonlinear optical properties of PVDF," Polym. Bull. 1436-2449 (2023).

M. Abdelrazek, A.E. Hannora, R.M. Kamel, I. Morad, M.J.O. El-Desoky, and Q. Electronics, "Effect of lanthanum doping on the structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline vanadium pentoxide films prepared by sol-gel method," 55(6), 491 (2023).

Y. Xia, C. Calahoo, B. P. Rodrigues, K. Griebenow, L. Graewe, and L. Wondraczek, "Structure and properties of cerium phosphate and silicophosphate glasses," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 106(5), 2808-2819 (2023).

N. Komal, M. A. Mansoor, M. Mazhar, M. Sohail, Z. Malik, and M. Anis-ur-Rehman, "Effect of (Sm, In) Doping on the Electrical and Thermal Properties of Sb2Te3 Microstructures," ACS Omega, 8(11), 9797-9806 (2023).

N. Bhardwaj, and S. Mohapatra, "Structural, optical and gas sensing properties of Ag-SnO2 plasmonic nanocomposite thin films," Ceramics International, 42(15), 17237-17242 (2016).

R.K. Jain and A. Khanna, "Structural, optical and electrical properties of crystalline V2O5 films deposited by thermal evaporation and effects of temperature on UV–vis and Raman spectra," Optik, 144, 271-280 (2017).

Y.Z. Zheng, H. Ding, E. Uchaker, X. Tao, J.F. Chen, Q. Zhang, and G. Cao, "Nickel-mediated polyol synthesis of hierarchical V2O5 hollow microspheres with enhanced lithium storage properties," J. Mater. Chem. A, 3(5), 1979-1985 (2015).

P. Hu, P. Hu, T.D. Vu, M. Li, S. Wang, Y. Ke, X. Zeng, et al., "Vanadium Oxide: Phase Diagrams, Structures, Synthesis, and Applications," Chem. Rev. 123(8), 4353-4415 (2023).

T.K. Le, M. Kang, V.T. Tran, and S.W. Kim, "Relation of photoluminescence and sunlight photocatalytic activities of pure V2O5 nanohollows and V2O5/RGO nanocomposites," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 100, 159-166 (2019).

T.K. Le, M. Kang, and S.W. Kim, "Room-temperature photoluminescence behavior of α-V2O5 and mixed α-β phase V2O5 films grown by electrodeposition," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 94, 15-21 (2019).

Y. Vijayakumar, P. Nagaraju, T. Sreekanth, U. Rushidhar, P.S. Reddy, "Effect of precursor volume on chemically sprayed V2O5 thin films for acetaldehyde detection," Superlattices and Microstructures, 153, 106870 (2021).

H. Liu, X. Liang, T. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, X. Wang, X. Fan, et al., "Analysis of structural morphological changes from 3DOM V2O5 film to V2O5 nanorods film and its application in electrochromic device," 238, 111627 (2022).

P. Deepika, H. Vinusha, B. Muneera, N. Rekha, and K. S. Prasad, "Vanadium oxide nanorods as DNA cleaving and anti-angiogenic agent: novel green synthetic approach using leaf extract of Tinospora cordifolia," Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 14-19, 2020.

C.K.P. Neeli, V.S.P. Ganjala, V. Vakati, K. Seetha, R. Rao, and D R. Burri, "V2O5/SBA-15 nanocatalysts for the selective synthesis of 2,3,5-trimethyl-1, 4-benzoquinone at room temperature," New J. Chem. 40(1), 679-686 (2016).

M. Thirumoorthi, and J.T.J. Prakash, "A study of Tin doping effects on physical properties of CdO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin coating method," Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 4(1), 39-45 (2016).

L.K. Emhjellen, X. Liu, J.M. Polfus, and R. Haugsrud, "Native point defects and polaron transport in zirconium pyrovanadate," Solid State Ionics, 386, 116033 (2022).

A. Qasrawi, N.M. Gasanly, "Temperature effect on dark electrical conductivity, Hall coefficient, space charge limited current and photoconductivity of TlGaS2 single crystals," Semiconductor Science and Technology, 20(5), 446 (2005).

S.K. Sinha, "Effect of temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed-laser deposited W-doped V2O5 thin films," Superlattices and Microstructures, 125, 88-94 (2019).

Z. Zhang, C. Yin, L. Yang, J. Jiang, Y. Guo, "Optimizing the gas sensing characteristics of Co-doped SnO2 thin film based hydrogen sensor," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 785, 819-825 (2019).

How to Cite
Hamad, S. H., & Ali, H. S. (2023). The Effect of Doping on the Electrical Conductivity of Vanadium Oxide (V2O5) Films Doped with Nickel Oxide (NiO) Prepared via Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). East European Journal of Physics, (3), 346-354.