PATTERN-RECOGNIZING RECEPTORS AND THE INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO VIRAL INFECTION
The innate immune response to viral pathogens is crucial in mobilizing defensive reactions of an organism during the development of an acute viral infection. Cells of the innate immunity system detect viral antigens due to genetically programmed pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located either on the cell surface or inside the certain intracellular components. These image-recognizing receptors include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors (RIG-I-like receptors), nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NOD-like receptors), also known as NACHT, LRR and PYD domains of the protein, and cytosolic DNA sensors. The trigger mechanisms for these receptors are viral proteins, and nucleic acids serve as activators. The presence of PRRs that are responsible for the determination of viral antigens in cellular components allows the cells of innate immunity to recognize a wide range of viral agents that replicate in various cellular structures, and develop an immune response to them. This article summarizes the disparate data presented in modern English literature on the role of PRRs and the associated signaling pathways. Understanding the recognition of viral pathogens required triggering a cascade of cytokine and interferon production provides insights into how viruses activate the signal paths of PRRs and the effect of the interaction of viral antigens and these receptors on the formation of the antiviral immune response.
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