Nuclear Burning Wave Concept and Theoretical Approaches for its Description
After two major nuclear power plant accidents in Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011), one of the main requirements for the nuclear power engineering is the safety of the nuclear reactors in operation, as well as new nuclear power plants of the fourth generation, which are being developed now. One of such requirements is presence of the so-called “inherent safety” mechanism, which renders the uncontrolled reactor runaway impossible under any conditions, moreover, the implementation of such a mechanism should be ensured on the level of physical principles embedded in the reactor design. Another important problem of the nuclear power engineering is the need of the transition to the large-scale use of the fast-neutron breeder reactors, with which it would be possible to set up expanded reproduction of the nuclear fuel and by that means solve the problem of supplying humanity with relatively cheap energy for thousands of years. Moreover, at present an unresolved problem is the disposal of spent nuclear fuel containing radioactive nuclides with long half-lives, which presents a long-term danger to the ecology. One of the promising conceptions of the fast-neutron breeder reactor, which can, in the case of successful implementation, partially or even entirely solve the problems of the nuclear power engineering mentioned above, is the reactor that operates in the nuclear burning wave mode, which is also known as “Traveling wave reactor”, CANDLE and by some other names. This paper presents a short review of the main theoretical approaches used for description of such a physical phenomenon as slow nuclear burning (deflagration) wave in the neutron multiplication medium initially composed of the fertile material 238U or 232Th. A comparative analysis of the possibilities of different mathematical models for describing this phenomenon is performed, both for those based on the deterministic approach (i.e. solving neutron transport equations) and for models that use Monte Carlo methods. The main merits of the fast breeder reactor, working in the nuclear burning wave mode, and problems related to the practical realization of the considered concept are discussed.
S.M. Feinberg, in Record of Proceedings: Session B-10, Int. Conf. on the Peaceful Uses for Atomic Energy. (Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations, 1958), 9(2), 447.
L.P. Feoktistov, Preprint IAE-4605/4. IAE, Moscow, (1988).
L.P. Feoktistov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 309, 864 (1989).
V. Pilipenko, D. Belozorov, L. Davydov, N. Shul'ga, in CD: Proceedings of ICAPP 03, (Cordoba, Spain, May 4-7, 2003), Paper 3169.
E. Teller, M. Ishikawa, L. Wood, et al. In: Int. Conf. on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, 1 (1996).
E. Teller, Preprint UCRL-JC-129547, LLNL, Livermore, CA, USA (1997).
H. Sekimoto, K. Ryu, Y. Yoshimura, Nuclear Science and Engineering. 139, 306–317 (2001), https://doi.org/10.13182/NSE01-01.
H. Sekimoto, Light a CANDLE: New Burnup Strategy, (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 2005).
V.Ya. Goldin and D. Yu. Anistratov, Mathematical Modelling, 7, 12 (1995).
V.Ya. Goldin, N.V. Sosnin, Yu.V. Troshchiev, Dokl. Ros. Acad. Nauk., 358, 747-748 (1998). (in Russian).
Hugo van Dam, Annals of Nuclear Energy, 27, 1505 (2000), https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4549(00)00035-9.
Hugo van Dam, Annals of Nuclear Energy, 30, 1495–1504 (2003), https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4549(03)00098-7.
X.-N. Chen, and W. Maschek, Annals of Nuclear Energy, 32, 1377-1390 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2005.01.012.
X.-N. Chen, E. Kiefhaber, and W. Maschek, Progress in Nuclear Energy. 50, 219-224 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2007.11.064.
V.M. Khotyayintsev, V.M. Pavlovych, and O.M. Khotyayintseva, In: Proceeding of Int. Conf. "Advances in Reactor Physics to Power the Nuclear Renaissance" (PHYSOR 2010), (Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 9–14 May 2010).
V.M. Khotyayintsev, A.V. Aksonov, O.M. Khotyayintseva, V.M. Pavlovych. V. Gulik, and A.H. Tkaczyk, Annals of Nuclear Energy. 85C, 337 – 345 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2015.04.044.
S. Fomin, Yu. Mel’nik, V. Pilipenko, and N. Shul’ga, Annals of Nuclear Energy. 32, 1435 (2005).
S. Fomin, Yu. Mel’nik, V. Pilipenko and N. Shul’ga, In: Nuclear Science and Safety in Europe, p. 239, Springer, the Netherlands (2006), https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4965-1_20.
S. Fomin, Yu. Mel’nik, V. Pilipenko and N. Shul’ga, Problems of Atomic Science and Technology. Series: Nuclear Physics Investigations. 3, 156 (2007), https://vant.kipt.kharkov.ua/TABFRAME_poisk_c.html
S. Fomin, Yu. Mel’nik, V. Pilipenko and N. Shul’ga, Progress in Nuclear Energy. 50, 163 (2008), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2007.10.020.
S.P. Fomin, A.S. Fomin, Yu.P. Mel’nik, V.V. Pilipenko, N.F. Shul’ga, In CD: Proc. of 1st Int. Conf. “Global 2009” (Paris, France, 2009), Paper 9456.
S.P. Fomin, O.S Fomin., Yu.P. Mel’nik, V.V. Pilipenko, N.F. Shul’ga, Progress in Nuclear Energy. 53, 800–805 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2011.05.004.
O.S. Fomin, S.P. Fomin, Yu.P. Mel’nik, V.V. Pilipenko, and N.F. Shul’ga, Journal of Kharkiv National University, physical series «Nuclei, Particles, Fields», 58(2), 49–56 (2013), https://periodicals.karazin.ua/eejp/article/view/13512.
S.P. Fomin, A.S. Fomin, Yu.P. Mel’nik, V.V. Pilipenko, N.F. Shul’ga, in: Topical Issues in Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles, (Proc. Conf. FR-13, Paris, 2013), IAEA, Vienna, 2014, Contributed Paper IAEA-CN-199-457, 10 p., http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/SupplementaryMaterials/P1665CD/Track3_Safety.pdf.
O.S. Fomin, S.P. Fomin, Yu.P. Mel’nik, V.V. Pilipenko, N.F. Shul’ga, in: Proc. of Int. Conf. “Global 2015” (Paris, France, 2015), Paper 5254.
L.P. Abagyan, N.O. Bazazjanc, I.I. Bondarenko, and M.N. Nikolaev, Group Constants for Calculations of Reactor and Shielding, (Energoizdat, Moscow, 1981) pp. 231. (in Russian).
I.I. Bondarenko, et al. Group Constants for Nuclear Reactor Calculations. (Consultants Bureau Inc., New York, 1964).
Yu.Y. Leleko, V.V. Gann, A.V. Gann, Problems of Atomic Science and Technology. 2 (108), 138-143 (2017).
Yu.Y. Leleko, V.V. Gann, A.V. Gann, Problems of Atomic Science and Technology. 5 (123), 18-24 (2019).
J. Gilleland, R. Petroski, and K. Weaver, Engineering, 2, 88–96 (2016), https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2016.01.024.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).