The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series “Philology” <p>The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, series “Philology” is a professional publication in the field of philological sciences (Specialty 035 «Philology»), category B (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine № 409 from 17.03.2020).</p> <p>The Journal contains original articles about topical issues of modern linguistics and study of literature. The journal is meant for scientists, postgraduate and doctoral students, students of philology and for everyone who is interested in philology problems.<br><br></p> en-US (Чекарева Євгенія Сергіївна) (Пономаренко Олеся Олексіївна) Mon, 24 Jun 2024 11:00:06 +0000 OJS 60 Borys Hrinchenko in the memories of contemporaries <p>The article analyzes the reception of B. Hrinchenko's work in criticism, elaborates studies of his contemporaries, devoted to his biography, social and literary activities. The main attention is focused on the aspect of the artist's writing work, the prerequisites for its formation, as well as the author's inherent character traits and features of appearance, which testified to the writer's strong-willed qualities and contributed to his searches. He reacted acutely to the injustice and injustice inflicted on the Ukrainian people, in particular by the numerous bans on the Ukrainian language, and was concerned with national and social issues at a time when inequality and the poor were chaining the impoverished people into chains of obedience and submission. The writer saw not the only salvation in enlightenment, the instrument of which became the embodiment of literature.</p> <p>The object of the study was the autobiography of B. Hrinchenko, the memoirs of M. Hrinchenko, I. Lypa, M. Lysenko, D. Pisochnytsia, the works of S. Yefremov "Borys Hrinchenko (About his life and works), M. Plevako's "Life and work of Borys Hrinchenko", "Cedar of Lebanon" by M. Chernyavskyi, criticism by L.&nbsp;Smilyanskyi, S. Rudnychenko, V. Koryak. The literary works of O. Biletsky, N.&nbsp;Kobyzhcha, A. Movchun, O. Nezhivy, A. Pogribny, and others were analyzed.</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to form a holistic and objective view of B. Hrinchenko's life, literary activity, character, moral values and orientations with the help of reviews of contemporaries who accompanied the writer on various aspects of his life and professional path. The topicality of the topic is due to the fact that B. Hrinchenko's work becomes the object of research by literary critics much less often than works devoted to pedagogical and educational views, scientists reveal ideological-aesthetic and national-social aspects, carrying out a detailed analysis of biography, epistolary, journalism, ethnographic works. Despite the limited amount of critical literature, the chosen topic is promising and needs more detailed coverage.</p> Mariia Ivashchenko Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The title as a constituent and structural component of T. G. Shevchenko's poetic works: general characteristics, specifics <p>The author of the article focuses on the paratextuality of "Kobzar" by T&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Shevchenko, particularly, on the relationship between the poetic texts of the collection and the titles. There made an attempt to classify the titles of the works from different positions.</p> <p>The poetic book of the well-known Ukrainian author includes 237 works, only 80 of them have material names. Materially expressed titles of poems, ballads and poems are in the researcher’s special consideration.</p> <p>The titles of T&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Shevchenko's poetic works are diverse in terms of substantive and factual information: they indicate the characters of the work, the place of "action", determine the main image-symbol or artistic detail, indicate information about the time. Also, T.&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Shevchenko's "Kobzar" presents trait names, symbolic names, attribute names, generalizations based on social phenomena, etc.</p> <p>Special attention is focused on the extratextual information of the titles, when their basis is not only the content of the work, but its associative connection with other aesthetic objects: allusions that testify to the connection with the folklore national-cultural context; allusions to the biblical text; allusions based on a connection with a specific person; borrowing titles; genre headings; names based on persistent phrases or aphorisms.</p> <p>In general terms, the author of the article analyzes zero titles. The characteristics of "technical" names by "theme" is presented (the lexical and syntactic features of the first phrase are used): name-phrases in which there is the author's assessment and the assessment of the characters, there is a hint of philosophical reflections, landscape description, dreams, warnings, memories, etc. It is noted that this classification of zero titles is conditional and does not fully convey the philosophical content of the works, somewhat impoverishes their poetic symbolism and only to some extent adjusts to the previous perception of the text.</p> Alla Ruban Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 “Awakened Muse” by Ihor Kalynets in the interartistic dialogue with Oleksa Novakivskyi <p>The purpose of the article is to provide an alternative reading of the title of Ihor Kalynets’s collection “Awakened Muse” based on an intermedial analysis of poems written under the influence of Olexander Novakivskyi’s paintings. Ihor Kalynets felt the nerve of rebellion and the all-consuming element of music in the livestory and creative work of the artist from Lviv and conveyed them through the poem “Muse”. The poem presents a collective image of Anna-Maria, the wife, who inspired O. Novakivskyi’s artistic work, and who really was his muse. The created visual image continues the theme of “Stabat Mater” (“Grieving Mother”) in the worldwide art. The fact is that the rebellious, expressive nature of the artist’s work required its opposite for balance, which was embodied in the figure of his wife and muse Anna-Maria. In I. Kalynets’s interpretation, Anna-Maria “had” to be a muse for her husband, that is, the wife “had” to devote herself to the service of art, realizing that she would have to experience certain sacrifices for this.</p> <p>The integrity of O. Novakivskyi’s painting “‘Self-Portrait’ with the wife” is ensured by the principle of projection: the figure of the man in the composition of the canvas is projected onto the figure of the woman, who in the background seems to echo her husband with her posture, the position of her left hand, which supports the head. The artist looks at the recipients of the painting, from the bottom up and to the right, while Anna-Maria looks from the top down. Using the resources of geometric terminology, these gazes could be called “fleeting” because they lie in different planes and do not intersect. I. Kalynets interprets the expressions of the characters’ faces in different ways: the artist’s face is “wise and sharp” while Anna Maria’s face is “hopeless and beautiful”. This juxtaposition cannot be called symmetrical, it means that the semantics of the images do not enter into polar relationship. This juxtaposition is rather asymmetrical and “transient”, just like the gazes in the painting are.</p> <p>I. Kalynets chose the painting “Awakening” as an object for the ekphrasis and interpretive narrative, perhaps because O. Novakivskyi, with his fresh modernist’s perspective, was the first to innovatively depict Ukraine as a child, almost a teenager. The element of sunlight in the painting and I. Kalynets’s surprisingly harmonious ekphrasis affirm positivity, hope and faith into the future, in which there will be no space for suffering, and suggest that the child, as well as Ukraine, has their whole life ahead of them.</p> <p>Based on the intermedial analysis, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Under the right conditions, the muse awakens to inspire the artist. These conditions are related to historical progress, but above all, to the peculiarities of individual evolution of the author. 2. The artist and the muse are in the relationship of dialectical unity, which drives them both in their development. 3. The images of the muse and awakening lead directly to the image of Ukraine, which is awakening on the way to its independence. The divine powers play the leading role in this process.</p> Hryhorii Savchuk Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Specifics of the Autobiographical Narrative in “Memoirs” of D. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovskiy <p>The article examines the memoir-autobiographical prose of D. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovskiy as an original example of nonfiction literature. The relevance of the work is due to the active study of the theory and history of memoir-biographical prose in domestic and foreign literary studies, as well as the intensive development of contemporary autobiography. The purpose of the study is to identify the specifics of the autobiographical narrative, the peculiarities of the author's self-identification and the construction of the narrator's life story. It is shown that an autobiographical narrative is constructed as a story for others and a story for oneself. Autobiographical memory contains elements of varying degrees of generalization. While maintaining psychophysical identity, the distance between the autocharacter and the narrator is constantly emphasized.</p> <p>As the narrative develops, the narrator's features of a scientist become more and more pronounced, and the narrative shows signs of scientific discourse. "Memoirs" reveals such components of a scientific narrative as description, explanation, analogy, analysis, argumentation, categorization, classification, logical proof, and intertextuality. The supertask performed by the narrator is to characterize the history of his personal and scientific formation as a path to the acquisition of scientific truths and the methodological, basic, and ideological foundations of scientific activity. The narrative also has elements of artistry: complication of the narrative structure, violation of linearity, fictionalization of biographical stories, expressiveness and integrity of images, attention to detail, etc.</p> <p>“Memoirs” by D. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovskiy are a memoir-autobiographical conceptualized narrative subordinated to the author's targeted message. This story combines the features of documentary, scientific and fictional narrative and reveals the author's worldview and scientific credo. At the same time, the inner (perhaps subconscious) core of “Memoirs” actually becomes the process of autocreation of an ideal scientist, which becomes a source of inner satisfaction.</p> Tatiana Shekhovtsova Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 From Bestial to Human: Neo-Mythological Reinterpretations of the Image of Delilah in Russian Literature at the Turn of the 20th-21st Centuries <p>The article examines one of the eternal images of the world culture in a diachronic aspect, namely the interpretation and reinterpretation of the image of Delilah in Russian literature, primarily in poetry, from the 19<sup>th</sup> century to the present day. The novelty of the article involves the introduction into the scientific context of a number of neo-mythological texts and the provided scholarly commentary, as well as the study of the poetics of the myth and neo-myth with an emphasis on the ethical aspect in the context of ideas of Dmitry Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky.</p> <p>The relevance of the goal is connected with the opportunity to solve several interrelated scientific problems, since the functioning of mythological images and biblical stories, more precisely, the vector of conceptualization of their meanings, makes it possible not only to understand the specifics of the culture of perception, but also to evaluate the moral condition of society.</p> <p>In the course of the study, the following trends in the reception of the plot were identified: a consistent shift in the interest of Russian authors from the character of Samson to Delilah, a change in the system of characters and methods of narration, a change in the modality of the image of Delilah, her transformation into a predominantly idyllic character. Particular attention in the article is paid to the political conceptualization of the image of Delilah, which is associated with the inclusion of the plot into the so-called barber text of Russian literature and culture.</p> <p>The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the image of Delilah becomes conceptually dual in modern neo-mythological reinterpretations. The humanization of the image of Delilah, her evolution from bestial to human can be traced in love poetry. The refocusing of the authors’ attention from Samson to Delilah in social poetry leads to an increase in her role in the eternal plot, turning her into a politically ideological killer. The conducted research may also be interesting in the aspect of gender studies, since the analyzed material gives grounds to consider the image of Delilah in modern Russian literature as one of the representations of the femme fatale.</p> Nataļja Šroma Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The theory of the sentence secondary members in D. M. Ovsianyko-Kulykovskyі’s syntax studies and its practical implementation <p>A valuable contribution to the development of views on sentence syntax problems was made by the outstanding scientist of Kharkiv Linguistic School D.&nbsp;M.&nbsp;Ovsianyko-Kulykovskyі, in particular the views on such problems as the structure of the simple sentence, the ways of expressing each member of the sentence and its syntactical relations. The aim of this article is to analyze the classification of secondary members of the sentence, objects in particular, suggested by D.&nbsp;M.&nbsp;Ovsianyko-Kulykovskyі, the influence of his studies on modern syntax theories and suggest criteria of discovering the presence of object relations between the verb and its direct object.</p> <p>Dividing all members of the sentence into main and secondary ones D.&nbsp;M.&nbsp;Ovsianyko-Kulykovskyі analizes the major way of expression of each of them. Semantic functions of indirect cases are given in the description of objects. Studying government in phrases he singles out relations conditioned by the lexical meaning of the verb, grammatical meaning of the verb and also weakly connected forms, the so-called “fictitious” objects or objects-adverbial modifiers. The analysis of the sentence lexical and semantic filling aimed at the definition of the sentence secondary members makes D.&nbsp;M.&nbsp;Ovsianyko-Kulykovskyі’s studies topical at present. The verb and its object relations are very important for the sentence sense understanding, the special role played by the direct object construction. Studying the problem of interrelation and interaction of object phrase semantics and structure was directed at stage-by-stage analysis of the phrase grammatical structure, its components semantics, phrase semantics on the whole with the aim of phrases patterns building. In this process there were found 1)&nbsp;discrepancy between the syntactical character of the phenomenon, since case form indication turned out to be insufficient for object relations formal classification; 2)&nbsp;discrepancy of notion volumes, since the whole complex of all the case meanings at any lexical filling is not expected in each case.</p> Hanna Aniutina Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Communicative strategies and tactics in the speech of Liera Farkash, the heroine of the first season of the TV series Early Swallows <p>Communication plays an extremely important role in the life of humans as social beings. The speech of characters in literary works is promising in terms of studying their communicative behavior, since, on the one hand, it reflects the actual speech of a particular period, and on the other, it is to some extent more deliberate, as &nbsp;the author, in order to realise their creative intention, meticulously thinks over the characters’ words, the linguistic means they use, the style and nature of their communication. The present article considers the communicative strategies and tactics in the speech of Lera Farkash, the main character of the TV series <em>Early Swallows</em>,&nbsp; as well as the linguistic means that facilitate their implementation. Theoretical approaches to the classification of communicative strategies and tactics have been characterized. It is pointed out that primarily confrontational (based on opposition and carrying out discussions from a competitive or conflictual standpoint) and cooperative (based on the principles of mutual support, collaboration, and joint problem-solving) strategies are characteristic of Lera’s speech. It has been discovered that initially the confrontational strategy predominates in the girl’s communicative behavior in her interactions with her parents and classmates of a lower social status, which shows through application of communicative tactics of provocation, ignoring, offense, and discreditation aimed at psychological pressure on the interlocutor and diminishing their social status. These tactics are implemented in Lera’s speech through the use of coarse vocabulary, ironic and sarcastic use of diminutive-affectionate forms, provocative rhetorical questions etc. On the other hand, as the plot develops, when Lera starts to communicate with her classmates more closely, becomes more open and trustful with her parents and friends, her behavior increasingly tends to employ cooperative strategies, implemented through the tactics of compliments, openness, and consolation, aimed at supporting and soothing in difficult situations.</p> Mariia Bobro, Kateryna Demianiva Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Axiological concept of LAZINESS as an object of linguistics and psychology <p>Modern linguistics is a polyparadigmatic science, which is distinguished, in particular, by its interest in the data of psychology. It is especially important to involve the results of psychology during the study of axiological concepts, since it must be taken into account that the assessments made by people do not always have sufficient grounds. The purpose of the research is to consider the concept of LAZINESS from the point of view of various sciences, in particular cognitive linguistics and psychology, supplementing the linguistic data with knowledge about the causes of the studied condition.</p> <p>Applying a cognitive approach to the study of linguistic phenomena, we focused on differentiating the contextual meanings of the polysemic word <em>лень</em>: according to the criterion “character of conceptualization”, we distinguish perceptual meanings, meanings of the internal state of the subject-experiencer, and inferential meanings.</p> <p>The methods of cognitive semantics made it possible to generalize the set of contextual meanings of the word; to reveal the repetitive structure of cognitive processes, in which patterns of understanding and thinking are reflected, to reconstruct such a Gestalt scenario: in the center of the simulated situation is a person who is negatively evaluated from the point of view of attitude towards laziness; assessment arises as a result of the discrepancy between the physical&nbsp;/&nbsp;psychological&nbsp;/ psychophysiological state, character, behavior of a lazy person and the expected socio-cultural norm. Evaluation is carried out by the speaker&nbsp;/&nbsp;narrator. Since the concept of LAZINESS is inseparable from its antipode WORK, the socio-cultural norm is associated with opposite meanings: “a person should work hard, be hardworking, etc.”</p> <p>From the point of view of psychology, the characteristic of a lazy person is often biased and is not always based on the study of the motives of the person being evaluated. The concept of laziness can be a reductionist explanation for why others do not act as expected. At the same time, the real motivation, abilities and qualifications of the evaluated person are almost never taken into account. These problems are explained in the discourse of psychology. Analysis of psychological literature made it possible to identify the main causes of laziness: low level of motivation; weak willpower; desire for satisfaction; a protective reaction against physical or mental stress; a kind of protest against violence against a person and some others.</p> Lili Wang Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Linguocultorological reasons for the different levels of somatization of sadness in languages of the world <p>Considering their important role in human life the study of emotions is of great interest for linguistic science. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the phenomenon of somatization of sadness and the explanation of differences in the levels of such somatization as reflected in language.</p> <p>The analysis of literature has shown that expression of sadness with the help of somatic expressions is particularly prevalent in African, South-East Asian and Australian languages. Organs that are most often associated with emotions are the heart, liver and stomach and interoception plays a great role in creating an association between an organ and an emotion. With its help a person becomes aware of the physical changes taking place inside their body, which can be caused in particular by emotions. It was established that certain associations between organs and emotions come to exist due to “somatic bridges” while others form because of “semantic shift”. It was found that the frequency of the use of somatic expressions that express emotions was reduced in English during the industrialization and that similar changes are taking place today in Chinese.</p> <p>In order to explain the differences in the level of somatization it is useful to turn to the triadic structure of concepts, in accordance to which the concept “sadness” has an experiential side (an interoceptive characterization of the emotion), a notional side (a definition, verbal representation etc.) and an evaluative side. It is hypothesized that an important role of somatic expression in the expression of sadness points to the importance of the experiential side while the use of abstract words is indicative of the notional side being important. The fact that the experiential side of a concept is considered to predate the notional side explains the direction of the diachronic change from stronger somatization of emotions towards their expression with the help of more abstract notions.</p> Eleonora Girina Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender studies in modern linguistics: an analytical and bibliographical review <p>The formation and development of various linguistic trends in linguistics at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, which are multidisciplinary and integrative in nature, is a feature of modern linguistics. One of the newest areas of linguistics is linguo-gender studies.</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to summarize the achievements of Ukrainian scholars in the field of linguo-gender studies over the period 2015-2023. By conducting an analytical and bibliographical review of scientific publications on linguistic and gender issues, presented in the chronological order of publications, the author highlights various aspects and directions of research, which deepens the understanding of this area of linguistics.</p> <p>The analyzed scientific publications indicate the emergence of new areas of gender research in linguistics, including mechanisms for involving linguo-genderological data in the translation process, gender asymmetry in translation; gender aspects of the information war waged by the Russian Federation against Ukraine and the democratic world; gender manipulations in the translation of international documents on human rights and gender equality. The formation and development of the conceptual apparatus of linguo-genderology is highlighted through the presentation of the practice of compiling dictionaries on gender issues.</p> <p>The analysis of the works of Ukrainian scientists in the field of modern linguistic gender studies has revealed a high intensity of research and a variety of topics of scientific research of domestic scientists.</p> <p>The article emphasizes the connection between linguistic and gender studies and the processes of formation and implementation of the modern gender equality policy of the Ukrainian state aimed at ensuring equal rights and opportunities for women and men.</p> Olga Dunebabina Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hryhorii Skovoroda's Aphoristics: Structural, Semantic and Stylistic Aspects <p>Consideration of the aphorism of the famous thinker in terms of syntactic construction of the expressed thought and creation of various stylistic techniques in this plane to enhance it is relevant.</p> <p>The purpose of the proposed research is to establish the stylistic and syntactic features of H. Skovoroda's winged expressions that reflect the individual features of his philosophical and poetic linguistic thinking.</p> <p>The conciseness and, at the same time, the depth of Hryhorii Skovoroda's thinking are demonstrated by aphorisms represented by simple sentences, often complicated by various syntactic elements that concretize the thought, concentrating it around one grammatical center. The imperative mood of the main members of a one-part sentence with the semantics of thinking enhances the impact of the aphorism on the recipient. Aphorisms with the desirable modality are an expressive communicative type. Among the complex constructions, complex subordinate clauses, mostly of minimal structure, prevail.</p> <p>Certain instructions and conclusions expressed in aphorisms of this structure are often accompanied by an indication of a condition or time. Pronominal-relative sentences with the objective meaning of correlates have a powerful potential in expressing philosophical maxims. Comparison, as one of the most significant cognitive tools in the aphorisms of H. Skovoroda, is represented by various structural types of syntactic units: from word combinations to complex sentences with corresponding syntactic components (comparative subordinate clauses, comparative constructions, etc.). Aphorisms, which are equivalents of supraphrase units, are often formed by two sentences, the connection between which is provided by repetitions and other lexical-grammatical means.</p> <p>So, the outstanding philosopher uses a variety of syntactic constructions and stylistic figures, including antithesis, rhetorical questions and objections, various types of repetition, syntactic parallelism, for expressive expression of thought.</p> Yuliya Kalashnyk Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Linguistic means of creating an image of a person with intellectual disabilities in D. Keyes’s novel «Flowers for Algernon» <p>Reproducing the speech portrait of a character in the text of a literary work is a difficult artistic task, especially for characters who have certain intellectual impairments and speech disorders, i.e. suffer from aphasia. The writer gives an authentic and detailed description of certain manifestations of aphatic syndromes in the character taking into account both language disorders and psychopathological manifestations that significantly affect the structure and content of the text.</p> <p>The article defines and characterizes the peculiarities of the use of language means in creating the image of a character with intellectual disabilities in the novel.</p> <p>The novel under study shows the evolution of the character’s personality: as a result of a scientific experiment (surgical operation), a patient with low level of intellectual development turns practically into a genius. But interfering with the character’s brain gives only a temporary improvement –– rapid progress is replaced by degradation.</p> <p>The changes in Charlie Gordon’s intellectual development are shown through his speech portrait –– an important means of revealing the image of the character and his inner world. The depiction of the image of a character in a literary work involves giving him speech abilities in accordance with all factors that affect the course of speech, its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (personal, mental, psychological, age, social, national, regional).</p> <p>The analysis of the novel by D.&nbsp;Keys shows that the writer portrays the character in dynamics, which is also reflected in his speech portrait. Charlie Gordon’s path from a person with intellectual disability to an intellectual genius and vice versa is shown in his reports-records, in which all that happened to him is successively reproduced, and the people he had to communicate with, his worldview and his perception of the world are described.</p> <p>In order to create the image of a character with intellectual disabilities, D.&nbsp;Keyes chose only a few linguistic means (graphon, capitalization, lexical repetitions) to reproduce the speech of such a person, with a wider range of such means for the image of Charlie the intellectual. The deliberate selection of linguistic means helped to create contrasting images of Charlie as a person with intellectual disabilities and Charlie as a person with a high IQ.</p> <p>Contrasting speech portraits of the character involves a special expressiveness, addressability and helps D.&nbsp;Keys to create a three-dimensional, multifaceted image.</p> Olga Kanevska, Iryna Klymenko Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Verbalization of the concept of “hearing” in Slavic languages <p>The purpose of this study is to identify the most productive cognitive-nominative models that form the core of the nominative field of the concept “hearing” in Slavic languages. The object of the study is the Slavic names of auditory perception. The subject of the study is the onomasiological structure of these names.</p> <p>As a result of the research, it was established that the nomination models, according to which the concept of “hearing” is verbalized in Slavic languages, are few. Modern Slavic nominations of auditory perception belong to the all-Slavic vocabulary and have Proto-Indo-European roots.</p> <p>The main Slavic name for the ability to hear – <strong><em>слух</em></strong> – is a verbal formation that implements the nominative model: ‘action’ &gt; ‘ability to perform an action’. The semantic development of this lexeme (‘voice’ &gt; ‘ability to hear’), the etymological connection of the lexemes <strong><em>слух</em></strong>, <strong><em>слава</em></strong> and <strong><em>слово</em></strong>, the combination of the meanings of ‘speak’ and ‘hear’ in the semantics of the Proto-Slavic verb *<strong><em>slūti</em></strong> indicate that this root in the Proto-Slavic language, the ability to perceive not just sounds, but the sounds of human speech was first noted.</p> <p>From another Slavic verb denoting auditory sensations – <strong><em>чути</em></strong> – the abstract name of auditory perception was not formed in Slavic languages, which seems to be connected with the semantic syncretism of the ascending verb, which can be used in relation to different perceptual modes (touch, smell, hearing, etc.) or act as an undifferentiated designation of sensation.</p> <p>When using the lexeme <strong><em>ухо</em></strong> in the sense of ‘hearing’, the model is implemented: ‘an organ performing a certain function’ &gt; ‘function’, but this model is not productive in Slavic languages (recorded only in Russian). Since for the lexeme <strong><em>ухо</em></strong> the meaning ‘ability to perceive’ is not characteristic, in Slavic languages there are no names of deafness formed according to the model: ‘absence of an organ performing a function’ &gt; ‘absence of a function’ (in contrast to the names of blindness, for which this model is productive).</p> <p>From the onomasiological point of view, it is possible to ascertain the presence of two main cognitive features that influence the nature of the verbalization of the concept of “hearing” in Slavic languages: first, the obvious initial connection of auditory perception with human speech activity (the conceptualization of the human ability to hear was formed in connection connected with the development of articulate speech), and secondly, the semantic syncretism of perceptive vocabulary, which is based on the interaction of different perceptual modes of a person (the phenomenon of synesthesia).</p> Liudmyla Pedchenko Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Reflection of the Dynamics of the Language Grammatical Sub-system through the Prism of the Notion of Absence <p>The notion of <em>absence</em> is viewed as a linguo-cognitive phenomenon that has certain means of its representation in language. The purpose of the article is to trace the changes in the Russian grammar in correlation with the notion of <em>absence,</em> which is semantically heterogeneous and reveals the national specifics of the studied language. The research methodology is based on the principle of historicism. The tasks of distinguishing between past and present phenomena outlined in the study have been solved using the method of actualization. Explanation of the appearance of empty links in the structure of the Russian language is based on cognitive studies of the notion <em>absence</em>. Since asymmetric relations penetrate into all levels of the language system, and the theory of oppositions reflects the essential characteristics of language, the abstract notion of <em>absence</em> is foregrounded in explaining the privative nature of a language. Studies of the essence and the phenomenon of the notion of <em>absence</em> in the&nbsp;grammatical system resulted in the following ideas: manifestations of the notion of <em>absence</em> reflect grammatical lacunae that may correlate with different semantic types of the notion of <em>absence</em> in Russian grammar. Based on the historical facts of the Russian language and their cognitive interpretation, three semantic types of the notion of <em>absence</em> have been conventionally distinguished: <em>complete absence, recovered absence, and disappearance. </em>In the methodological aspect, the article combines psychological and socio-cultural vectors. The research methodological foundation made it possible to trace and describe lexical and grammatical mechanisms of forming the notion of <em>absence</em> at the grammatical level of the Russian language system.</p> Olga Radchuk Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The concept of “wise” in Russian journalistic discourse <p>The article is devoted to the study of the concept "wise" in the Russian journalistic discourse. The object of the study is the semantics and conjugation of the word "wise" in newspaper texts. The subject of the study is the cognitive features of the concept "wise", which are revealed in the conjugation of the adjective мудрый in Russian-language journalistic texts.</p> <p>The purpose of the work is to reveal the cognitive features of the concept "wise" in the journalistic discourse. The empirical basis of the research was made up of the materials of the newspaper subcorpus of the National Corpus of the Russian language.</p> <p>The results of the analysis made it possible to conclude that the concept "wise" in the Russian journalistic discourse includes a number of cognitive features and can characterize people or describe actions. First of all, this concept is related to intellectual perfection: if a person can make the right decision or behave correctly, then he is considered wise. Among the various professional categories of people, leaders, politicians, teachers and artists are most often recognized as wise. This circumstance may indicate that wisdom is determined not only by a high level of human intelligence, but also by the ability to influence other people, to transfer one's knowledge and experience. As a rule, wisdom is the result of life experience gained over a long time, so the word мудрый is often found in combination with the adjectives опытный and старый. Wise people have high moral qualities such as kindness, decency and patience. At the same time, very rarely in journalistic discourse (in contrast to discourses of other types) wisdom is associated with self-interested pragmatism and cunning. The sign "wise" can be metonymically transferred from subjects to decisions, actions, actions. At the same time, rational solutions that allow improving the state of affairs, overcoming difficulties, and peacefully exiting a conflict situation are recognized as wise. Language actions and their results (words, sayings, advice, rules, etc.) are often characterized by wisdom.</p> Hu Xiaoyan Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The causes of mistakes in the translation of German pronouns into Ukrainian <p>The article analyzes the causes of mistakes made by students when translating German pronouns into Ukrainian and the ways to avoid such mistakes. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that students regularly make mistakes when translating German pronouns into Ukrainian, which leads to misunderstanding and significantly decreases the quality of the translated text. This research paper will help make translation training more effective and improve the results of students’ translation work. The materials of the study are translations from German into Ukrainian made by student translators as part of the work of the academic student circle Translation Practice in Action in the Department of Applied Linguistics, Comparative Language Studies and Translation at the Dragomanov Ukrainian State University. The research methodology is based on the analysis and comparison of original texts, draft, and published translations. This approach made it possible to identify a number of mistakes and categorize them into the following groups of German pronouns: personal pronouns, the indefinite personal pronoun <em>man</em>, possessive pronouns, interrogative pronouns, the negative pronoun <em>kein</em>, the reflexive pronoun <em>sich</em>, and the demonstrative and relative pronouns. The study resulted in the identification of the main causes of mistakes in the translation of German pronouns into Ukrainian: misunderstanding or inattention to the context; the same forms of the indicative and relative pronouns and articles in German; the ability of the pronoun <em>man</em> to indicate a specific person; the ambiguity of German pronoun forms (e.g., <em>sie</em>, <em>ihr</em>); changes during translation in the grammatical gender, number and case of the pronouns and the nouns to which they refer. To avoid such mistakes, translators should carefully read and understand the original text and context, take into account the specific meaning and function of pronouns, and consider the differences in grammatical gender, number, and case between Ukrainian and German nouns and pronouns. The translation of German pronouns into Ukrainian requires a comprehensive understanding of not only language structures but also the context in which they are utilized.</p> Oleksandra Shadrina, Pavlo Shopin Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Axiolinguistic Characteristics of Poverty in the Ukrainian Language and Linguistic Culture <p>The verbal objectification of subjective features and society's assessment of the economic status of a certain segment of the population are of interest in this linguistic and cultural study, which aims to diachronically and synchronously analyze the conceptualization of poverty in Ukrainian linguistic culture and in the language consciousness. The peculiarity of the process of forming the economic identification of a person is that there are objective signs of a person's property status that have a pronounced national, socio-economic, cultural and regional character. These objective features are also conditioned by systemic, linguistic and linguistic-cultural factors that have a significant impact on the value level of collective and individual economic consciousness. We also focused on the study of the perception and interpretation of the concept of "poverty" by modern Ukrainians. To do this, we used the methods of questionnaires and an association experiment. First, we provided the definition of "poverty" by economic science and sociology, considering also the concepts of "psychology of poverty" and economic identification; second, we analyzed the concept of "poverty" in the historical perspective on the basis of dictionary information by creating a nominative space of the concept; third, we turned to experimental methods, namely, an association experiment and a questionnaire survey. The results showed that modern native speakers no longer perceive poverty as a manifestation of evil fate or God's punishment, but as a result, on the one hand, of their own inability to earn enough money, or, on the other hand, as a consequence of economic crises and hardships that cause a person's material condition to deteriorate. A person who is poor or in need has to take responsibility for himself or herself and not expect help from other people. The perception and interpretation of concepts from the nominal space of poverty has certain differences compared to the interpretation by historical dictionaries. Thus, a poor person cannot even count on sympathy, because his poverty is the result of his inaction, laziness, etc.</p> Galyna Iarotska Copyright (c) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000