Man and Environment. Issues of Neoecology <div id="maintext"> <p>The journal highlights the results of fundamental and applied ecological research in various fields of geography, ecology, and agriculture.</p> <p>For specialists, scientists and researchers working in the domain of environmental protection as well as for lecturers, BSc, MSc and PhD students of higher educational institutions <span id="result_box" lang="en">without any restrictions</span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <div class="grm">&nbsp;</div> </div> V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University en-US Man and Environment. Issues of Neoecology 1992-4224 <p>Authors reserve the right of attribution for the submitted manuscript, while transferring to the Journal the right to publish the article under the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License&nbsp;4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>. This license allows free distribution of the published work under the condition of proper attribution of the original authors and the initial publication source (i.e. the Journal)</p> <p>Authors have the right to enter into separate agreements for additional non-exclusive distribution of the work in the form it was published in the Journal (such as publishing the article on the institutional website or as a part of a monograph), provided the original publication in this Journal is properly referenced</p> <p>The Journal allows and encourages online publication of the manuscripts (such as on personal web pages), even when such a manuscript is still under editorial consideration, since it allows for a productive scientific discussion and better citation dynamics (see <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Features of underground flow formation to the Golovesnya river (Desna basin) during the dry period 2007-2021 <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To analyze the peculiarities of the dynamics of underground flow on the catchment of the Golovesnya River, a right-bank tributary of the Desna River, during the dry period of 2007-2021 in comparison with the period of 1960-1985 - before the beginning of noticeable climatic changes.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The hydrodynamic finite-difference method of calculating the specific consumption of groundwater based on the data of routine observations of the levels of groundwater and surface water, the hydrodynamic method of calculating the components of the groundwater balance.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The specific flow of groundwater to the Golovesnya River was calculated based on the data of observations for 2007-2021; the share of groundwater flow in the total flow of the river was determined, changes in the dynamics of infiltration nutrition and the inflow of groundwater to the river were revealed, which can be associated with the sign of the charge of the static electric field of the surface layer of the atmosphere, an increase in air temperature, and an increase in the volume of moisture retention in the aeration zone after reducing GWT.</p> <p>Underground flow to the river largely compensates for the losses and stabilizes the river flow in low-water years and during prolonged hydrological drought. Important factors in the regulation of the groundwater regime in low-water periods (in addition to precipitation) are the level and flow of water in the river, as well as the loss of moisture due to the saturation of the aeration zone, and therefore, the lithological and granulometric composition of this zone. Losses in the aeration zone are also an important regulatory factor of balance and river flow in the scale of the Desna River catchment. The largest volumes of underground runoff to the Golovesnya River for 2007-2021 were set for the multi-water year 2016, the smallest - for 2021. By 2016, the chronological graphs show clearer seasonal patterns: repeatability of underground flow fluctuations in the spring and autumn seasons; opposite flow fluctuations in winter and spring and a relatively stable summer flow; typical for autumn are maximum, and for summer always minimum values ​​of reserves and infiltration recharge of groundwater. In the abundant water year of 2016, infiltration recharge and groundwater reserves during autumn and winter sharply decrease and acquire negative values ​​due to a significant decrease in GWT in the previous period, an unfavorable course of temperature and precipitation distribution, and increased outflow to the river. In 2017-2021, the seasonal differences in the recharge of the river with groundwater are almost equalized: the role of recharge increases during the summer period, and decreases during the spring and autumn seasons. The role of the condensation mechanism of moisture transfer in the aeration zone is increasing. During the summer, the lateral inflow of groundwater to the river was the highest in 2016-2018.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Calculations and analysis of the dynamics of infiltration feeding and groundwater flow to the Golovesnya River have been performed. Changes in groundwater supply and discharge, especially in the period after 2015, have been identified, which can be interpreted as the consequences of adverse weather and climate conditions in 2014-2015. In 2018-2021, there was a decrease in groundwater and surface water resources, which corresponds to signs of hydrological drought.</p> O. L. Shevchenko V. V. Shkliarenko Copyright (c) 2024 О. Л. Шевченко , В. В. Шкляренко 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 6 18 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-01 Water resources of the Podilia region and their use <p>P<strong>urpose.</strong> To analyze the state of water resources of the Podilsk region and the territorial features of water use in order to optimize their use.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Methods of system-structural analysis, statistical, cartographic, modeling.</p> <p><strong>R</strong><strong>results.</strong> The current state and peculiarities of the use of water resources in the territory of the administrative districts of the Podilsk region were analyzed according to the indicators of total water intake from natural water bodies, the use of fresh water in general and the sectoral structure of water use. The main consumers of water resources in the region are industrial enterprises and housing and communal services. The largest share of underground water intake is in Ternopil Oblast, and the smallest in Vinnytsia, which is related to natural reserves of underground water. The largest volumes of water intake from natural water bodies and the use of fresh water are observed in the Khmelnytskyi region, and the smallest - in the Ternopil region. The analysis of the dynamics of water use indicators over the period 2020-2022 determined a decrease in the volume of water intake, especially in 2022, in all regions of the region. The largest share of water is used in the regions of the region for production needs.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The dynamics of water consumption in all regions of the region has a tendency to decrease the volume of water intake. There are certain differences in the amount of surface and underground water intake. For many administrative districts and territorial communities, the problem of rational use of water resources is relevant.</p> А. M. Shuvar M. R. Pytulyak M. V. Pytulyak S. I. Hunko I. R. Kuzyk Copyright (c) 2024 А. М. Шувар , М. Р. Питуляк , М. В. Питуляк , С. І. Гунько , І. Р. Кузик 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 19 32 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-02 The European Green Deal and prospects for Ukraine <p>In January 2020, the European Union launched the European Green Deal, a comprehensive programme for the transition to new environmental standards in all sectors of the economy with the aim of making Europe the first carbon-neutral continent. Given Ukraine's European ambitions, it is important for it to understand the requirements of the Green Deal and assess the possibilities of taking these requirements into account in the post-war reconstruction of Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>P</strong><strong>urpose</strong><strong>. </strong>To examine the requirements and current achievements in the implementation of the European Green Deal with a view to the prospects of Ukraine's post-war recovery.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Based on the EU regulations, current thematic reports, statistics and other open-source publications, the article analyses the main components of the European Green Deal in the context of plans and current achievements in their implementation in the following areas: legislative support, emissions trading system, carbon emissions regulation mechanism at the EU border, transport, energy, construction, agriculture and land use, ecosystem and biodiversity restoration, financial support of the green transition, science and education. Some promising directions of post-war recovery of Ukraine in the context of the Green Deal are considered.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Despite the harsh criticism of the European Green Deal, it is vital to overcome the most acute environmental crisis in history, which threatens sustainable development and possibly the very existence of humanity. During the first 3 years of the Green Deal implementation, significant progress has already been made in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, although there are still some difficulties and obstacles. Ukraine has a significant potential for post-war restoration of the energy and industry sector in line with environmental requirements, but this will require significant investments.</p> A. O. Achasova A. B. Achasov Copyright (c) 2024 Achasova А. O., Achasov А. B. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 33 56 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-03 Environmentally balanced agroecosystems – key to sustainable development <p>Зважаючи на масштабне загострення глобальної екологічної проблеми попри майже тридцятирічне впровадження Концепції сталого розвитку, розробленої у Ріо-де-Жанейро (1992), вона потребує сьогодні додаткового дослідження та обґрунтування. Самий факт масштабного загострення глобальної екологічної проблеми примушує засумніватись у методологічній коректності концепції. Оскільки споживання природних ресурсів, а, отже, і екологічний стан навколишнього середовища великою мірою залежить від розуміння екологічної сутності енергетичних відносин в екосистемах, варто орієнтуватись на наукові положення вітчизняної школи фізичної економії, опрацьовані в роботах Сергія Подолинського, Володимира Вернадського, Миколи Руденка, Віктора Письмака. Саме відповідно до цих положень вимагає перегляду система критеріїв-індикаторів сталого розвитку.</p> <p>Запропоноване нове бачення теоретичних підвалин для розробки таких індикаторів. Сучасне, постіндустріальне розуміння змісту сталого розвитку автори насичують ноосферним змістом. Спираючись на розроблену в попередніх авторських роботах концепцію ноосферних екосистем, також робиться спроба якісно нового обґрунтування цілей і напрямків планетарного розвитку усієї людської популяції.</p> <p><strong>Висновки. </strong>Лише в наближенні механізмів природокористування до природних аналогів автори вбачають майбутній тренд реалізації концепції сталого розвитку. Пропонується прикладне впровадження авторських теоретичних положень при реформуванні адміністративно-територіального устрою.</p> S. P. Sonko I. O. Zozulia Copyright (c) 2024 Sonko S.P., Zozulia I.J. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 57 69 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-04 The development of Danube Ports amid war and post-war recovery of the Ukraine <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>assessment of the development of Danube Ports amid war and post-war recovery of the Ukraine as part of the security system for Ukraine, Europe, and the world as a whole.</p> <p><strong>Меthods.</strong> In the research general scientific (analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, analytical grouping) and special (abstraction, modelling, etc.) methods of studying economic phenomena and processes have been used. <strong>The object</strong> of the study is the Danube river ports.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The conducted analysis showed that in the conditions of war and the blockade of the ports of Greater Odessa, export transportation through the Ukrainian Danube ports of Reni, Izmail, and Ust-Danube has been activated. This was also facilitated by the dredging works in the Bystre estuary, which allowed its transport capabilities to be used for the passage of vessels with a draft of up to 6.5 meters, and not only the Romanian Sulina canal. The analysis showed that, in addition to positive results for Ukrainian ports, there was also an increase in cargo handling volumes in Romanian ports, for example, the Sulina port has shown an increase in cargo movement volumes in recent years. Overall, if we compare the growth rates in the direction of Danube-Black Sea and in the opposite direction, the preference is given to the Danube-sea direction. Regarding transportation through the Danube-Black Sea canal, recent years have also seen an increase in cargo transportation volumes, but this is mainly due to international transportation. Domestic transportation does not show similar dynamics. The Constanta port has also been increasing cargo handling volumes in recent years due to sea transportation, but river transportation is also growing, although not as significantly. Unlike the mentioned ports, the Romanian port of Galati has been decreasing cargo handling volumes since 2021. The reason for this is that, among the two routes considered - the Danube and the Danube-Black Sea to the Constanta port, preference is given to the latter.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions.</strong> The conducted research has shown that the further expansion of navigation along the Danube using the routes Ukraine - Galati, Ukraine - Regensburg, and Ukraine-Constanta (via the Danube) will ensure the effectiveness of the mentioned ports and create additional conditions for the development of transport logistics in the Danube region as part of the security system for Ukraine, Europe, and the world as a whole.</p> <p>An additional advantage of such decisions is their environmental orientation, since among all types of transport, water transport is the most environmentally friendly.</p> L. A. Horoshkovа S. V. Horoshkov Y. D. Korniichuk Copyright (c) 2024 Horoshkovа L. A., Horoshkov S. V., Korniichuk Y. D. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 70 82 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-05 Assessment of surface water quality in the Siversky Donets river within Kharkiv region in 2023 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>Provide an assessment of the quality of the massif of surface waters of the Siverskyi Donets River within the Kharkiv region in 2023 based on the determination of water quality indices.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The methods of the modified water pollution index (WPI) and the combinatorial water pollution index (CWPI).</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> State of the river water at the observation point of the v. Pechenigy according to the method of the modified water pollution index WPI<sub>F</sub> is estimated as II class characterized as "clean", WPI<sub>H</sub> - I class, "very clean"; according to the method of the combinatorial index of water pollution CWPI<sub>F</sub> - class III a, "dirty", CWPI<sub>H</sub>&nbsp; - class I, "slightly polluted".</p> <p>State of the river water at the observation point of the v. Eschar according to the method of the modified water pollution index of WPI<sub>F</sub> is estimated as III class characterized as "moderately polluted", WPI<sub>H</sub> - II class, "clean"; according to the method of the combinatorial index of water pollution CWPI<sub>F</sub> - class III b, "dirty", CWPI<sub>H</sub> - class II, "polluted".</p> <p>State of the river water at the observation point of the v/ Zadonetskyi according to the method of the modified index of water pollution, WPI<sub>F</sub>&nbsp; is estimated as III class characterized as "moderately polluted", WPI<sub>H</sub> is II class, "clean"; according to the method of the combinatorial index of water pollution CWPI<sub>F</sub> - class III b, "dirty", CWPI<sub>H</sub> - class I, "slightly polluted".</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> It was determined that there are changes in water quality along the watercourse of the Siverskyi Donets River within the Kharkiv Region in 2023.&nbsp; There is a deterioration of water quality after the confluence of the Uda River, by 1.69 times the magnitude of the index change, then the state of water quality improves by 1.25 times the magnitude index changes, probably due to self-cleaning processes and lower anthropogenic load. The quality of water according to WPI indicators varies from 0.25 to 1.47 (from "very clean" to "moderately polluted"). The quality of water according to the CWPI indicators varies from 1.0 to 3.83 (from "slightly polluted" to "dirty"). It was established that according to both assessment methods and both standards, the quality of water in the Pechenigy reservoir, p. Pechenegs the best, and the worst water quality in the Siverskyi Donets River below the mouth of the Uda River, village Eschar.</p> M. I. Kulyk A. A. Lisnyak Copyright (c) 2024 Kulyk, M. I., Lisnyak, A. A. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 83 99 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-06 Biodiversity of plants in suburban meadows to create urban lawns with wildflowers <p>The creation of natural lawns is a means of optimizing costs for maintaining green infrastructure in the city by including natural biodiversity in lawns, which will increase the stability of plant communities in lawns and the quality of ecosystem services.</p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>Determine the predominant species of plant groups of natural phytocenoses, which are further appropriate for planting in semi-natural lawns to ensure the stability of territories..</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. The Ramensky method was employed to determine the quantitative composition of natural lawns in the study areas, while the Raunkiær classification was utilized to identify persistent and perennial plant species.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The geobotanical investigation enabled the identification of dominant species in the study areas, providing insights into the phytocoenological composition of natural lawns for the city of Kyiv. This served as the foundation for developing recommendations for a plant catalogue tailored to the creation of such lawns in Kyiv. The grass stand at Lysa Hora exhibited the highest stability, with a significant presence of native species. Adventitious species were less dominant in this area, likely due to their conditional pathogenicity. Conversely, Trukhaniv Island displayed dominance by typical species, albeit with the occasional presence of azonal species. Mount Shchekavytsia showed competition between azonal and typical species. Surveys of recreational areas, including Lysa Hora, Mount Shchekavytsia, and Trukhaniv Island, underscored the presence of native, azonal, and adventive species. The study identified common native hemicryptophytes, including filamentous fescue, grey fescue, and creeping wheatgrass. A developed plant catalogue is poised to enhance ecosystem regulation services, such as microclimate regulation, water and wind erosion control, biodiversity maintenance, and social services through increased territorial attractiveness.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. When creating a natural lawn, the best species are considered to be indigenous, which allows for the sustainability of plant communities. The study identified the following native species that will successfully complement lawn coverings in the city: gray and filamentous fescue, ground fescue, creeping thyme, green strawberry, field carnation, and oak sage. The recommendations can be applied in other cities of Ukraine with similar physical and geographical conditions.</p> А. A. Hrechko N. V. Maksymenko A. D. Shkaruba Ye. O. Kutuzov Copyright (c) 2024 Hrechko, А. A., Maksymenko, N. V., Shkaruba, A. D., Kutuzov, Ye. O. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 100 111 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-07 Modern approaches to the use of Berberis Thunbergii cultivars for sustainable landscape design <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> For the purposes of sustainable landscape design of the urban space, to substantiate new modern nature-oriented solutions for the use of dwarf cultivars of the Berberis Thunberg species.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Visual assessment, computer modeling and visualization.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> One of the aspects of realizing the goals of sustainable development, namely Sustainable development of cities and communities, is the rationalization of living space in cities. An integral part of this process is the aesthetic arrangement of territories, which ensures sustainable landscape design. The design of flower arrangements, flower beds can and should change, be updated, absorb new things. One of the ways of realizing such a context when creating permanent flower beds is the use of metal frame structures, which solve the task of creating a contrast with the colors of decorative plant compositions. The choice of the color of the metal frame should be subject to the thematic and landscape context. In order to give graphicness to decorative plant compositions from cultivars of <em>Berberis thunbergii</em> species, the expediency of horizontal contouring of the plant ornament with metal structures with a width of contour lines of 3–5% of the linear dimensions of the structure is shown. Modeling of structures was carried out using the program Realtime Landscaping Architect 2023.02, Trial Free Version. The use of the color solution, shape, texture of the modeled structures, the use of contour lighting of the decorative-but-foliage installation is substantiated. Cultivars of Berberis Thunberg are given, which are appropriate for use, the life span of which can reach 50 years under the conditions of performing the necessary minimum care.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The creation of permanent, aesthetically expressive flower beds and flower beds involves not only the use of environmentally friendly materials, but also the choice of local or adaptive decorative cultivars that provide all-season decorativeness, the absence of the need for annual renewal of plant material, artificial watering, and the creation of a habitat for pollinators and birds The use of cultivars of the Berberis Thunberg species contributes to the creation of stable flower beds that are able to preserve their decorative characteristics for a long time.</p> <p>The most harmoniously proposed compositions will be revealed in the presence of dynamic visual points, a deep perspective and a panoramic view.</p> O. O. Gololobova V. V. Gololobov Copyright (c) 2024 Gololobova О. О., Gololobov V. V. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 112 122 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-08 Ecosystem services of "Zagrebell" regional landscape park in the urbanized environment of Ternopol: conceptual frameworks, approaches to assessment <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To consider the problem of the lack of a regulated regulatory and legal environment, complex methods and systematic practices of ecosystem services assessment in Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The problem of the lack of a regulated regulatory and legal environment, complex methods and systematic practices of evaluating ecosystem services in Ukraine is considered. An assessment of the value of these services for the urban ecosystem of Ternopil was carried out using the materials of the regional landscape park "Zagrebellya". It was noted that the annual cost of ecosystem services is 16 billion 586 million 627 thousand 610 UAH. For comparison, the annual budget of Ternopil is UAH 3.3967 billion. (2024). Such a comparison is evidence that the cost of ecosystem services of natural landscapes of the RLP is not only 4.9 times higher than the annual budget of the city. These services are directly consumed by people and are primarily beneficial to local residents, because they are the ones who receive them, and if they sell them on, they become an intermediary between ecosystems and the end users of their services. Competent use of this group of services is an important window of opportunity for each of the territorial communities. In the future, it is important to implement the category "ecosystem service" in the legislative and other normative legal acts of Ukraine and to develop and implement payments for ecosystem services in the practice of budget planning.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Ukraine faces the needs of modern modernization of the principles of sustainable development and inclusion in the development processes of ecosystem management. It can take place only on the basis of Ukraine's involvement in international trends of inclusion of natural ecosystem services in the mechanisms of sustainable development, which requires an appropriate economic assessment of these services. In the future, it is important to implement the category "ecosystem service" in the legislative and other normative legal acts of Ukraine and to develop and implement payments for ecosystem services in the practice of budget planning</p> L. P. Tsaryk P. L. Tsaryk Copyright (c) 2024 Tsaryk L. P., Tsaryk P. L. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 123 131 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-09 The effect of climate change on the radial growth of Pinus sylvestris l. and Quercus robur l. in the stands of Kharkiv green zone <p><strong>Purpose</strong><strong>. </strong>To identify the characteristics of the reaction of the radial growth of Scots pine (<em>Pinus Sylvestris</em> L.) and Scots oak (<em>Quercus robur</em> L.) to climate change in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Dendrochronological, dendroclimatological, and statistical methods are applied. COFECHA and ARSTAN programs were used.</p> <p><strong>R</strong><strong>esults.</strong> The study was conducted in 100-year-old stands of English oak and Scots pine in the Southern Forestry &nbsp;(Left-bank Forest-steppe). The reaction of the radial growth of trees to climate changes was compared for 1960-1987 and 1988-2016. For the dendroclimatic analysis, the de Martonne hydrothermal indices, the Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient, the forest aridity index, and the O<sub>1</sub> hydrothermal coefficient were used. Relative humidity indicators, which are derived from temperature and precipitation, were also used. It was found that in the second period, the sensitivity of the reaction of the radial growth of trees to climate variations increased, which indicates a certain weakening of the stands due to the increase in temperature. Dendroclimatic analysis of <em>Pinus sylvestris</em> L. and <em>Quercus robur</em> L. showed that when comparing the response of the radial growth of trees to climate variations in 1960-1987 and 1988-2016, the condition of both pine and oak weakened, as evidenced by an increase in significant coefficients correlations between growth indices and climatic factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Pine was found to be more sensitive to climate change compared to oak. At the same time, these species of these trees at this stage were able to adapt to climate change, as evidenced by tree-ring chronologies, which show stable growth during 2010-2016.</p> I. M. Koval A. Bräuning Copyright (c) 2024 Koval I. M., Bräuning A. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 132 142 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-10 About holding the III International Internet conference «Current issues of Formal and Non-Formal Education in Environmental Monitoring and Conservation» <p>On April 26, 2024, the the Karazin Institute of Environmental Sciences hosted the III International Internet Conference "Current issues of Formal and Non-Formal Education in Environmental Monitoring and Conservation", organized by the Department of Environmental Monitoring and Conservation. The conference featured presentations on the following topics: The impact of military operations on the environment and ways of post-war revitalization of natural complexes; Problems and prospects of reserve management in Ukraine and the world; Environmental monitoring: science, education, practice; Formal and non-formal education in reserve management; The Chornobyl disaster: consequences of the tragedy and warnings for the future. Three reports-presentations of the certificate educational programs of the Institute of Ecology of Karazin University (speakers O. Gololobova, A. Kleshch and S. Burchenko) deserve special attention.</p> N. V. Maksymenko A. A. Hrechko Copyright (c) 2024 Maksymenko, N. V., Hrechko, A. A. 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 41 143 147 10.26565/1992-4224-2024-41-11