Human Geography Journal <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt;">The «Human Geography Journal» deals with modern problems of society being solved with human geography, and displays results of the newest researches in this field. The articles of theoretical issues and practical application of the human geography researches inUkraine’s regions and in the world are published of above journal. Actuality of this scientific journal is accounted for enhancing the role of the human-geographical researches in Ukrainian and foreign practice.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt;">The Journal has been registered by the order of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine No. 1643 of 28.12.2019, and included in the list of scientific specialized editions of Ukraine <strong><em>(category “B”, <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">specialties 103 Geosciences, 106 Geography</span></span>).</em></strong></span></p> en-US (Yuriy Kandyba) (Yuriy Kandyba) Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Educational space as object of socio-geographical research <p>The relevance of the study of the general educational space is strengthened by the fact that significant transformations are currently taking place in the general educational space as a component of the social space, which are taking place in parallel with the implementation of the decentralization reform. The article analyzes socio-geographical approaches to the study of the concept of general educational space, which we propose to consider as a component of educational space, from the point of view of general secondary education institutions. The place of educational space, as a component of geospace, is outlined in the socio-economic space, because it is the result of the interaction of social and economic spaces. The study identified local centers of the educational space that belong to educational institutions.</p> <p>The concept of "general educational space" is characterized, which we propose to define as the territory on which general secondary education institutions of various types and forms, as well as participants of the educational process, which ensure the implementation of educational activities, function, organize the general educational process and interact with each other. We determined the structure and properties of the general educational space. We propose to consider the structure of the general educational space as three-dimensional, highlighting at the same time such components (dimensions) as: territorial placement of educational institutions; participants in the general education process; the quality of providing educational services. General educational space, as a component of geospace, is characterized by such indicators as: length, dynamism, structure and continuity. Quantitative and qualitative indicators of the functioning of the general educational space were described. Characterization of the structure of the general educational space of the regional region, which plays a special role in the study of the development of education, was carried out.</p> <p>The general educational space has the potential that creates the foundation of national security, ensures the competitiveness of the country, the region among other national state bodies.</p> Yurii Bilous, Victoriia Bilous Copyright (c) 2022 Yurii Bilous, Victoriia Bilous Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Theoretical principles of spatial analysis of the history of administrative-territorial division <p>The article considers the theoretical aspects of spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of changes in the administrative-territorial division, its history. It is shown that despite the presence of a significant number of publications on the history of administrative-territorial division, the complex issue of its detailed spatial analysis has not been resolved. The main focus of the author of the article is on diachronic analysis. Levels of analysis are highlighted depending on which object from the history of territorial division is analyzed (one-dimensional linear objects – administrative boundaries, dynamic polygonal objects – administrative units, objects denoting changes, or arbitrary territories and territories with an identical history of administrative affiliation, within which the history of specific objects in the history of administrative-territorial division is summarized with the calculation of the corresponding aggregative indicator).</p> <p>The difference between the study of change as part of the history of specific objects of territorial organization and the study of change as individual spatial objects is described. The principles of allocation of areas of spatial changes, their varieties are described. For each level of analysis, the types of objects that can be units of mapping on analytical or synthetic maps from the history of administrative-territorial division are proposed and described in detail. Typical operations on space-time data on the history of territorial division are considered. Examples of specific indicators on the history of administrative-territorial division that can be calculated for the described objects are given. Differences in the calculation of similar in meaning indicators for objects of different types are described. Particular attention is paid to indicators-aggregates of the history of administrative-territorial division within individual territories. Classifications of such indicators are given. In particular, local aggregates, focal aggregates and aggregates of dynamic objects are distinguished. Examples of the analysis of the administrative reform of 2020 at the district level within the Dnipropetrovsk region are given. The features of comparative analysis of individual states or periods for different objects of change are briefly described.</p> Oleksandr Havriushyn Copyright (c) 2022 Oleksandr Havriushyn Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Suburb as a socio-spatial phenomenon and post-socialist city <p>The article analyzes the history of the emergence of the socio-spatial phenomenon of the suburbs in the Western world and in Ukraine. A comparison of suburbs in the Soviet Union (with regard to suburban villages, dachas and microraiony) and suburbs in the United States and Canada is presented. An understanding of the suburbs and its architectural / urban planning environment from the perspective of social theory is presented. It was found that the suburbs and their architectural environment were used in the propaganda of the United States and the Soviet Union to produce certain cultural meanings with economic and political consequences.</p> <p>The subtleties of using the concept of the suburbs in the post-socialist context were considered. Based on the main socio-geographical characteristics of suburban areas of Ukrainian cities, it was found that the use of the concept of suburbs requires theoretical analysis in the post-socialist context and its distinction with the concepts of suburbia (direct imitation, written in Ukrainian as “субурбія”) and suburban space (“prymiskyi prostir”). It is argued that the spatial criterion and the criterion of connection with the city (suitable for the allocation of suburban space and suburban area) are insufficient to define the suburbs and do not reflect the complexity of this phenomenon. Important criteria for the allocation of suburbs are also the social status of residents, their daily practices, place and type of employment and leisure activities, which can be summarized as the identity of residents, as well as the type of residential architecture and character of everyday landscapes.</p> <p>It was found that because Ukrainian suburban spaces are eclectic with a mixture of different social classes and housing, retain their rural face with the presence of farming, the concept of peri-urban or rural-urban fringe is a better term to describe the suburban area of post-socialist cities than the suburbs. Only certain parts of the suburban spaces tend to become American style suburbs with a predominance of single-family houses, one social class and car use. The theoretical features of understanding the phenomenon of the suburbs and more successful concepts for its definition in post-socialist conditions are important for the creation of more socially thought-out urban planning documentation and strategy for their development taking into account local characteristics.</p> Roman Lozynskyi Copyright (c) 2022 Roman Lozynskyi Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Ukrainian Pryazovye: composition, uniqueness, variability of the recreational development <p>The regulations have been grounded in the article according to which the Ukrainian Pryazovye is positioned as the unique resource-recreational space, cultural-world outlook, landscape-physical-geographical, recreational-tourist resources (available and latent, current and potential) of which are used extremely insufficiently. Bodies, forces and phenomena of nature and society are meant by cultural and ideological resources that affect behavior, character, spiritual and physical development of man during the recreational cycle. Against the background of temporary limitation of the use by the Ukraine of the part of its Azov-Black Sea coast, the Ukrainian Pryazovye receives the option to increase its resource and recreational rating and to strengthen the national recreational and tourist branch as a whole, which requires the balanced, constructive and delicate attitude to this territory.</p> <p>The last consists of three sectors-connections, which are the largest by area, length and recreational mastery of which there is the Zaporizhzhya Pryazoviye. It has been emphasized that the level of ensuring of the territory of the Ukraine with recreational and tourist resources and the degree of the promotion of tourist products compared with other countries has medium and low level, the vulnerability of which during existential threats (temporary loss of the Crimea, Covid-19, the destruction of architectural and historical environment) increases at times. So, the reassessment of the eco-health-improvement and tourist meaning of the Ukrainian Pryazovye, the "reflashing" of the strategy of its further development against this background becomes more than obvious. This topicality is reinforced with the analysis of the significant array of the publications from the subject-object essence of the research, which expands and deepens the theory of resource-recreational scientific and practical direction (the number of the new concepts has been introduced), emphasizes the anthropocentric character of recreational geography, gives 5 hypothetical scenarios of the development of recreational and tourist branch in the regional and the national format on the operational perspective and contains generalizing cartographic models of the development of the regional environmental and recreational and tourist function.</p> Alexander Beidyk, Oleksandr Komliev, Larysa Donchenko, Iryna Arsenenko, Olesia Topalova, Iryna Donets Copyright (c) 2022 Alexander Beidyk, Oleksandr Komliev, Larysa Donchenko, Iryna Arsenenko, Olesia Topalova, Iryna Donets Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The importance of the architectural ensemble of the metropolitans residence of Bukovina and Dalmatia in the formation tourist image of Chernivtsi <p>The role architectural ensemble of Metropolitans Residence of Bukovina and Dalmatia in the formation of the Chernivtsi tourist image was analyzed in the article. Metropolitans Residence of Bukovina and Dalmatia is one of the the most popular tourist sites in Ukraine. The quantitative indicators of the monument’s attendance by tourists from Ukraine and abroad in the period from 2018 to 2021 are analyzed. Ways and measures have been identified that would increase the number of visitors to the Metropolitans Residence of Bukovina and Dalmatia. One of the four aspects of the tourist image of the city was identified – the real image of Chernivtsi. For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed and a questionnaire was conducted among tourists from different regions of Ukraine who visited the city of Chernivtsi and the Residence of the Metropolitans of&nbsp; Bukovina and Dalmatia.</p> <p>The purpose of the survey was to determine the impressions of tourists after visiting the monument and to find out, in their opinion, its role in forming a positive image of the city of Chernivtsi. 2,500 people of different ages took part in the survey. Questionnaire survey (11 questions) was conducted by online e-mail, google-forms and by survey on social networks.</p> <p>The survey revealed the real image of Chernivtsi and the role of the architectural ensemble of the Metropolitans Residence in its formation. The answers of the respondents showed the problematic moments and reasons why the real image of Chernivtsi is still far from optimal. Therefore, the results of the study can be taken into account in the formation of the optimal image of the city of Chernivtsi and future research in this direction.</p> Natalia Andrusiak, Nataliia Anipko Copyright (c) 2022 Natalia Andrusiak, Nataliia Anipko Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Resettlement features of population of Ternopil oblast in the context of new administrative and territorial system <p>The study is devoted to the study of territorial differences in the resettlement of the population of Ternopil oblast after the introduction of changes in the administrative-territorial structure of the oblast, as one of the oblast regions where the boundaries and centers of the new administrative raions practically coincided with their eponymous inter-district resettlement systems. After all, as a result of the change in the administrative-territorial system, we received a certain redistribution of the population within the basic units of resettlement systems, and they are the beginning of those irreversible changes in resettlement systems that we will observe in the coming years. The article calculates and analyzes indicators-characteristics of population placement at the level of territorial communities of the oblast. The author uses the indicators of area of administrative units and their population, population density, the average distance between settlements, the coefficient of urbanization and the share of the urban population, the population concentration index and the degree of development of connections between the centers of territorial communities, as an indicator of the future prospects of cooperation between newly formed administrative centers.</p> <p>According to all the analyzed characteristics, at the raion level, Ternopil raion takes the leading position, and it was formed on the basis of the inter-district resettlement system of the same name. While Kremenets acts as an outsider. Which is expected, taking into account the peculiarities of the development of the Ternopil subregional resettlement system. But studies at the level of territorial communities, which actually have become the basis of new resettlement systems at the local level, have shown qualitative advantages in the resettlement characteristics of communities that form the supporting framework of resettlement in Ternopil oblast. The obtained results showed that the existing disproportions in the resettlement of the population of the study region, with the implementation of the new administrative-territorial system, have not only remained, but will intensify in the future. As a result of the analysis of all the above-mentioned indicators-characteristics of resettlement, the determining role of centers former inter-raion resettlement systems and separate centers of bush-level resettlement systems can be traced.</p> Natalia Zablotovska, Olha Danilova, Mykhailo Salii Copyright (c) 2022 Natalia Zablotovska, Olha Danilova, Mykhailo Salii Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modern state of preschool education in different parts of Ukraine <p>The role of social factors has increased significantly in modern society. Education is essential for raising the intellectual and cultural level of inhabitants in any country. The purpose of this article is to analyze modern state of preschool education in different parts of Ukraine and to point at regional disparities in accessibility of preschool education services. This article gives analysis to modern state of preschool education in different parts of Ukraine. Research was based on several indicators such as number of children involved in preschool education, number of preschools in different regions of Ukraine, preschool enrollment rates and number of children actually attending preschools per 100 available places. Level of development of preschool education in cities and rural areas has been studied in regional context of Ukraine. It was also calculated social density of preschools and indexes of both territorial concentration and localization of preschools in the country. Social density of preschools was also analyzed in the study.</p> <p>The highest social density of preschools is typical for the capital of Ukraine – the city of Kiev. The lowest social density of preschool sector services is typical for Poltava, Sumy, Chernihiv and Luhansk regions. The highest concentration of preschools is observed in Kyiv city, and low territorial concentration index is observed in Sumy, Zaporizhia, Donetsk and Kirovohrad regions, Kherson region, Chernihiv region and Luhansk region. High localization index values were observed in Khmelnytsky and Ternopil regions, Zhytomyr and Cherkasy regions, Vinnytsia region, Mykolaiv, Zakarpattia, Rivne, Kirovohrad and Volyn regions and the lowest localization index values were observed in Kyiv city, Kharkiv region, Luhansk and Donetsk regions. Regions of Ukraine have been ranked and grouped in types according to their level of preschool education development. According to the results of the study, three types of regions have been identified. Regions (oblast) of Cherkasy, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia, Kyiv, Ternopil and Zakarpattia have been included in the first type (high level of preschool education development). The second type (average level of preschool education development) includes city of Kyiv and regions (oblast) of Zhytomyr, Rivne, Mykolaiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Chernivtsi, Sumy, Kherson, Kirovohrad, Poltava and Kharkiv. Regions (oblast) of Volyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernihiv, Lviv, Odessa, Zaporizhia, Donetsk and Luhansk have been included in the third type (low level of preschool education development).</p> Olesya Kornus, Anatolii Kornus, Mykyta Konovalov , Olena Korol , Оlha Skyba Copyright (c) 2022 Olesya Kornus, Anatolii Kornus, Mykyta Konovalov, Olena Korol, Оlha Skyba Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial differentiation of Stryi raion of Lviv oblast: challenges for development <p>The article raises the issue of comprehensive human-geographical research of administrative-territorial units formed as a result of reforming the administrative-territorial structure of Ukraine. The human-geographical meaning of the concept of "administrative district capacity" as its ability to function effectively in accordance with natural, demographic and economic potentials is introduced and revealed. Using a cartographic method, a series of analytical maps elaborated, which revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in terms of territorial communities of Stryi Raion (district) in terms of providing by land resources, population and settlement density, level of urbanization, general budget revenues per unit area and per capita, taфability index.</p> <p>Based on the Methodology for the Formation of Capable Territorial Communities (2020), groups of territorial communities with high (3.9&nbsp;–&nbsp;4.6) and medium (3.2&nbsp;–&nbsp;3.8) levels of capacity identified at the studied area. Elaboration of the approved strategies for the development of territorial communities made it possible to summarize the priority areas of economic development of the district: tourism and recreational, transport and logistical, agrarian, industrial. Clustering is proposed as an effective process of territorial organization of the economy of Stryi Raion. The need to transform the city-forming functions of the former district centers (Zhydachiv, Mykolaiv, Skole) into new economic realities is emphasized.</p> Myroslava Vlakh , Iryna Vanda , Liubov Kotyk Copyright (c) 2022 Myroslava Vlakh, Iryna Vanda, Liubov Kotyk Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Features of development of hotel and restaurant economy of Lutsk territorial community <p>The geographical boundaries and composition of the Lutsk territorial community are characterized, namely the community includes 1 city, 1 urban-type settlement and 34 villages. We defined the dynamics of the number of tourists visiting Lutsk. The tourists number growth testifies to the strong promotion of the city and its environs, the development of tourist infrastructure and hotel and restaurant facilities, which are always ready to offer an interesting unique product to every visitor. We analysed the dynamics of the volume of tourist revenues to the budget of Lutsk from 2016 to 2019. There is an increase in the number of tourist revenues. If in 2016 this figure was 131,700 hryvnias, in 2019 it was almost 4.5 times higher and reached its peak - 587,609 hryvnias. 2020 is marked by a slight decline due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a reduction in travel and hotel services. The number of temporary accommodation facilities of the Lutsk Territorial Community has been studied, they can comfortably accommodate more than 1340 guests: 1108 people - in 23 modern hotels, 233 people - in 7 modern hostels. We analysed the ratio of people who stayed and did not stay overnight in Lutsk TС. The length of stay of tourists in the city of Lutsk was studied, the number of people staying for the night is 25.2% in 2017 and 32.1% in 2019. We analysed the development of restaurants dynamics in Lutsk TС, 314 establishments operate on the territory of them: 35 units - bars, 73 units - restaurants and 206 units - cafés, cafeterias, pizzerias. The analysis of pricing policy and price segments of the Lutsk TС market is given. In the structure of hotel data, the largest share falls on enterprises whose average room price is in the range from UAH 425 to UAH 916, 1407 UAH to 2880 UAH ("Mojo" and "Noble"). These indicators show that each hotel has its own target segment of consumers, as evidenced by the cost and category of rooms.</p> <p>The main problems of the hotel and restaurant industry of the Lutsk territorial community are characterized, namely: insufficient level of satisfaction of consumer requirements; insufficiently well-developed quality management system at enterprises; the predominant focus of the restaurant industry is not on the quality of their products, but on the material support of the institution; insufficiently high level of management of institutions, low level of leadership qualities of heads of institutions; very often the prerogative of the institution is the quantity of products, not its quality; insufficiently qualified level of institutions staff, and hence low quality of service; insufficient advertising activities of institutions; imperfect image strategy of the restaurant.</p> <p>Solving and improving these problems will allow hotel and restaurant businesses to increase the number of consumers; will increase the efficiency of the enterprise, as a consequence of increasing the profitability of institutions; improving the efficiency of the institution's management; increasing the quality of services and the level of service; improving consumer perception of the company's image and reputation; will open opportunities for institutions to enter the international market and increase the number of consumers.</p> Iryna Ierko, Anastasiia Hrynasiuk, Liliia Hromko, Nadiia Melnyk Copyright (c) 2022 Iryna Ierko, Anastasiia Hrynasiuk, Liliia Hromko, Nadiia Melnyk Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Financial and infrastructure centers of the Western region of Ukraine <p>The article analyses the financial and infrastructural hubs, centres and points that are the point forms of geospatial organization of the financial infrastructure of the Western region of Ukraine. The definition of the concepts "financial and infrastructural hub", "financial and infrastructural centre" and "financial and infrastructural point" is offered. Specific point forms of geospatial organization at three levels are considered. A feature of the financial infrastructure is its ability to make rapid changes that can be caused at the local, regional, national and global levels, so its transformation occurs simultaneously through two multifunctional processes – globalization and regionalization.</p> <p>There are four main provisions that are provided by the geospatial organization, namely: a) the relative location of objects; b) the existence of relationships of different types (spatial information, human, etc.); c) the existence of territorial social formations (structures, entities, systems); d) their ability to continue to operate (availability of conditions for transformation). The influence of demographic and socio-economic factors was revealed on the selection of specific point forms of financial infrastructure, the social potential of settlements in the study region was taken into account. Particular attention is paid to financial and infrastructure centres, as more requirements are placed on their allocation. Financial and infrastructural centers are also formed under the influence of historical and geographical factors. Attention is drawn to the problem of transforming specific point-type objects from point to centre to hub and vice versa. The impact of decentralization reform and the new administrative-territorial structure, which led to an increase in the number of financial and infrastructural points but reduced the number of financial and infrastructural centres, are taken into account.</p> Zlata Lohin Copyright (c) 2022 Zlata Lohin Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 China as a subject of the international tourist market <p>Given the prospects for the development of the Chinese tourism market, we consider it appropriate to thoroughly study the impact of Chinese conditions on the global tourism industry and China's international tourism positioning. Literary analysis of Chinese tourism research has shown a growing interest in this issue since the 2010s. Most scholars, tourism practitioners, government officials and professionals in tourism agencies agree that the Chinese tourism market has mega potential and high development dynamics. However, while scientific reviews of the past decade have focused exclusively on researching the travel geography of Chinese travelers and the dynamics of Chinese outbound tourism, modern work provides a deep understanding of Chinese tourists' behavior and experiences and highlights negative aspects of Chinese mass tourism. In this article, the author specifies China's place in the global tourism market, using quantitative data and tourism indices. In particular, after ranking the world countries on key quantitative indicators of the level of development of the tourism industry (number of tourists, number of international tourist arrivals, number of revenues from tourism), China's strong position was revealed (3rd, 4th and 11th respectively).Graphs of changes in the number of international tourist arrivals and cash inflows from tourism showed a positive trend. In particular, in 2019 a record was reached among the number of tourists and the number of tourist arrivals in China for the entire research period.</p> <p>At the same time, it should be noted that the Covid-19 pandemic has not bypassed China's tourism sector and in 2020 the number of international tourist arrivals decreased fivefold (this is the lowest figure for the country in the history of collecting international tourism statistics, since 1995). revenues from international tourists reached 14.2 billion dollars. (less than ever in the last 20 years). The prospects of the Chinese market and optimistic dynamics of its development were evidenced by the highest rating indices in the field of tourism and travel − Travel &amp; Tourism Competitiveness Index (2019) and Travel &amp; Tourism Development Index (2021), where China ranked 13th and 12th respectively. Thus, quantitative indicators and integrated indices have confirmed China's important position in the tourism market and allow us to predict their stable strengthening and China's short-term world leadership in the tourism sector.</p> Mariya Lushchyk, Pavlo Vytrykush Copyright (c) 2022 Mariya Lushchyk, Pavlo Vytrykush Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The place of South Asia in the world economy: human-geographical, geo-economic and geopolitical aspects <p>The article deals with the positioning of South Asia in the world economy in the XXI century as its place in the flows of goods and services, finances, humans and technologies. The information base of the research is newest available statistical data of the UN institutions and the World Bank. Intraregional diversity as disparities between countries is shown. The entrenchment in the world economy is proved by GDP growth, dynamics of foreign trade and foreign direct investments. The main human-geographical features of the region are substantiated: asymmetricity with India as extremum, contrasts, and rather low transnationalization. Demographical and social, economic contrasts and geopolitical tensions of South Asia, that has deep historical and cultural roots, are distinguished. The structure of South Asia's foreign trade is characterized by groups of goods and technological classification. The typical feature for the developing countries regions is the predominance in exports of low technologies and resources-based manufactures. The unique for South Asia is the high share of primary products in imports, that reflects food and raw material dependence. Based on the technological classification The last one applied for regarding the differentiation by countries in its ties with geographical factors.</p> <p>Geo-economic aspects are determined by the position among other macro-regions of the world, the degree of ties with geo-economic leaders, geographical features of international trade and investment flows. Economic integration is considered in the context of the functioning of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, which includes all countries of the region. The potential growth of the role of interstate economic association for intensification of intra-regional ties is noted, which will also strengthen the position of South Asia in the world economy as a consequence. Conflicts between countries, political and ideological differences often do not contribute to the consolidation of efforts of the countries in the region. Staying in the sphere of influence of different global geopolitical players, as well as the interpretation of India as one of such actors, in particular its opposition to China, bring difficulties in strengthening the place of the region and, in particular, India, in the world economy.</p> Olha Mamchur, Iryna Vanda Copyright (c) 2022 Olha Mamchur, Iryna Vanda Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000