Influence of Lead Nanoparticles on Structural, Morphological, and Mechanical Characteristics of (SiR-PU/Micro-Pb) Composites and Radiation Shielding Applications

  • Mousa Hawan Naeem Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Babylon, Al-Hilla, Iraq
  • Sameer Hassan Hadi Al-Nesrawy Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Babylon, Al-Hilla, Iraq
  • Mohammed H. Al-Maamori Department of Bio-Medical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Al-Mustaqbal, Babylon, Al-Hilla, Iraq
Keywords: mechanical characteristics, silicone rubber, polyurethane, lead, Hexane, SiR-PU/micro-Pb:nano-Pb nanocomposites


This research includes the manufacture of a polymeric nanocomposite consisting of silicone rubber/polyurethane as a base, with the addition of the first filler of micro-lead with a ratio of 300 pphr and the second filler of nano-lead with different ratios (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 pphr). With the addition of hexane (liquid state) to the superposition using the casting technique at room temperature. The structural properties of the surfaces of the samples were measured using Fourier transformation spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition to studying the mechanical properties represented by each hardness, tensile, elongation, and elastic modulus. (FT-IR) showed the absence of a chemical reaction for all samples. While SEM measurements showed a homogeneous distribution of micro-lead and nano-lead in the presence of hexane equally, and there were no voids in the eyes of the prepared rubber equally. For the mechanical properties, we see that the hardness, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity continue to improve with the increase in the number of lead nanoparticles. And a decrease in elongation as a result of inverse proportion to the modulus of elasticity. From the results obtained, this composite can be used in gamma ray attenuation applications in shielding, especially in medical and industrial fields.


Download data is not yet available.


J. Cai, L. Qiu, S. Yuan, et al., "Structural health monitoring for composite materials," in: Composites and Their Applications, edited by N. Hu, Intech, (2012).

T. Singh, and S. Sehgal, "Structural health monitoring of composite materials," Arch. Comput. Methods Eng. 29, 1997-2017 (2022).

S.S. Pendhari, T. Kant, and Y.M. Desai, "Application of polymer composites in civil construction: A general review," Compos. Struct. 84, 114-124 (2008).

R. Hsissou, R. Seghiri, Z. Benzekri, M. Hilali, M. Rafik, and A. Elharfi, "Polymer composite materials: A comprehensive review," Compos. Struct. 262, 113640 (2021).

S.O. Prakash, P. Sahu, M. Madhan, A.J. Santhosh, "A review on natural fibre-reinforced biopolymer composites: properties and applications," Int. J. Polym. Sci. 2022, 7820731 (2022).

N.I.N. Haris, M.Z. Hassan, R.A. Ilyas, M.A. Suhot, S.M. Sapuan, R. Dolah, R. Mohammad, et al., "Dynamic mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites: A review," J. Mate.r Res. Technol. 19, 167-182 (2022).

R. Han, Y. Li, Q. Zhu, and K. Niu, "Research on the preparation and thermal stability of silicone rubber composites: A review," Compos. Part. C, 100249 (2022).

G.T. Howard, "Biodegradation of polyurethane: a review," Int.. Biodeterior. Biodegradation, 49, 245-252 (2002).

U. Braun, E. Lorenz, C. Weimann, H. Sturm, I. Karimov, J. Ettl, R. Meier,, "Mechanic and surface properties of central-venous port catheters after removal: A comparison of polyurethane and silicon rubber materials," J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 64, 281-291 (2016).

O. Kilicoglu, C.V. More, F. Akman, K. Dilsiz, H. Oğul, M.R. Kaçal, H. Polat, et al., "Micro Pb filled polymer composites: Theoretical, experimental and simulation results for γ-ray shielding performance," Radiat. Phys. Chem. 194, 110039 (2022).

M.Ö. Kiliçoğlu, "Micro Pb filled polymer composites: Theoretical, experimental and simulation results for gamma-ray shielding performance," (2022).

M.A. Hosseini, S. Malekie, F. Kazemi, "Experimental evaluation of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of polyvinyl alcohol/tungsten oxide composite: A comparison study of micro and nano sizes of the fillers," Nucl. Instruments. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A, Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 1026, 166214 (2022).

El-Khatib A.M., Abbas M.I., Hammoury S.I., et al., "Effect of PbO-nanoparticles on dimethyl polysiloxane for use in radiation shielding applications," Sci. Rep. 12, 15722 (2022).

J. Wu, J. Hu, K. Wang, Y. Zhai, Z. Wang, Y. Feng, H. Fan, et al., "Flexible stretchable low-energy X-ray (30–80 keV) radiation shielding material: Low-melting-point Ga1In1Sn7Bi1 alloy/thermoplastic polyurethane composite," Appl. Radiat. Isot. 192, 10603 (2023).

Román A.J., Qin S., Rodríguez J.C., L.D. González, V.M. Zavala, and T.A. Osswald, "Natural rubber blend optimization via data-driven modeling: The implementation for reverse engineering," Polymers, (Basel), 14, 2262 (2022).

A. Umanskii, K. Gogolinskii, V. Syasko, and A. Golev, "Modification of the Leeb Impact Device for Measuring Hardness by the Dynamic Instrumented Indentation Method," Inventions, 7, 29 (2022).

Y. Wang, C. Feng, M. Zhao, C. Shan, F. Liu, Q. Lei, Z. Zhou, et al., "Development of a high energy resolution and wide dose rate range portable gamma-ray spectrometer," Appl. Radiat. Isot. 192, 110572 (2023).

Lilo T., Morais C.L.M., Shenton C., et al., "Revising Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy towards brain cancer detection," Photodiagnosis. Photodyn. Ther. 102785 (2022).

T. Marquardt, and A.W. Momber, "The assessment of fractal dimensions with the direct use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images from blast-cleaned steel substrates," J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 37, 16–37 (2023).

Libeesh N.K., Naseer K.A., Arivazhagan S., et al., "Multispectral remote sensing for determination the Ultra-mafic complexes distribution and their applications in reducing the equivalent dose from the radioactive wastes," Eur. Phys. J. Plus. 137, 267 (2022).

M.H. Naeem, and S.H.H. Al-Nesrawy, "Preparation of (Rubber Blend/Oyster Shell Powder) Composites and Study Rheological Properties," J. Engineer. Appl. Sciences, 14(7), 10092-10097 (2019).

Y. Yang, Z. Wang, X. Peng, Z. Huang, and P. Fang, "Influence of Crosslinking Extent on Free Volumes of Silicone Rubber and Water Diffusion after Corona Discharge," Materials (Basel), 15, 6833 (2022).

S.H.K. Bahrain, N.R.N. Masdek, J. Mahmud, M.N. Mohammed, S.M. Sapuan, R.A. Ilyas, A. Mohamed, et al., "Morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of Sugar-Palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) merr.)-Reinforced silicone rubber biocomposites," Materials (Basel), 15, 4062 (2022).

M.H. Meteab, A. Hashim, and B.H. Rabee, "Controlling the Structural and Dielectric Characteristics of PS-PC/Co2O3-SiC Hybrid Nanocomposites for Nanoelectronics Applications," Silicon, 15, 251-261 (2023).

M.H. Meteab, A. Hashim, B.H. Rabee, "Synthesis and Characteristics of SiC/MnO2/PS/PC QuaternaryNanostructures for Advanced Nanodielectrics Fields," Silicon, 15, 1609-1620 (2023).

T.L. Christiansen, S.R. Cooper, and K.M.Ø. Jensen, "There’s no place like real-space: elucidating size-dependent atomic structure of nanomaterials using pair distribution function analysis," Nanoscale Adv. 2, 2234-2254 (2020).

H.S. Suhail, and A.R. Abdulridha, "Investigation of the Morphological, Optical, and D.C Electrical Characteristics of Synthesized (Bi2O3/ZnO) Nanocomposites, as Well as Their Potential Use in Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Sensor," Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 24, 205–216 (2023) (2023).

C. Yang, C. Ren, Y. Jia, G. Wang, M. Li, and W. Lu, "A machine learning-based alloy design system to facilitate the rational design of high entropy alloys with enhanced hardness," Acta Mater. 222, 117431 (2022).

S.H. Al-Nesrawy, M. Al-Maamori, and H.R. Jappor, "Effect of of mixed of industrial scraps and lamp black percent on the mechanical properties of NR70/SBR30 composite," Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res. 9, 207-217 (2016).

A.A. Abid, S.H. Al-Nesrawy, and A.R. Abdulridha, "New fabrication (PVA-PVP-C. B) nanocomposites: structural and electrical properties," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 1804, 012037 (2021).

Y. Zeng, L. Tang, and Z. Xin, "Improved dielectric and mechanical properties of Ti3C2Tx MXene/silicone rubber composites achieved by adding a few boron nitride nanoplates," Ceram. Int. 49(6), 9026-9034 (2023)..

A. Gupta, K.K. Saxena, A. Bharti, J. Lade, K. Chadha, and P.R. Paresi, "Influence of ECAP processing temperature and number of passes on hardness and microstructure of Al-6063," Adv. Mater. Process Technol. 8, 1635-1646 (2022).

A.M. Ajam, S.H. Al-Nesrawy, and M. Al-Maamori, "Effect of reclaim rubber loading on the mechanical properties of SBR composites," Int. J. Chem. Sci. 14, 2439-2449 (2016).

E. Timakova, Ms.S. Thesis, "Characterization of Dosimeters for Small Field Applications Including Comparisons to Monte Carlo and Treatment Planning System Computed Doses," McMaster University, (2022).

H. Al-Ghamdi, M.I. Sayyed, and M. Elsafi, A. Kumar, N. Al-Harbi, A.H. Almuqrin, S. Yasmin, et al., "An experimental study measuring the photon attenuation features of the P2O5–CaO–K2O–Na2O–PbO glass system," Radiat. Phys. Chem. 200, 110153 (2022).

How to Cite
Naeem, M. H., Al-Nesrawy, S. H. H., & Al-Maamori, M. H. (2023). Influence of Lead Nanoparticles on Structural, Morphological, and Mechanical Characteristics of (SiR-PU/Micro-Pb) Composites and Radiation Shielding Applications. East European Journal of Physics, (3), 539-545.