Recommendations for implementing distributed ledger technology (blockchain) in the public sector of Ukraine based on global experience

Keywords: public services, public administration, e-governance, smart contracts, blockchain, public finance, tokens.


Integrating new technologies such as distributed ledger technology into government systems is a multifaceted process characterized by numerous potential benefits, associated costs, and risks. Previous and existing pilot implementations of blockchain-based software solutions in the public sector have demonstrated that this technology can have varying impacts depending on contextual factors, including the specific type of chosen government service. Furthermore, within each distinct area of public services, the implementation of e-governance technologies can yield different outcomes for various stakeholders, including government entities, public servants, and citizens.

Therefore, this article provides a review and analysis of global experiences with the utilization of distributed ledger technology in various domains of the public sector. To achieve this, several countries with advanced expertise in e-governance and the implementation of distributed ledger technology-based solutions were identified. Drawing from the experiences of these nations and considering the unique features, advantages, maturity level of blockchain technology, and existing solutions based on it, general recommendations were formulated regarding the implementation of distributed ledger technology (blockchain) in Ukraine’s public sector.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Oleksandr Basiuk, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svobody Sq, Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine

post-graduate student,
Education and Research Institute of Public Administration,
V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University,
4 Svobody Sq., Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine


Allessie, D., Sobolewski, M., Vaccari, L. Blockchain for digital Government.

An assessment of pioneering implementations in public services. 2019. URL:

Amstad, M., Huang, B., Morgan, P.J., & Shirai, S. (2019). Fintech, cryptoassets, and Central Bank Digital Currency in the Republic of Korea, is. 1018. URL:

Andrews, Seoul. (2019). The Blockchain city. Cities Today. URL:

Anthopoulos, L., Reddick, C.G., Giannakidou, I., Mavridis, N. (2016). Why e-government projects fail? An analysis of the Healthcare. gov website. Gov Inf Quart. URL:

Australian Government. (2023). Australia’s National Blockchain Roadmap. URL:

Australian Government. (2023). The Data and Digital Government Strategy. URL:

Bank of England, HM Treasury. The digital pound:a new form of money for households and businesses? Consultation Paper. 2023. URL:

Bank of England. (2021). Bank of England publishes policy for omnibus accounts in RTGS. URL:

Bank of England. (2021). Bank of England statement on Central Bank Digital Currency. URL:

Basiuk, O. (2022). Digital technologies in optimization of the budget process: best international experience and conclusions for Ukraine. Pressing problems of public administration, no. 1 (60), 117–132.

Basyuk, O. (2022). Analysis of the budgetary policy of Ukraine taking into account the experience of using digital technologies. Bulletin of Postgraduate Education, is. 19(48). Series «Social and Behavioural Sciences». URL:

Burger, C., Kuhlmann, A., Richard, P.R., Weinmann, J. (2016). Blockchain in the energy transition. A survey among decision-makers in the German energy industry. German Energy Agency, May 2020, 41. URL:

Cagigas, D., Clifton, J., Diaz-Fuentes, D., Fernández-Gutiérrez, M. & Harpes, C. (2023). Blockchain in government: toward an evaluation framework. Policy Design and Practice. DOI:

Cha, S. (2021). South Korea to issue blockchain-protected Digital ‘vaccine passports’. Reuters. URL:

Choi, Y. (2021). Blockchain, artificial intelligence and big data: how Korea Customs Service leverages technology to supervise e-commerce. URL:

Commonwealth Bank. (2018). Making Money Smart. URL:

Cooper, H., Hill, T., Kangalingam, S. (2022). PwC Australia. Around the world in government blockchain. URL:

CSIRO & CBA. (2018). Making Money Smart. URL:

Digital Transformation Agency. Blockchain case study: Australian Taxation Office. Digital Transformation Agency. URL:

Digital Transformation Agency. Digital Transformation Strategy 2018-2025. URL:

Dunayev, I., Byelova, L., Kud, A., Rodchenko, V. (2023). Implementing the “Government as a platform” concept: the assessment method and an optimal humancentered structure to address technological challenges. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, no. 2/13 (122). URL: DOI:


Dunayev, I., Petrovska, I., Safronova, O. (2022). Development of methods for evaluating the effectiveness of smart cities under the conditions of digitalization of city governance. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, no. 3/13 (117). URL : DOI:

Dziundziuk, V., Dziundziuk, B. (2022). Public administration using blockchain technology and platforms: new opportunities. Pressing Problems of Public Administration, no. 2 (61), 104–115. URL: DOI:

E-Democracy & open data. E-Governance Estonia. URL:

Eesti Pank. (2020). Eesti Pank ran an experiment to investigate the technological possibilities of a central bank digital currency based on blockchain. URL:

Electronic Trade Documents Act. (2023). URL:

Estonian Tech & IT solutions. This is the story of the world’s most advanced digital society. URL:

Guardtime. KSI Blockchain Timestamping. Guardtime. URL:

Hall, I. (2023). Digital pound ‘likely to be needed in future’: UK CBDC consultation launches. URL:

Healthcare – e-Estonia. URL:

HM Treasury. (2022). Government sets out plan to make UK a global cryptoasset technology hub. URL:

Kattel, R., Mergel, I. (2019). Estonia’s Digital Transformation. Great Policy Successes. 143–160. URL:

Kitsing, M. (2008). Success Without Strategy: E-Government Development in Estonia. Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, Partnerships for Public Innovation, DG.O 2008, Montreal, Canada, May 18–21, no. 3(1). 86–106. URL:

Korol, V., Dmytryk, O., Karpenko, O., Riadinska, V., Basiuk, O. (2022). Elaboration of recommendations on the development of the state internal audit system when applying the digital technologies Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, no. 1 (13 (115)), 39–48.


KSI ® blockchain in Estonia. Frequently Asked Questions. 2020. URL:

Kud, A. (2021). Decentralized Information Platforms in Public Governance: Reconstruction of the Modern Democracy or Comfort Blinding?, International Journal of Public Administration. DOI:

Kud, A. (2022). Methodological approach to creating the mechanism for modernizing the public governance system based on decentralized information platforms. DOI:

Martinson, P. (2019). Estonia: the digital republic secured by blockchain. Pwc, 2019, 1–12. URL:

Mcarthy, N. (2018). The Countries That Trust Their Government Most And Least. Fobes. 2018. URL:

OECD Data. (2021). Australia. OECD: OECD Data. URL:

OECD Data. (2022). Gross domestic spending on R&D. URL:

Pew Research Center. (2023). Public Trust in Government: 1958-2023. URL:

Politou, E., Casino, F., Alepis, E., & Patsakis, C. (2019). Blockchain Mutability: Challenges and Proposed Solutions. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, April 2020. DOI:

Schlatt, V., Guggenberger, T., Schmid, J., Urbach, N. (2023). Attacking the trust machine: developing an information systems research agenda for blockchain cybersecurity. Int J Inf Manage. URL:

Shumba, C. (2023). Coindesk. U.K. Move to Digitize Trade Documents Could Rely on Blockchain, Government Says. URL:

Sullivan, C., Burger, E. (2017). E-residency and blockchain. Computer law and security review, no. 33 (4), 470–481. URL:

The Law Commission. (2021). Smart contracts. URL:,use%20of%20smart%20legal%20contracts

The Law Commission. (2021). Smart legal contracts. Advice to Government. URL:

The Legal 500. United Kingdom: Blockchain. (2022). URL:

The Reserve Bank of Australia, The Digital Finance CRC. Australian CBDC Pilot for Digital Finance Innovation. (2023). URL:

UN E-Government Knowledgebase. (2022). URL:

UN E-Government Knowledgebase. E-Government Development Index. Country data. (2022). URL:

UN E-Government Knowledgebase. E-Government Development Index. Country data. Estonia. (2022). URL:

UN E-Government Knowledgebase. E-Government Development Index. Country data. Republic of Korea. (2022). URL:

UN E-Government Knowledgebase. E-Government Development Index. Country data. Australia. (2022). URL:

UN E-Government Knowledgebase. E-Government Development Index. Country data. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (2022). URL:

Wong, P., Chia, F., Kiu, M., Lou, E. (2020). Potential integration of blockchain technology into smart sustainable city (SSC) developments: a systematic review. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment. DOI:

Young, J. (2019). Here’s how the gov’t of Seoul is using a public blockchain in the real-world. URL:

Young-sil, Y. (2018). Korean gov’t Unveils blockchain technology development strategy. Businesskorea. URL:

Zelenovic, A. (2020). Publicis Sapient. Blockchain: Now a Reality and Rising Rapidly in the Public Sector. URL:

Zhao, W. (2018). Korean government to LEAD 6 Blockchain pilots with $9 million fund. CoinDesk. URL:

How to Cite
Basiuk, O. (2023). Recommendations for implementing distributed ledger technology (blockchain) in the public sector of Ukraine based on global experience. Pressing Problems of Public Administration, 1(62), 131-154.
World Experience of Public Administration