Effect of the Oscillating Electric Field Due to the Oscillating Electric Dipole on Raman Lines

Keywords: electric dipole, Raman lines, stokes lines, anti-stokes lines, oscillating

Abstract

Raman Effect is the measurement of the intensity and wavelength of the inelastically scattered radiation that falls on a molecule. The electric field of the incident radiation polarizes the molecule on which it falls and this leads to the creation of an oscillating dipole. The incident polarized laser light is inelastically scattered by the molecular sample. The scattered light contains modified wavelengths called the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines or wavelengths. The oscillating electric dipole, created by the incident radiation, creates an oscillating electric field around it. Since the oscillating electric field of the incident radiation creates an oscillating electric dipole that create an oscillating electric field around it, it was surmised that this oscillating electric field can affect the frequency of vibration or oscillation of the oscillating electric dipole that produces it. This novel effect will change the frequency (frequencies) of the scattered radiation resulting in Stokes and anti-Stokes lines with modified frequencies. This theoretical research and its importance can be understood like this. For instance, if there are two cells or molecules, side by side, in which one is a healthy cell and the other is cancerous, or two different types of molecules are sitting side by side, this types of scattering should be able to distinguish one from the other since the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines from the two molecules will not be identical. Thus, the incident radiation of angular frequency ω1 polarizes the charges of the molecule on which it falls and this leads to the creation of an oscillating dipole of frequency ω2. The oscillating dipole creates an oscillating electric field that can create additional frequency of the oscillating dipole that created it, and let this be ωD. Then the Raman lines can have frequencies (ω12D), (ω12D), (ω12D), and (ω12D). Depending on the relative magnitudes of ω2 and ωD, Raman lines will be designated as Stokes and Anti-Stokes lines. Due to the law of conservation of energy, ωwill be less than ω2 since an oscillating dipole cannot create field of frequency more than its own frequency. Hence the frequencies (ω12D) and (ω12D) correspond to Stokes lines, and frequencies. (ω12D) and (ω12‑ωD) will correspond to Anti-Stokes lines. Calculations for Stokes and Anti-stokes lines have been done for some molecules, namely Ammonia compound (NH3), Nitrousoxide compound (N2O), Water (H2O), Sulphur dioxide compound (SO2), Ozone compound (O3). Calculations have also been done for compounds containing carbon, such as Dichloromethane compound (CH4Cl2), Formic acid compound (CH2O2), Methanol compound (CH4O), Benzene compound (C6H6), Propane compound (C3H8), and Carbonyl chloride compound (Cl2CO). The theory developed predicts new phenomena of getting Stokes and anti-Stokes lines with modified wavelengths which have not been observed experimentally as of to-day.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

A. Smekal, Naturwiss, 11(43), 873-875(1923), https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01576902.

C.V. Raman andK.S. Krishnan,Nature, 121, 501-502 (1928), https://doi.org/10.1038/121501c0.

K.F. Kohlrauch, Der Smekal –Raman–Effect, (Springer, Berlin, 1931); Ergänzungsband 1931-1937, (Springer,1938).

E. Garcia-Rico, R.A. Alvarez-Puebla, L. Guerrini, Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 4909-4923 (2018), https://doi.org/10.1039/C7CS00809K.

J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, (Wiley, New York, 1975).

L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, (Pergamon, 1971).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Pergamon, 1970).

A.N. Laurence, Journal of Raman spectroscopy, 41, (2017), https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5310.

P. Rostron, S. Gaber and D. Gaber, IJETR, 6(1), 2454-4698 (2016), https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paul_Rostron/publication/309179824_Raman_Spectroscopy_a_review/links/580329fe08ae23fd1b673f34/Raman-Spectroscopy-a-review.pdf.

B. Hruška, A.A. Osipov, L.M. Osipova, M. Chromčíková, J. Macháček and M. Liškaac, Vibrational Spectroscopy, 105, 102970 (2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2019.102970.

R.R. Jones, D.C. Hooper, Liwu Zhang, D. Wolverson and V.K. Valev, Nanoscale Res Lett. 14, 231 (2019), https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2Fs11671-019-3039-2

R. Ravanshad, A.K. Zadeh, and A.M. Amani, Nano Reviews & Experiments, 9(1), 1373551 (2018), https://doi.org/10.1080/20022727.2017.1373551.

K.E. Sundling and A.C. Lowe, Advance Anat. Pathology, 26(1), 56-63 (2019), https://doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000217.

S. Devpura, K.N. Barton, S.L. Brown, O. Palyvoda, S. Kalkanis, V.M. Naik, F. Siddiqui, R. Naik and I.J. Chetty, International Journal of Medical Physics Research and Practice, 41(5), 050901 (2014), https://doi.org/10.1118/1.4870981

L. Guerrini and R.A. Alvarez-Puebla, Cancers, 11(6), 748 (2019), http://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060748.

Non-Linear Raman spectroscopy and its chemical applications, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at Bad Windsheim, Germany, edited by W. Kiefer and D.A. Long (D. Reidel Publishing Company, London, 1982), pp. 643.

A. Mohammed, H. Ågren and P. Norman, Chem. Phys. Lett. 468, 119-123 (2009), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2008.11.063.

D.J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd edition,(Pearson Education, 2007).

D.R. Lide, editor, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Internet Version 2005, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005), http://www.hbcpnetbase.com.

H.J. Hibben, The Raman Effect and its Chemical Applications, (Reinhold Publishing Company, New York, 1939), https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.19400531511.

D.A. Long, The Raman Effect: A Unified Treatment of the Theory of Raman Scattering by Molecules, (Willey, England, 2002), pp. 624.

A. Mahadevan‐Jansen, M.F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujamf, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger and R. Richards‐Kortum, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 68(1), 123–132 (1998), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1998.tb03262.x.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M.F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochemistry and Photobiology 68(3), 427–431 (1998), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1998.tb09703.x.

P.R.T. Jess, D.D.W. Smith, M. Mazilu, K. Dholakia, A.C. Richesand and C.S. Herrington, International Journal of Cancer, 121(12), 2723–2728 (2007), https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23046.

J.L. González-Solís, C. Martínez-Espinosa, L.A. Torres-González, A. Aguilar-Lemarroy, L.F. Jave-Suárez and P. Palomares-Anda, Lasers in Medical Science, 29(3), 979–985 (2014), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-013-1447-6.

Yong Wang, Chia-Yu Lin, A. Nikolaenko, V. Raghunathan and E.O. Potma, Advances in Optics and Photonics, 3(1), 1-52 (2011), https://doi.org/10.1364/AOP.3.000001.

Ji-Xin Cheng and Xiaoliang Sunney Xie, Coherent Raman scattering microscopy, (CRCPress, Taylor&Francis group, 2013).

N. Buzgar, A.I. Apopei and A. Buzatu, (2009), Theory of Raman spectroscopy. Quantum and Classical Raman theory, http://www.rdrs.ro/blog/quantum-classical-raman-theory/.

Theory of Raman spectroscopy, (2019), https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Analytical_Chemistry/Map%3A_Principles_of_Instrumental_Analysis_(Skoog_et_al.)/18%3A_Raman_Spectroscopy/18.1%3A_Theory_of_Raman_Spectroscopy.

E.S. Winesett, C.H. Londergan and L.K. Charkoudian, Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2227 (2019), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10184-2.

Published
2019-11-24
Cited
0 article
How to Cite
Kapil, K., & Gilbert, M. (2019). Effect of the Oscillating Electric Field Due to the Oscillating Electric Dipole on Raman Lines. East European Journal of Physics, (4), 47-57. https://doi.org/10.26565/2312-4334-2019-4-05