Man and environment. Issues of neoecology <div id="maintext"> <p>The results of fundamental and applied scientific research in different fields of geography, ecology, environmental sciences and agriculture are presented. The issues of land policy, land use, crop production, agrochemistry and soil protection, animal husbandry, the theory and practice of environmental monitoring, human ecology, conservation, GIS technologies, environmental modeling, modern agro-technology, environmental assessment and optimization are discussed.</p> <span id="result_box" class="" lang="en">For specialists, scientists and researchers working in the domain of environmental protection as well as for lecturers, BSs, MSc and PhD students of higher educational institutions <span id="result_box" lang="en">without any restrictions</span><br></span> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <div class="grm">&nbsp;</div> </div> en-US <p>Authors reserve the right of attribution for the submitted manuscript, while transferring to the Journal the right to publish the article under the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License&nbsp;4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>. This license allows free distribution of the published work under the condition of proper attribution of the original authors and the initial publication source (i.e. the Journal)</p> <p>Authors have the right to enter into separate agreements for additional non-exclusive distribution of the work in the form it was published in the Journal (such as publishing the article on the institutional website or as a part of a monograph), provided the original publication in this Journal is properly referenced</p> <p>The Journal allows and encourages online publication of the manuscripts (such as on personal web pages), even when such a manuscript is still under editorial consideration, since it allows for a productive scientific discussion and better citation dynamics (see <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> (Максименко Надія Василівна ( Maksymenko Nadija V.)) (Баскакова Людмила Валентиновна (Baskakova Ludmila V.)) Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 To the question of research of geo-ecological problems of urbanization processes in the aspect of the concept of sustainable development <p><strong>Purpose</strong><strong>.</strong> To conduct an analysis of the spread of contemporary globalization processes and the geo-ecological problems caused by them, directions regulating the development of cities in the aspect of the concept of sustainable development; to single out and justify the geoecological problems of cities on the basis of the analysis of the development of global urbanization processes.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Given the interdisciplinary nature of the research, the work uses systemic, synergistic, and historical scientific approaches, as well as a complex of scientific methods: methods of induction and deduction, the method of comparison, the method of generalization, the method of analogy, the method of systematization, and the method of modeling.</p> <p><strong>R</strong><strong>esults.</strong> The development and implementation of the Concept of sustainable development, the aspects of sustainable urbanization were determined based on the study of the formation of the world scientific opinion on the issue of sustainable development, namely: environmental protection, economic development, social justice and equality. Their components and the concept of "sustainable urbanization" were considered. The presentation of various aspects of sustainable urbanization in the development programs of the World Bank, UN-Habitat and the Alliance of Cities, in particular – geoecological one, was analyzed. The peculiarities of the flow of geoecological problems of cities and the need to take this aspect into account for the sustainable development of urban social and geographical systems were substantiated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The obtained results demonstrate significant attention to the geoecological aspect of urbanization, the importance of its research and analysis in the aspect of sustainable development of cities. An important aspect of further strategic planning and development of cities is a harmonious combination of ecological, economic and social components. In further research, the author plans to develop a model of sustainable development of the city with a balanced ratio of economic, social and environmental components of development.</p> K. O. Kravchenko Copyright (c) 2022 К. О. Кравченко Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Rural settlement as a factor of administrative and territorial changes (on the example of Zakarpattia and Chernivtsi regions) <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: to analyze the features of rural settlement in Zakarpattia and Chernivtsi regions and to identify its influence on the formation and functioning of territorial communities and districts of these regions.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> comparative-geographical, statistical, analytical method, structural-functional approach</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: the rural settlement network of the Zakarpattia and Chernivtsi regions was analyzed from a socio-geographic point of view, taking into account the similarity of natural and geographical conditions, historical, ethno-geographical aspects of the formation of settlements and modern socio-spatial processes in the regions. It is noted that the regions have a number of common features of rural settlement, in particular, high density and average population of settlements in the plain part and zones of dispersed settlement in mountainous areas, which must be taken into account in the process of formation of territorial communities. It is noted that according to the results of the ATU reform in the regions, rural communities absolutely prevail. This will contribute to the preservation of the demographic and socio-economic potential of rural settlements - community centers, however, in remote peripheral and depressed areas, rural communities may not be able to cope financially and administratively given the limitations of their own resources. Possible positive and negative consequences of the impact of the reform on changes in inter-settlement relations, functions of settlements, and their further development are identified and summarized.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Intra-regional differences in rural settlement are an important factor in administrative-territorial changes and were taken into account in the process of formation of territorial communities and new districts. Most communities in both regions are rural; the settlements that became their centers received broad powers and prospects for development. In today's conditions, most rural communities cannot take advantage of the opportunities of decentralization due to the limited socio-economic potential of settlements. According to indicators of economic activity, these communities are mostly subsidized and require significant investment income. The development of rural areas will contribute to the strengthening of the grassroots link of the administrative-territorial system.</p> O. I. Skliarska Copyright (c) 2022 Skliarska O. I. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Regulation of economic activities on ponds and reservoirs in the Nichlava river basin <p>Economic development of the territories of small river basins, high anthropogenic load, and flow regulation is correlated with the number of ponds and reservoirs on the river or in its basin. In order to optimize use of natural resources and rational use of water resources in the basin of small rivers, regulation of economic activities on ponds and reservoirs is a relevant task. Since there are 3 reservoirs and more than 80 ponds in the Nichlava river basin, the problem of regulating their economic use is important and urgent from the point of view of revitalizing the water flow and ensuring balanced environmental management in the river basin.</p> <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To assess the geoecological condition of ponds and reservoirs in the Nichlava River basin, to justify optimization measures for the regulation of their economic use and exploitation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>. </strong>Expeditionary, generalization and systematization, statistical, evaluation, geoecological analysis, system-structural, geo-informational, descriptive, landscape-ecological</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong>The peculiarities of the use of artificial water bodies (ponds and reservoirs) in the Nichlava River basin have been considered. Attention to the lack of complex use of resources of water bodies and coastal areas, their pollution and contamination has been drawn. The main sources of pollution and the risks associated with their activities have been indicated. The influence of communal enterprises of the city of Borshchiv on the ecological state of the Borshchiv reservoir during 2010-2020 has been analyzed. The results tend to decrease compared to previous years, although the level of pollution is still significant. The cut-off of part of the Tsyhanka river valley by the Mushkativ reservoir is the result of a malfunction of the locks. Plowing of the coastal areas and contamination of part of the catchment with poisonous chemicals from the fields is observed around the Kotiv reservoir. Ways to restore resources in the basins of small rivers and their effective use by local communities have been substantiated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong>The processes of economic activity on ponds and reservoirs are becoming more active. Interrelationships between human activity and the geoecological state of ponds and reservoirs in the Nichlava River basin have been revealed. Among the key recommendations substantiated in the work, first of all, there is keeping to the rules of the operation of ponds and reservoirs, defined by the current legislation; restoration of coastal protective strips and water protection zones around reservoirs; reducing of the amounts of dumping of contaminated and insufficiently cleared wastewater into surface water bodies of the Nichlava River basin.</p> Y. T. Melnik , L. P. Tsaryk, I. R. Kuzyk Copyright (c) 2022 Melnik Y. T., Tsaryk L. P., Kuzyk I. R. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Formation factors of the demographic state of the population in the Lviv city <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To evaluate the demographic state of the population, as well as the socio-economic and ecological factors of its formation in the city of Lviv in the light of statistical indicators and own sociological research.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Statistical, comparative, questionnaire method. The processing of questionnaires was carried out with the help of the "OSA" software complex.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> As of January 1, 2020, the permanent population of Lviv was 717,700. The average age of the population tends to increase. Due to the aging of the population, there are structural changes in the demographic load. The birth rate is "low" according to the evaluation criteria of the main demographic indicators. In Lviv, a trend towards a decrease in the mortality rate of children under 1 year was observed. Lviv is also distinguished by the number of registered marriages per 1,000 of the existing population, where this indicator is almost 3 times higher than in Ukraine. The consumer behavior of households depends on gender and age characteristics, the presence of children in the family, the level of education and characteristics of household behavior. Buying expensive goods and saving for the purpose of making a profit is not typical for families with 4 or more children. For households without children, they can afford to buy expensive goods. The total indicator of the standard of living of the population in Lviv is significantly higher, compared to the Ukrainian average and the regional average.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The demographic state of Lviv is determined by the demogeographic position and various economic, social, cultural, religious and behavioral factors. Negative changes in certain factors increase the threat of depopulation, a decrease in the birth rate, an increase in mortality, an aging population, the burden of the elderly, and the loss of people of reproductive age.</p> M. A. Petrovska, S. V. Petrovskyi Copyright (c) 2022 Petrovska M. A., & Petrovskyi S. V. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Recreational and sports nature usage in Lviv region: origins and geospatial analysis <p>In the process of recreation, nature acts as one of the leading factors of rest and recovery, restoration of physical and neuropsychological strength of a person. Recreational and sports nature usage is implemented through a complex of activities related to the usage of natural resources for the purpose of improving people's health, restoring their physical and psychological well-being, and expanding the ecological and cultural outlook. The study of geospatial features of recreational and sports resources contributes to their use and perspective of their consumption.</p> <p><strong>P</strong><strong>urpose.</strong> To study the retrospective principles of formation, historical and natural prerequisites for development and geospatial analysis of the recreational organization of sports and nature usage in Lviv region, as well as prospects for further their development.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> In general, the climatic conditions within Lviv region are equally suitable for recreational and sports usage. Favorable conditions for seasonal recreation types in the region are approximately 10 months within the year. The mountainous realm of the region is the major region for the winter sports and recreation. Mountain skiing recreational and sports nature usage is developing in 10 of the 73 united territorial communities of the region. Lviv region has a good supply of water resources for recreational and sports nature usage. Water bodies within the Dniester basin are the most involved in recreational activities. They are used for rafting, diving, swimming, fishing. Less developed reservoirs within the basin of the Western Bug River, which are involved in swimming, rafting and fishing. An important direction of sports recreation is air space usage, such as paragliding, ballooning, parachuting, and flying on light aircraft.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Irrational and non-professional lands usage for health and recreational purposes do not always contribute to the development of recreational and sports nature usage within the territorial communities of the Lviv region. It is expedient to ensure the introduction of market regulators into the practice of recreational and sports nature usage; the development of methods of recreational ecosystem services assessment and the implementation of monitoring of the state and use of recreational and sports resources.</p> M. M. Nazaruk, V. V. Khudoba Copyright (c) 2022 Nazaruk M. M., Khudoba V. V. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of spatial-temporal peculiarities of the animal husbandry development in Ukraine <p>For several decades, negative trends have been visible in animal husbandry, which in the future may become prerequisites for a food crisis on the territory of Ukraine. That is why the study of spatial-temporal dynamics, as well as the selection of areas of specialization of individual branches of the animal husbandry sector, is quite important and relevant.</p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>To study the specialization of the animal husbandry complex of Ukraine and to identify sectoral disproportions in animal husbandry in the regions of Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Statistical,&nbsp; cartographic, comparative-geographical.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> We have collected and analyzed the statistical materials of the Main Department of Statistics regarding livestock in the animal husbandry industry in Ukraine for 2009 and 2019. It was found that in all branches, except for poultry, there is a noticeable tendency to reduce livestock. On the basis of the collected statistical data, coefficients of specialization in the animal husbandry industry were calculated. According to the results of the calculations, maps were developed, on which the spatial-temporal trends of changes in the areas of specialization of the branches of the animal husbandry complex of Ukraine were highlighted. &nbsp;We identified the main reasons that negatively affected the development of animal husbandry in Ukraine, which included: insufficient state and financial support for the industry; decrease in the share of the rural working population; lack of subsidies for the animal husbandry industry; unprofitability of production; outdated material base and labor-intensive production.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> According to the research results, it was found that the livestock number in the animal husbandry industry has a tendency to decrease over the last ten years. Positive dynamics are present only in the poultry industry.Identifying the reasons that led to negative trends in animal husbandry became a further basis for developing solutions that could solve these problems. These include: financial support of the industry and attraction of investments; state subsidies; development of selection and breeding business; updating the material and technical base.</p> S. G. Melnychenko , L. M. Bohadorova Copyright (c) 2022 Melnychenko S. G., Bohadorova L. M. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the carbon capacity of single breed wood stands – elements of the green infrastructure of Kharkiv <p>The value of the carbon capacity of the elements of the green infrastructure makes it possible to find out the amount of accumulated carbon in plants throughout their life, and, as a result, to establish the provision of the city with green spaces.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. To investigate the carbon capacity of the green infrastructure of the Kharkiv city.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Statistical, modeling methods, methods of measurement and comparison.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Six objects of single-breed tree stands of the green infrastructure of the city of Kharkiv were studied: linear protective plantings, green boulevards, where the main species is maple (Acer platanoides) and on the territory of the objects of the nature reserve fund - a regional landscape park and a forest reserve, where the main the species is pedunculated oak (Quercus robur). It was determined that about 60-80% of the total amount of carbon accumulates in the living phytomass of plants, litter deposits from 1 to 7% of carbon, and the rest accumulates in the soil. In living phytomass, the largest share of carbon is accumulated in the trunk of the plant, and the smallest amount is in the leaves. There is a direct dependence of the amount of deposited carbon on the area of green spaces, which increases along with the increase in the area of the facility. The total mass of deposited carbon on six researched objects, with a total area of 252.1 ha, is 48357.47 t, or 191.84 t/ha.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> A direct relationship between the area of green infrastructure objects and the amount of organic carbon deposited in them has been established. The most carbon accumulates in the living phytomass of plants, namely in the trunk of plants, and the least in the leaves of plants. Oak plantations store more carbon than maple plantations.</p> N. V. Maksymenko , S. V. Burchenko , I. M. Shpakivska, A. S. Krotko Copyright (c) 2022 Maksymenko N. V., Burchenko S. V., Shpakivska I. M., Krotko A. S. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Environmental assessment of the water quality of the Kaniv reservoir <p>Safe drinking water is a basic requirement for good health. Fresh water is already a limited resource in many parts of the world. In the next century, it will become even more limited due to population growth, urbanization and climate change.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. Provide a comprehensive assessment of the water quality of the Kaniv Reservoir based on the calculation of the Water Quality Index (WQI).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Analytical-synthetic method, geo-information (cartographic modeling), analysis of information sources, mathematical modeling.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. There is an increase in BOD, COD and dissolved oxygen content in the area of the Kaniv Reservoir from the hydropost 500 m above the Bortnytsky Aeration Station (BAS) to the hydropost 2 km below the Kanivska Hydropower Station’s dam. The only exception is the hydropost 500 m below the BAS, for which the corresponding values are the largest, and the BOD indicator exceeds the established standards by 1.5 times. Ammonium content 500 m below BAS exceeds the standards established by Directive 98/83/EC by almost 3 times. Exceeding the normative values for the content of sulfates and chlorides and suspended substances were not recorded. The least polluted water is observed at hydrostations located below Ukrainka and Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi. The highest value of the water quality index is 242, which is typical for the hydropost 500 m above the BAS and corresponds to the value of the worst quality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. It was in the immediate vicinity of the city of Kyiv that the water turned out to be the most polluted. This may indicate the imperfection of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastewater treatment systems. For the hydropost 500 m below the BAS, excesses of the normative values for the parameters of ammonium and BOD content were also recorded, while other parameters are either at the limit of the norm or approaching it. Studies of the water quality of the Kaniv Reservoir showed that its quality according to the WQI indicator varies from 59 to 242 (from low to the worst). Accordingly, such water, in the absence of another source, can be used for drinking after passing proper multi-stage purification.</p> V. L. Bezsonnyi , A. N. Nekos, A. V. Sapun Copyright (c) 2022 Bezsonnyi, V. L., Nekos, A. N., Sapun, A. V. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 To the question of creating an open ecological geographic information system <p>Access to information about the state of the environment is an inalienable right of Ukrainian citizens, so the development and improvement of ways to provide information to the population with environmental data is of high social importance. A valuable source of reliable environmental data that can be used to inform the public are the results of scientific research on the state of the environment, which are produced by the activities of higher education institutions. This article considers the possibilities of using web-GIS services by higher education institutions as a means of communicating environmental information to the general public.</p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>To create an open geographic information system that should represent the database of environmental geodata obtained in the process of educational and scientific work of students and staff of the Karazin Institute of Environmental Sciences.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Analysis of the stock materials of the Institute of Ecology for the needs of forming a geodatabase, development of the structure of the attributive web-GIS database and testing the functionality of the ArcGIS Online cloud mapping platform service for exporting, updating, storing, searching and visualizing data presentation in web-GIS.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> A methodical algorithm for the development and creation of web-GIS is proposed and tested, consisting of the following stages: 1) selection of the technological base of development; 2) analysis of materials providing input information; 3) development of the structure of the attributive database of the project; 4)&nbsp;preparation of geodata sets and their publication on the Internet. As a result of the analysis 144 scientific papers were selected, which will form the information basis for the formation of the web-GIS "EcoSpace". The structure of the attributive database of the web-GIS project was developed, consisting of 4 content blocks and 11 types of descriptive data. 3 sets of test data were prepared, which showed successful results of export and visualization of geodata represented by different types of geometric vector primitives (linear, point and polygonal objects).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>A prototype of the web-GIS "EcoSpace" (<a href=""></a>) was developed in the environment of the ArcGIS Online Internet service, which can be used to publish information about the state of the environment contained in the results of scientific research of students and staff of the Karazin Institute of Environmental Sciences. The information content of the web-GIS "EcoSpace" has been started, in particular, the results of three scientific projects concerning the state of soil resources of Kharkiv district of Kharkiv region have been entered.</p> A. B. Achasov, О. Yu. Seliverstov, , A. G. Kot, A. A. Кlieshch, D. О. Melnyk Copyright (c) 2022 Achasov А. B. , Seliverstov О. Yu., Коt А. G., Кlieshch А. А., Melnyk D. О. Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000