Monitoring of Radiation Defects Recovery in MgAl2O4 During Annealing by Optical Spectroscopy
The extraordinary radiation resistance of single crystals and ceramics of magnesium-aluminum spinel to neutron irradiation is known, but the mechanisms that provide it are not yet understood. Irradiation of crystals with fast electrons creates defects partially similar to defects in neutron irradiation. The difference in the destructive effect is the significant level of ionization during electron irradiation. Therefore, to compare the results of irradiation by different sources, it is necessary to determine the parameters of radiation defects. One of them is the conditions of radiation damage recovery. When irradiating the crystals with electrons with an energy of 12.5 MeV to a fluence of 6.8∙1016 eV/cm2, the concentration of defects such as F-centers 2.6∙1016 cm-3 and V-centers 3∙1017 cm-3 was obtained. TSL and optical absorption spectroscopy methods were used to determine the state of radiation defects in crystals during annealing. Since annealing at temperatures above 900 K leads to complete discoloration of all optically active centers, therefore, to determine the effect of annealing at higher temperatures, the crystals after annealing were irradiated with ultraviolet light. At temperatures above 900 K, cationic disorder begins to increase, but annealing at 1010 K for 30 minutes was not enough to completely restore the damage to the crystal lattice created by electron irradiation. This is expected, given the characteristic relaxation time of cation disorder, which reaches 1000 hours at this temperature. However, increasing the annealing temperature to 1050 K, in addition to the recovery of radiation defects, creates a noticeable additional difference in TSL, probably due to the formation of complexes from residual F-centers. However, determining the difference between irradiated and non-irradiated crystals gives a difference in the concentration of F-centers at the level of 1015 cm-3.
F.A. Garner, G.W. Hollenberg, F.D. Hobbs, J.L. Ryan, Z. Li, C.A. Black, and R.C. Bradt, “Dimensional stability, optical and elastic properties of MgAl2O4 spinel irradiated in FFTF to very high exposures”, J. Nucl. Mater. 212–215, 1087–1090 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3115(94)91000-6
J.-M. Costantini, G. Lelong, M. Guillaumet, S. Takaki, and K. Yasuda, “Color-center formation and thermal recovery in X-ray and electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel”, J. Appl. Phys. 124, 245901 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5055230
E.F. Daly, K. Ioki, A. Loarte, A. Martin, A. Brooks, P. Heitzenroeder, M. Kalish, C. Neumeyer, P. Titus, Y. Zhai, Y. Wu, H. Jin, F. Long, Y. Song, Z. Wang, R. Pillsbury, J. Feng, T. Bohm, M. Sawan, and J. Preble, “Update on design of the ITER in-vessel coils”, Fusion Sci. Technol. 64, 168–175 (2013). https://doi.org/10.13182/FST13-A18073
J. Delauter, J.C. Dekamp, A.F. Zeller, C.Y. Gung, and J.V. Minervini, “Magnetic testing of a superferric dipole that uses metal-oxide insulated CICC”, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19, 1092–1094 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2009.2019217
D. Simeone, C. Dodane-Thiriet, D. Gosset, P. Daniel, and M. Beauvy, “Order-disorder phase transition induced by swift ions in MgAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 spinels”, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 151–160 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3115(01)00749-8
T. Shikama, and G.P. Pells, “A comparison of the effects of neutron and other irradiation sources on the dynamic property changes of ceramic insulators”, J. Nucl. Mater. 212–215, 80–89 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3115(94)90036-1
S.S. De Souza, F. Ayres, and A.R. Blak, “Simulation models of defects in Mg Al2O4:Fe2+, Fe3+ spinels”, Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids. 156, 311–316 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1080/10420150108216911
C. Kinoshita, K. Fukumoto, K. Fukuda, F.A. Garner, and G.W. Hollenberg, “Why is magnesia spinel a radiation-resistant material?”, J. Nucl. Mater. 219, 143–151 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3115(94)00388-2
K. Yasuda, C. Kinoshita, K. Fukuda, and F.A. Garner, “Thermal stability and kinetics of defects in magnesium aluminate spinel irradiated with fast neutrons”, J. Nucl. Mater. 283–287, 937–941 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3115(00)00118-5
A. Lushchik, E. Feldbach, E.A. Kotomin, I. Kudryavtseva, V.N. Kuzovkov, A.I. Popov, V. Seeman, and E. Shablonin, “Distinctive features of diffusion-controlled radiation defect recombination in stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel single crystals and transparent polycrystalline ceramics”, Sci. Rep. 10, 1–9 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64778-8
A. Lushchik, S. Dolgov, E. Feldbach, R. Pareja, A.I. Popov, E. Shablonin, and V. Seeman, “Creation and thermal annealing of structural defects in neutron-irradiated MgAl2O4 single crystals”, Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. with Mater. Atoms, 435, 31–37 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2017.10.018
V.T. Gritsyna, and Y.G. Kazarinov, “Thermal stability of radiation-induced optical centers in non-stoichiometric spinel crystals”, Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. with Mater. Atoms, 250, 349–353 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2006.04.136
M.I. Romanyuk, J.J. Hainysh, Y. Plakosh, V. Kovtun, O.M. Turhovsky, G.F. Pitchenko, I.G. Megela, M.V. Goshovsky, O.O. Parlag, V.T. Maslyuk, and N.I. Svatiuk, “Microtron M-30 For Radiation Experiments: Formation And Control Of Irradiation Fields”, PAST, 3, 137–143 (2022). https://doi.org/10.46813/2022-139-137
A. Lorincz, M. Puma, F.J. James, and J.H. Crawford, “Thermally stimulated processes involving defects in γ- and x-irradiated spinel (MgAl2O4)”, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 927–932 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.330562
Y. Kazarinov, V. Kvatchadze, V. Gritsyna, M. Abramishvili, Z. Akhvlediani, M. Galustashvili, G. Dekanozishvili, T. Kalabegishvili, and V. Tavkhelidze, “Spectroscopic studies of defects in gamma- and neutron-irradiated magnesium aluminates spinel ceramics”, PAST, 5, 8–13 (2017). https://vant.kipt.kharkov.ua/ARTICLE/VANT_2017_5/article_2017_5_8.pdf
V.T. Gritsyna, I. V. Afanasyev-Charkin, V.A. Kobyakov, and K.E. Sickafus, “Neutron irradiation effects in magnesium-aluminate spinel doped with transition metals”, J. Nucl. Mater. 283–287, 927–931 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3115(00)00196-3
V.T. Gritsyna, I. V. Afanasyev-Charkin, Y.G. Kazarinov, and K.E. Sickafus, “Optical transitions in magnesium aluminate spinel crystals of different compositions exposed to irradiation”, Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. with Mater. Atoms. 218, 264–270 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2004.02.002
D.L. Dexter, “Absorption of light by atoms in solids”, Phys. Rev. 101, 48–55 (1956). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.101.48
Copyright (c) 2023 Yurii Kazarinov, Ivan Megela, Oksana Pop
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).