The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. A Series of «Psychology» <p>JOURNAL PURPOSE: popularization and coverage of contemporary psychological research, opportunities and ways of putting them into practice. The peer-reviewed journal publishes articles written on the basis of empirical and theoretical studies conducted by the authors. The problems of personality, cognitive sphere, questions of ecological, pedagogical, political, social, medical psychology, peculiarities of behavior that does not correspond to the norm are considered.</p> V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University en-US The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. A Series of «Psychology» 2225-7756 Social Maturity as a Factor in the Professional Self-Determination of an Adolescent Person <p>The article presents the results of an empirical study focused on the relationship between social maturity and professional self-determination in early adolescents. Theoretical criteria of social maturity—reflection, autonomy, and environmental management—are discussed as crucial aspects of personal development. The activity of a mature personality manifests in active creativity through processes of cognition, activity, and communication. Personal reflection involves self-awareness, self-discovery abilities, and self-directedness in interpersonal relations. Autonomy refers to the capability to resist majority opinions and to make conscious and independent decisions. The total sample of respondents aged 17-18 years was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 32 graduates of the 11th grade; the second group consisted of 30 first-year university students. The results of the empirical study showed that graduates of the 11th grade who are in a crisis of professional development tend to rely on the opinion of society and build their lives according to the accepted standards. Those who have determined their professional direction demonstrate interest to self-knowledge but are characterised by passive social behaviour. First-year students, facing a crisis of choice, try to maintain their autonomy and uniqueness. Students with an established professional position try to be useful to society while remaining true to their values. A statistically significant difference was found in the level of development of reflexivity in adolescents. It was found that students are characterised by a higher level of self-acceptance, a higher level of self-esteem, etc. It has been established that reflexivity is an important quality that influences successful professional self-determination.</p> Olena Huliaieva Kateryna Poltavska Copyright (c) 2024 O. Huliaieva, K. Poltavska 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Self-Determination in the Life Dynamic Characteristics in the field of activity and on the cultural-historical plan, it is suggested to attribute human activity to <p>The article examines the concept of self-determination as a mechanism for changing the life position of an individual, which is manifested in the dynamic characteristics of the way and style of life. There are two aspects of the way of life:&nbsp; manner and image of life. The article establishes the essence of the difference between them. Since the way of a person’s life is represented simultaneously on two levels in the field of activity and on the cultural-historical plan, it is suggested to attribute human activity to the space of manner, while the cultural-historical plan should be taken to the space of image of life. On this basis, it is indicated that the manner of life is determined by the&nbsp; activity of an individual, behavioral patterns and life strategies of activities that ensure the stability of the way of life, or may change it in situations of uncertainty, unexpected events, etc. It has been established that the image of life is the project space of a person's ideas about what his life should be like. In the space of the image of life,there exist ideals, standards, highest values, self-realization, freedom, integrity and other aspects to which a person always strives. It is in this space that the path to create a new life and discovering previously unknown opportunities for human self-development from the long-term perspectives. It was revealed that lifestyle is the space of communication and mutual relations of an individual with external and internal aspects of life that arise in a problematic situation. Lifestyle determines the establishment of a balance between the external set of social norms and rules of a new situation and the internally accepted expediency of their adoption and implementation. It is substantiated that self-determination is one of the leading mechanisms of self-change and individual development. In the context of a manner of life, self-determination ends with the transformation of an individual into a subject of action, which contributes to his adaptation to new circumstances. Self-determination in the space of lifestyle conditions the transformation of an individual into a subject of relations, which ensures his socialization and allows building relationships between the situation (others, life, the world, etc.) and himself on the basis of correctness in order to change them. It was revealed that in the space of the image of life, self-determination ensures the emergence of a subject-culture, creator of his own life story, integrated into the general cultural-historical content. Based on the obtained results, a scheme of practical support for persons in problematic situations was developed.</p> Inna Tsaruk Copyright (c) 2024 Inna Tsaruk 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Preverbal Traumas and Personality Hardiness <p>The article analyzes the phenomenon of preverbal traumas - complex mental traumas received in early childhood, before the child learned to speak, and which personality cannot consciously reproduce, and also provides the results of an empirical study of the relationship of these traumas with hardiness and its main components (commitment, control and challenge) in students. The article is aimed at researching preverbal traumas, hardiness and factors affecting it, checking and revealing the nature of the relationship between the levels of development of preverbal traumas and the hardiness of students. The sample consisted of 62 students from various institutions of higher education in Ukraine, including 49 women and 13 men aged 18-22. To achieve the goal of the study, the following methods were used: «Diagnostic of confidence injuries according to the method of psychotherapy «i-reconstruction» (Pavlenko T.V.), «The short version of the test of hardiness» (V.A. Olefir, M.A. Kuznetsov, A.V. Pavlova), «Self-assessment of hardiness» (modification of the questionnaire M. Vorwerg on the contact of T. A. Larina). As a result of the study, a significant feedback of the average strength between the general indicators of preverbal trauma and hardiness, as well as the feedback of the average strength between the variables "preverbal trauma - control," "right to receive pleasure - control" and "right to receive pleasure - hardiness" were identified. This may indicate that a person who has preverbal traumas loses confidence that he can influence his own life and circumstances. Individuals who tend to develop a prohibition to receive pleasure are poorly able to control their lives and generally have poorly developed hardiness. With the severity of preverbal traumas, hardiness and its components are poorly developed. Accordingly, students who, on the contrary, have well-formed hardiness, have a low level of development of preverbal injuries. Further research of factors affecting the relationship of hardiness and preverbal traumas will allow to develop effective strategies for overcoming the consequences of preverbal traumas, increase psychological stability and promote normal development of personality.</p> Angelina Bobrytska Nataliia Maievska Copyright (c) 2024 Angelina Bobrytska, Nataliia Maievska 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Features of Adaptation and Overcoming Stress in Adolescents in the Conditions of Military Conflict <p>The article discusses the results of adaptation and coping strategies peculiarities&nbsp; study used by Ukrainian adolescents in Ukraine and abroad. The results of the survey show that adolescents in Ukraine experience a higher level of stress, mainly due to military operations and security threats. At the same time, adolescents abroad face stress due to schoolwork, exam preparation, and social adaptation. Both groups most often use the Internet as a way to relieve stress. Adolescents in Ukraine are more likely to resort to the coping strategy of avoidance, which temporarily reduces psychological discomfort but does not eliminate the causes of stress. In the group of Ukrainian adolescents abroad, an emotionally oriented coping strategy is more common, which is more effective in reducing stress and increasing emotional adaptability. The study confirms the importance of understanding and supporting the psychological well-being of adolescents in different life circumstances and emphasizes the need to implement effective psychological interventions to support adolescents in war and promote their successful adaptation.</p> Hanna Pavlenko Anastasiia Zvierieva Copyright (c) 2024 H. Pavlenko, A. Zvierieva 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Cognitive Processes of Adolescents Engaged in Scientific and Technical Creative Work <p>The development of cognitive processes in modern adolescents is an urgent problem of psychology and the modern education system, because most teenagers do not develop, and even lose, their intellectual and creative abilities in traditional school, while there is a growing need for highly developed professionals who would creatively address complex and unexpected problems. The aim of the research was to study the peculiarities of thinking and memory of teenagers engaged in scientific and technical creative work in comparison with their peers who are not. The development of cognitive processes of modern teenagers is an urgent problem of psychology and the system of general secondary education, because most teenagers do not develop, and even lose their intellectual and creative abilities in a traditional school, at the time when the need for highly educated professionals who creatively solve complex,unexpected problems is growing.&nbsp; The purpose of the study was to study the peculiarities of thinking and memory of teenagers who are engaged in scientific and technical creative process in comparison with their peers who are not engaged in it. The research was conducted on the basis of the communal institution "Bezlyudivskyi Law Lyceum named after I. Ya. Pidkopai of the Bezlyudivsk Settlement Council" of the Kharkiv region. A total of 66 students aged 10 to 13 took part in the study, of which 30 are additionally engaged in scientific and technical creativity in clubs ("Robotics", "Modeling", "Young researchers", "Step to science"), and 36 - are not engaged in any types of creativity. It has been established that adolescents who are involved in the processes of modeling, construction, invention have higher abilities for systematized, planned, methodical intellectual activity compared to those adolescents who are not involved in this process. It was determined that memory and thinking are correlated among teenagers who are engaged in STC, which suggests the integration of the development of these processes in the course of creative activity. It was found that memory for numbers, memory for texts and operational memory are developed in those who are engaged in scientific and technical activities. They also have better developed logical thinking, the ability to systematize and plan, and general intelligence. In addition, teenagers engaged in scientific and technical activities are distinguished by close relationships between memory and thinking.</p> Ihor Zuiev Karina Beliaeva Copyright (c) 2024 І. Zuev, K. Beliaeva 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Autobiographical Memory in Persons with Psycho-Emotional Disorders During the War <p>The article describes the results&nbsp; of autobiographical memory problem studying in the context of violations of the emotional sphere of an individual, namely in persons who have different levels of emotional stability during the full-scale war in Ukraine. The peculiarities of autobiographical memory were determined among three clusters of subjects: with high PTSD scores, elevated levels of depression, and without recorded disorders of the emotional sphere. According to the results of the empirical study, a significantly higher level of emotional coloring of the content of the recent past memories was recorded in subjects with high rates of PTSD and depression compared to subjects without disturbances of emotional stability. &nbsp;Persons with signs of post-traumatic stress disorder reproduce emotionally colored memories in the form of monosyllabic impersonal sentences, avoiding mental immersion in the details of events, while in persons with signs of depression, emotionally colored memories are accompanied by perceptual-image brightness of their content. Individuals with symptoms of PTSD and depression reproduce many emotions when recalling personal experiences, do not ignore personally significant negative and positive events of the past, but focus more on their own emotional experience. In general, in subjects with signs of emotional disorders, generalized, monosyllabic emotional memories prevail in number over perceptually colored ones and are characterized by the fragmentary nature of the content reproduced in them. Subjects without emotional disturbances tend to reproduce detailed and perceptually colored memories during arbitrary reproduction. Individuals without disorders of emotional stability also tend to accompany personal memories with their own reflections and figurative details. Emotionally colored memories are also presented among the subjects of this group, but in small numbers. The most negative memories of the stressful events of the war, which are also accompanied by the reproduction of a complete situation in the subjects without signs of emotional disorders, are distinguished by the emotional saturation of the content. In general, individuals in a state of emotional stability demonstrate acceptance of both positive and stressful life events, which is reflected in the mental coherence of the content of their memories and the integral structure of their autobiographical memory.</p> Olena Nevoenna Yuliya Zinchenko Copyright (c) 2024 O. Nevoenna, Yu. Zinchenko 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Participative Interaction Between Specialists and Parents in Early Intervention During the War in Ukraine <p>The article examines the life and professional situation in which early intervention specialists found themselves at the beginning of the war in Ukraine, their needs and features of providing early intervention services to families during wartime. A model of participatory interaction between specialists and the family in early intervention was also built, on the basis of which the checklist "Implementation of early intervention family plan: meeting with the family" was created. Questionnaire and modeling methods were used. Specialists from Kharkiv, Zakarpattia, Odesa, Lviv, Donetsk, Luhansk regions and Vinnytsia were involved (N=76). 52.6% of the surveyed specialists were forced to change their place of residence after leaving the territory of active hostilities. Among those who left, 17.1% of specialists were abroad. 81.6% of specialists continued to work, of which 74.19% - provided RV service, despite the war and forced resettlement. The results of the questionnaire became the basis for creating a model of participatory interaction and its operationalization in the form of a checklist, which consists of five sections that reflect the sequence of actions of specialists: transdisciplinary team, preparation for a meeting with the family, greetings, implementation of goals and support of parents, summarizing and planning the next meeting .The developed checklist is based on evidence-based practices of early intervention and allows to ensure the measurability of participative interaction, which ensures the quality of meetings during the implementation of the family plan of early intervention and their compliance with recommended practices. In the conclusions, the structure of the needs of emergency personnel during the war in Ukraine was determined: obtaining new knowledge about accompanying families and children during the war, knowledge about trauma and work with it, communication with colleagues, financial and material needs, the need for emotional support to prevent emotional burnout; the checklist "Implementation of&nbsp; early intervention family plan: meeting with the family" was substantiated and developed, which allows operationalizing the concept of participatory interaction in early intervention.</p> Hanna Kukuruza Olena Bliznyuk Serhiy Tsylyuryk Copyright (c) 2024 H. Kukuruza, O. Bliznyuk, S. Tsylyuryk 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Psychological Safety as A Mediator in the Relationship Between Leadership Style and Professional Well-Being <p>The disclosure of non-linear relationships between leadership characteristics and the professional well-being of employees contributes to the understanding of&nbsp; psychological determinants of this phenomenon and opens perspectives for effective prevention of its violations. The purpose of this study is to test empirically&nbsp; the mediating role of psychological safety in the relationship between leadership characteristics and occupational well-being of employees. To implement the purpose of this study, a cross-sectional method was applied using the Scale of Perceived Leadership of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, 5X-Short form) Bass and Avolio, Porter's Need Satisfaction Questionnaire (NSQ), Spector's Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS), Scale of psychological safety of Edmondson. The participants of the study were 170 teachers at higher schools of Ukraine. Mathematical and statistical analysis included mediation analysis, correlation analysis. According to the results of the study, it was established that the connection between psychological safety and the professional well-being of employees function through the satisfaction of their psychological needs. Empirical research also confirmed the mediating role of psychological safety in the relationship between leadership style and professional well-being. It was established that the relative contribution of psychological safety in predicting professional well-being increases with a decrease in the positive nature of leadership. Thus, psychological safety moderates the impact of negative leadership characteristics on employee well-being by compensating for the frustration of certain psychological needs. The mediating effects identified by us complement the existing knowledge about the psychological mechanisms of the professional well-being formation in employees and open new perspectives for increasing its level and effective prevention of violations.</p> Olena Voitenko Copyright (c) 2024 O. Voitenko 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Self-Esteem in the Organization of Interpersolnal Interaction Among Youth qnd Adolescence Age People <p>The issue of organizing interpersonal interaction in relation to the formation of self-esteem in youth and adolescence age people, especially those making life-defining decisions under the burdening conditions of a military conflict, is highly relevant. The aim of the study is to identify the characteristics of self-esteem in accordance with different types of interpersonal attachment in young adults. The sample consisted of 68 young adults. The following methods were used to obtain empirical data: S. Budassi’s method (for determining self-esteem), E. Chen’s method (for determining the type of interpersonal attachment), and H. Eysenck’s method (for identifying maladaptive psychological states). Results: No direct linear statistical relationships were found between the self-esteem and interpersonal attachment of the subjects. The relationship between self-esteem and attachment was determined using cluster analysis in two variants: by the parameter "self-esteem" and simultaneously by the parameters "secure attachment" and "insecure attachment." In both variants, with some differences, one group with high adequate self-esteem, low insecurity of attachment, and elevated secure attachment values was identified, and another group with opposite results was found. The groups significantly differed in terms of self-esteem (U = .00, p &lt; .001 and U = 386.50, p = .036), insecure attachment (U = 297.00, p = .009 and U = 15.00, p &lt; .001), and in one variant by secure attachment (U = 409.50, p = .261 and U = 266.50, p &lt; .001). It was found that individuals in the group with high adequate self-esteem, compared to others, had lower expressions of maladaptive psychological states: anxiety (U = 345.00, p = .048 and U = 262.00, p &lt; .001), frustration (U = 327.00, p = .027 and U = 295.50, p = .001), aggression (U = 365.00, p = .086 and U = 356.00, p = .013), and rigidity (U = 145.50, p &lt; .001 and U = 269.50, p &lt; .001). Conclusions: It has been established that high adequate self-esteem corresponds to a pronounced ability of the individual to organize constructive interaction with a secure type of interpersonal attachment and a low level of vulnerability to the destructive influences of the current situation. Lower self-esteem of the subjects is associated with increased vulnerability to destructive influences and insecure interpersonal attachment. Maladaptive psychological states in young adults are linked to lower self-esteem and increased insecurity of interpersonal attachment.</p> Maryna Klymenko Viktor Plokhikh Copyright (c) 2024 M. Klymenko, V. Plokhikh 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Subjective Economic Well-Being of Entrepreneurs During the War in Ukraine <p>The purpose of the work is to determine the characteristics of the subjective economic well-being of entrepreneurs during the war in Ukraine. Ukrainian entrepreneurs have been working in conditions of full-scale war for more than two years. A catastrophic situation of uncertainty hinders the conduct of business, but despite this, specialists determine an increase in economic activity. Entrepreneurs working in Ukraine (N=50), aged 23 to 55, were involved in the study. The experience of entrepreneurial activity ranged from 7 to 22 years. Areas of business activity: trade, sale and lease of real estate, agronomy, construction, freight transportation, furniture production. Questionnaires, the method of incomplete sentences (modified by us), the questionnaire of subjective economic well-being (V.A. Khashchenko) and the methods of mathematical statistics were chosen as research methods. It was determined that the subjective economic well-being of the studied entrepreneurs has a moderate level of expressiveness. At the same time, there is a noticeable tendency for men to grow in negative experiences caused by a lack of finances. And for women, a positive assessment of the current well-being of the family is characteristic. It should also be said that women entrepreneurs, compared to men, experience significantly higher economic optimism, current family well-being, and overall economic well-being. Economic optimism is higher among entrepreneurs with higher education than among those with only secondary education. Not married entrepreneurs evaluate the current well-being of their own family more positively than married ones; but no differences were found in the level of subjective economic well-being depending on the presence of children, as well as depending on objective indicators and their subjective assessment by entrepreneurs of the amount of financial profit.</p> Artem Pugachov Svitlana Yanovskaya Copyright (c) 2024 А. Pugachov, S. Yanovskaya 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76 Professional Self-Efficiency and Subjective Success of Managers at Different Levels <p>The purpose of our work was to determine the characteristics of the relationship between professional self-efficacy and subjective success in managers of different levels who work in Ukrainian companies during the war in Ukraine. Managers of different levels (N=58) participated in the study, who were involved in the study through various online platforms. Among the subjects - 43 men and 15 women aged 27 to 56 years. Research methods: questionnaire, numerical scaling, questionnaire of professional self-efficacy ("Short occupational self-efficacy scale"), "Who am I?" method. M. Kuhn and T. McPartland. The managers under study have a high level of subjective success, which is moderately high and indicates the satisfaction of the subjects with their own achievements and behavior. The professional self-efficacy of the managers under study has a moderately high value. Managers clearly formulate goals in their work and feel motivated to overcome all obstacles that stand on the way to a certain result. The identity of&nbsp; different levels managers researched is presented as follows: in the first place there is the professional role position (leader, entrepreneur, manager and specialist), then - family affiliation and roles in the family (husband, father, son, brother), personal qualities (reliability, stability , justice, sincerity, diligence), characteristics of activity ("study an interesting topic", "make your friends happy") complete the list of friendship criteria, existential self, self-assessment of social skills, description of your physical data, citizenship, ethnic and gender identity. Managers who have a larger number of subordinates, are close to the head of the company, and have a high level of professional self-efficacy, are more likely to consider themselves completely successful.</p> Maxim Seliverst Rimma Turenko Copyright (c) 2024 M. Seliverst, R.Turenko 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 76