On the Attenuation of a Wave Packet in Limited Systems Filled With an Active Medium and Plasma
In the article, for limited system conditions that form the spatial structure of the field, the attenuation processes of wave packets of finite amplitude are considered. The line width of the wave field may be the result of the dissipative processes (in a quantum system it is inverse of the lifetime of energy levels) or the result of reactive processes (in classical waveguide systems this is the spectral width of the packet). In the case of filling the waveguide with an active two-level medium, a description is possible using a quasiclassical model of the interaction of the field and particles. In this case, the quantum-mechanical description of the medium is combined with the classical representation of the field. Here, the Rabi frequency plays an important role, which determines the probabilities of induced radiation or absorption of field quanta and the oscillatory change in population inversion (nutation). Depending on the relationship between the Rabi frequency and the line width of the wave packet, the process can change the nature of the field behavior. In strong fields or with a significant population inversion, the line width can be neglected, while the field energy density is quite high. In this case, one should expect noticeable nutations of population inversions with different frequencies corresponding to the local Rabi frequency in different regions of the waveguide, the interference of which will determine the oscillatory behavior of the wave field. At a low level of electric field intensity or a slight population inversion, the mode of changing the field amplitude becomes monotonic. Plasma field damping (Landau damping) is considered. The role of population inversion is assumed by a quantity proportional to the derivative with respect to velocity of the electron distribution function. If the spectral width of the packet is small, the process of wave attenuation acquires a characteristic oscillatory form due to the exchange of energy between the wave and the plasma electrons captured by its field. The attenuation of wide packets is almost monotonic with the formation of a characteristic “plateau” in the vicinity of the phase velocity of the wave on the electron velocity distribution function.
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