Man and environment. Issues of neoecology 2023-09-08T11:54:27+00:00 Максименко Надія Василівна ( Maksymenko Nadija V.) Open Journal Systems <div id="maintext"> <p>The journal highlights the results of fundamental and applied ecological research in various fields of geography, ecology, and agriculture. <br>It includes Issues of research in constructive geography, environmental monitoring, human ecology, protected territories, agronomy, agricultural technologies and agroecology, forestry and forestry . The problems of assessment, modeling and optimization of the state of the environment, land policy and territorial planning are also considered in the journal.</p> <span id="result_box" class="" lang="en">For specialists, scientists and researchers working in the domain of environmental protection as well as for lecturers, BSs, MSc and PhD students of higher educational institutions <span id="result_box" lang="en">without any restrictions</span><br></span> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <div class="grm">&nbsp;</div> </div> Current state of the land resources of Sumy region: problems and priority directions of their protection 2023-09-08T11:47:15+00:00 L. O. Bohinska O. I. Rybina N. I. Prokopenko V. V. Honcharov <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To assess the ecological condition of the Sumy region's soils and to develop priority directions for the protection of land resources of any form of ownership.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The theoretical method of system analysis, comparison and generalization were used in the framework of the conducted research. Current legal acts and research by scientists on land use problems served as the theoretical basis. Statistical data on the state of land resources of the Sumy region served as an information base for the analysis and comparison of phenomena.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The ecological condition of the agricultural lands of the Sumy region was analyzed. Weaknesses in the existing soil protection system of the region were identified. Modern land use in most cases is not rational. Excessive plowing of agricultural land leads to depletion of land resources, depression of rural areas, disruption of the natural process of soil formation. Measures to improve and preserve the land cover and its rational use in the Sumy region are proposed. The use of analytical studies allows to thoroughly characterize the economic potential of agricultural lands of the Sumy region, to determine the prospects for their use, reproduction and increase in fertility, which corresponds to the interests of the state, territorial communities, their population and economic entities on the land. The land reform, which is being carried out in Ukraine, sets itself the main task of opening a free land market, is a nationwide phenomenon and relies on the support of the rural population.The work also deals with the issues of land management, land management planning taking into account rational nature management and the land protection system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Land protection is becoming increasingly important as it affects the protection of the natural environment, including forests, waters, subsoil, wildlife and atmospheric air. Improving the state of land resources is a prerequisite for increasing the volume of agricultural production and creating an effective agricultural land market in Ukraine. Therefore, it is important to implement an effective model of land relations and build a perfect legal framework to ensure rational land use.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Л. О. Богінська, О. І. Рибіна, Н. І. Прокопенко, В. В. Гончаров Climate as a factor in the modern relief formation of the northeastern macroslope of Chornohora 2023-09-08T11:48:03+00:00 L. Ya. Kostiv P. M. Shuber O. O. Burianyk M. M. Karabiniuk <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>To analyze climatic indicators that cause the formation and development of a wide range of geomorphological processes, including dangerous or catastrophic ones.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>Statistical, system analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The research was based on the analysis of a number of climatic indicators (amount and intensity of precipitation, air and soil temperature, thickness of snow cover and water reserves in it) of the Pozhyzhevska snow avalanche station and the Laboratory of Landscape Monitoring of the Chornohora Geographical Station of the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, which represent different oroclimatic zones.As a result of the study, the climatic indicators influencing the formation of modern relief processes of the northeastern slope of Chornohora were mainly established, and their heterogeneity in the different natural territorial complexes was characterized. Particular attention is paid to the processes of physical weathering, which are quite widespread and form the material for the further development of erosion and gravity processes. Their development is determined by significant temperature amplitudes and temperature transitions through 0°C. It has been established that an the Chornohora Geographical Station, daily air temperature amplitudes above 10°C are characteristic of 2/3 of the days of the warm period, above 15°C - on a third of the days, above 20°C in some cases, with a maximum value of 25.2°C. The daily amplitudes of temperature on the open soil surface above 20°C were recorded on half of the days of the warm period with repeated exceeding of 30°C. With depth, these indicators in the soil are smoothed out, but are still noticeable at a depth of 20 cm. The transition of the air temperature through 0°C (also one of the factors of defluxation) to the Chornohora Geographical Station was recorded on average on 98 days per year (including 38 in the snowless period). The amount and intensity of precipitation affecting the development of erosion processes, the formation of floods, mudflows, avalanches, and indirectly landslides and landslides.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>It has been found that the main climatic indicators that cause the formation and development of various geomorphological processes are precipitation, temperature, and snow cover thickness.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kostiv L. Ya., Shuber P. M., Burianyk O. O., Karabiniuk M. M. Methodology for determining the suitability of soils for afforestation in plain part of Ukraine 2023-09-08T11:48:42+00:00 S. P. Raspopina <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. To develop a methodology for assessing forest suitability for certain varieties of unproductive soils.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> There are used the classical methods of soil science, agrochemistry, forest science, forest management, typology and mathematical statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The principles of forest typology are the basis for determining the suitability of soils for forestation. Its essence lies in a comprehensive study of soil properties (soil morphometry, chemical composition) and forestry characteristics of forest stands, as well as an analysis of the grass-shrub layer by ecomorphs. The results of studies of the combined study of the productivity of forest stands and the properties of the main varieties of unproductive soils (sandy, eroded and skeletal) in different natural zones of the plain part of Ukraine are presented. Determination of the suitability of soils for forestation was assessed according to three categories: 1) unsuitable for forestation and conditionally suitable for forestation (very dry, very poor, toxic, with a limited rhizosphere zone, inaccessible or hardly accessible for cultivation); 2) limited suitability for forestation (dry and poor soils); 3) suitable for forestation. Packages of markers have been developed, on the basis of which it is possible to assess both their forest suitability and determine the type of forest growth conditions of non-forest lands. When compiling markers, preference was given to such soil indicators, which, along with informativeness in relation to soil quality, did not require complex methods of determination. The composition of markers includes morphological, physical, agrochemical parameters and depends on the type of soil.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The developed packages of markers are the basis for the scientifically based creation of forests on unproductive lands, on which forest vegetation did not grow before. Their use in afforestation increases its efficiency and makes forests more resistant to adverse environmental factors. The Methodology is intended for forestry specialists, it can be used at enterprises, institutions of the forest sector, forest design organizations, as well as in related industries concerned with the protection and rational use of natural resources. The methodological developments can be included in the curricula of secondary and higher forestry-oriented education institutions.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Raspopina S. P. Self-purification monitoring of the Danube delta and Merlo river aquatic water according to microbiological indicators 2023-09-08T11:49:33+00:00 I. V. Zinchenko O. H. Vasenko E. V. Babich L. S. Anhina <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> Analysis of self-purification monitoring of the water area of the Danube delta and the small Merlo river (tributary of the Vorskla) according to microbiological indicators.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. To&nbsp; evaluate the role of microorganisms in maintaining the homeostasis of aquatic ecosystems, to study the intensity of self-cleaning processes and bioindication of pollution, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of various ecological and trophic groups were determined. The dynamics and intensity of self-cleaning processes were determined by the ratio indicator <em>(Ri)</em> of TBC of autochthonous and allochthonous saprophytic microorganisms. The level of trophicity and saprobity in the Merlo river was determined by phenomenological signs.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> It was established that the most intensive processes of self-purification were observed in the water area of the Danube delta above Reni city and in the Bystry branch. The most polluted water areas among studied were in the Kiliya branch near the town of Izmail, below the town of Kiliya and above the town of Vylkove (9th km). Monitoring studies of the Merlo river, in the area of the wastewater discharge in it of the food industry enterprise, were carried out according to hydrobiological and microbiological indicators. It was established that the river is very polluted, is under a large anthropogenic load on the water ecosystem and has a low ratio indicator (Ri). It was determined that according to the degree of saprobity and trophicity, the river in the wastewater discharge zone is related to hypertrophic and polysaprobic. After reconstruction of the treatment facilities at the food industry enterprise, the situation at the wastewater discharge point changed: <em>Ri</em> has increased from 1.1 to 3.2, and the water area at the discharge point has been classified as a <em>polysaprobic zone</em>, with signs of a <em>mesosaprobic zone</em>, which indicates a tendency to self-purification.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> It was established that the degree of self-cleaning processes is affected by anthropogenic sources of pollution of water bodies. The water ecosystems of the Danube delta have more pronounced tendencies to self-recovery than the ecosystems of the small Merlo river (a tributary of the Vorskla river). The positive impact of effective treatment of industrial wastewater discharged into the river on <em>Ri</em>, as well as on the trophicity and saprobity of ecosystems, has been established.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 І. В. Зінченко , О. Г. Васенко , О. В. Бабіч , Л. С. Ангіна The reclamation of the surface layer of mining landscapes of Kryvyi Rih landscape technical system 2023-09-08T11:50:29+00:00 T. S. Koptieva <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To investigate the reclamation of the surface layer of mining landscapes of Kryvyi Rih landscape technical system on the example of Shymaniv and Hanniv dumps.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Historical analysis, comparative, cartographic, method of anthropogenic landscape forecasting.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> It has &nbsp;been determined that Shymaniv dump was created by the Southern Mining and Processing Plant in 1960–1967, belongs to mixed dumps, was formed by automobile tailings resulted into tiers with a leveled and plateau-like surface. The dump in the geological structure has a lower accumulative microstrip, which consists of crystalline rocks that are not involved into development, limestones, loess-like loams; the middle accumulative – denudation microstrip, which is characterized by crushed stone, sand, stone blocks and the upper denudation microstrip, which is represented by blocks and granites. The dump reclaimed and has favorable conditions for the germination of vegetation. By example of the Hanniv dump the possibility of rational use of the surface layer of mining landscapes was considered. The Hanniv dump is a mixed dump with its height of 90 m, partially reclaimed. A gradual biological reclamation technology is proposed for the rapid adaptation of plants to unusual terrain and the improvement of disturbed lands. Maps and technology of biological reclamation have been developed, which reflect the surface layer of mining landscapes of Kryvyi Rih landscape technical system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The reclamation of the surface layer of mining landscapes of Kryvyi Rih landscape technical system exists and needs a detailed study in order to prevent the degradation of disturbed lands due to the action of the mining industry. On the example of Shymaniv and Hanniv dumps the reclamation of the surface layer of mining landscapes has been investigated, the history of the dumps has been determined, the geological - geomorphological, hydrological, climatic, soil - biotic processes that influenced the favorable formation of the reclamation of the surface layer of the dumps have been substantiated, and a gradual biological reclamation technology has been proposed on the example of Hanniv dump.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Koptieva T. S. Method for analyzing the vulnerability of water resources in an unstable environment based on the entropy approach 2023-09-08T11:51:04+00:00 V. L. Bezsonnyi <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> The synthesis of the method of analyzing the vulnerability of water resources based on the entropy of the connection based on the determination of the factors of the water system, considering the relationship between the anthropogenic socio-economic system and the "man-environment" system and the analysis of the transformation processes of the water system in a changing environment.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The mechanism of vulnerability of water resources in a changing environment is analyzed. The structure of the vulnerability of water resources is established based on sensitivity, natural resistance and artificial adaptation by analyzing the four states of the water system: the sensitive state, the impaired state, the recovery state and the equilibrium state, and accompanying transformation processes. A method for analyzing the vulnerability of water resources based on contact entropy is proposed, which extends the concept of contact entropy. The degree of vulnerability of water resources to the changing environment can be divided into five levels with 11 indices: low (I), insignificant (II), moderate (III), high (IV) and extreme (V). Calculation of the contact entropy shows an approximate value of the contact entropy S with a range of (–1.314; 1.314). This interval is divided into five parts: [0.877; 1.314), [0.292; 0.877), [−0.292; 0.292), [−0.877; −0.292), (−1.314; − 0.877), indicating low (I), insignificant (II), moderate (III), high (IV) and excessive (V) degrees of vulnerability of water resources, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The state of a water system usually changes from impaired to restored due to natural factors, followed by a transition from a state of restoration to a state of equilibrium mainly due to artificial factors. The first is defined as natural resilience, and the second as artificial adaptation. The results of this mechanism offer a necessary understanding of the vulnerability of water resources in a changing environment, the mechanism of the transformation process between the four states is the focus of further research.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Безсонний В.Л. Monitoring of the radiation background of the city of Uman: after 10 years 2023-09-08T11:51:43+00:00 S. P. Ogilko <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> Assess the possibility of using radiation background indicators for environmental monitoring.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Еmpirical; modeling; comparative.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The main methodological approach is the assumption of the possibility of applying the concept of noospheric ecosystems (in particular, infraecosystems) for monitoring studies. Dangerous impact with a possible increase in the radiation background on the territory of the Uman NUS can be caused by enterprises: extraction and processing of decorative and building stone, limestone, gypsum, chalk and clay shale, sand, gravel, clay and kaolin. This impact can occur mainly through the products used in the improvement of the city of Uman and have a slightly higher radiation background (0.23-0.28 Mzv). Supplementing the database with new information, as well as their comparison using EGIS tools, allowed us to identify certain patterns in the change in radiation background values over the past 10 years (2013-2023): in most medical centers, which are located either in the area of private development or far from busy highways, the overall picture of radiation background values did not change significantly.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Repeated (after 10 years) measurements of the radiation background confirmed the conclusions of previous studies regarding purely natural or purely anthropogenic sources of small doses of radionuclides entering the environment within the city of Uman.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ogilko S. P. Ecological and geographical peculiarities of the forests current state in state-owned forest enterprise “Berehiv forestry” 2023-09-08T11:52:20+00:00 M. R. Pytuliak H. M. Dolopikula B. B. Havryshok <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. To analysis of the current state of the forests on the territory of Berehiv forestry, geospatial features of their functional and age structure, species composition with the aim of optimizing forest use.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>Observation, systematic approach, analysis and synthesis, generalization, system-structural, comparative-geographical, cartographic, mathematical</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The peculiarities of the geospatial distribution of forest areas on the territory of the state-owned forestry enterprise “Berehiv forestry”, their age structure, species composition, and distribution within forestry have been analyzed. Based on the primary materials, a map of forest categories in terms of forestry has been constructed and analyzed: “The categories of forest of the state-owned forestry enterprise “Berehiv forestry” in the context of forestry”. It has been defined that the forests perform the following functions: nature protecting, recreational and health-improving, and protective on the territory of the forestry. Despite the fact that the level of forest cover in the region is low and the forest areas are fragmented the production forests dominate here. Spatial analysis of the age structure and species composition in the forests of the State Enterprise "Berehiv Forest Farm" has been carried out. It has been found out that hardwood plantations dominate among the species composition of forest tracts. The leading place belongs to oak and beech stands. Conifers did not become widespread due to the peculiarities of local growth conditions. Tiny areas of low-value soft-leaved stands show the active and successful work of foresters. It has been clarified that the age structure of forests is dominated by medieval plantations. They are located mainly in the central and eastern parts of the territory that has been under the research. Mature and overmature stands dominate in the northern part.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> It has been identified that, the area, which has been under the research is the least forested in Thanscarpathia region. The production forests are located in the most forested central and northern parts of the forestry, while the other categorizes dominate in the eastern and western outskirts. The area of Berehiv forestry requires a set of measures to be done to grow forests on infertile acidic soils and optimization of the age structure of existing forest areas.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Питуляк М. Р., Долопікула Г. М., Гавришок Б. Б. Ecological and aesthetic aspects of the organization of public use areas by means of green infrastructure 2023-09-08T11:52:57+00:00 N. V. Maksymenko О. О. Gololobova <p><strong>Relevance. T</strong>rends in the development of the concept of green infrastructure in post-Soviet cities prompts a rethinking of approaches to landscaping the areas surrounding administrative buildings, educational and research institutions. The Northern Building of Karazin University is one of the symbols of education in Kharkiv, and the ecological reconstruction of the space in front of the building is also relevant.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>To develop a concept and formulate design proposals for the improvement of the territory in front of the main facade of the North Building of Karazin University.</p> <p><strong>Methods.&nbsp; </strong>To develop the concept, we analyzed historical and cartographic information. To create the project, we used the program Realtime Landscaping Architect 2023.02, Trial Free Version.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Based on the analysis of the history of the formation of the territory on Svobody Square between the buildings of Karazin University and taking into account its current state, it is proposed to develop a landscape idea of using new environmental trends in urban greening, which was launched during the Greening of the Planet campaign (2021). A proposal for the ecological reconstruction of the area in front of the main facade of the North Building of Karazin University at 6 Svobody Square is substantiated. Kharkiv, using cultivars of the grafted form of fine-sawed sakura on a tall stem to create new landscaping locations. The assortment catalog of plant material proposed for the renovation of the parterres in front of the building was compiled and the approximate economic costs for its implementation were calculated. The use of small architectural forms, such as benches for rest, authentic fences, etc. is substantiated. An animation file of the project in .mp4 format was created for visualization.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The developed proposal for the ecological reconstruction of the area in front of the main facade of the Northern Building of Karazin University will ensure the creation of a single style solution for the landscaping of the territory of Freedom Square and the buildings located on it.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Максименко Н. В., Гололобова О. О. Diet typology as a factor of influence on environmental aspects of human life activity 2023-09-08T11:53:40+00:00 Vi. M. Chelyabiieva <p><strong>Purpose.</strong>&nbsp;To analyze the influence of the typology of food of the population of a certain geographical region on the health and life expectancy of people in that region. To identify biologically active substances with a positive effect on the health in order to use them in the development of health food products.</p> <p><strong>Methods. &nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;The antioxidant properties of red grape skin powder and its water-alcohol extract were studied. The moisture content of the obtained powder is no more than 6-7.5%. The powder of grape skins and its water-alcohol extract were introduced in the amount of 1% by mass into the model raw materials. Model raw materials are vegetable fats and oils. This raw material contains triglycerides of mono- and polyunsaturated higher carboxylic acids, which are subject to oxidation in air. This model raw were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the powder and water-alcohol extract of the powder of red grape skins. The antioxidant properties of the biologically active substances of the powder of the skins of red grape varieties were studied by the redox titration method.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;The introduction of powder or water-alcohol extract of the skin of red grape varieties into the model raw material increases the resistance of the raw material to oxidation. The addition of a water-alcohol extract inhibits the oxidation process more effectively than the powder. Research in model conditions at temperature showed that the peroxide value of vegetable fat increases by 1.1 times when the extract is added, sunflower oil and olive oil - by 1.6 times. Under these conditions, the peroxide number of control samples without additives increased by 2.3 times for vegetable fat, and by 2.5 times for sunflower and olive oils. The skin of red grapes is a source of antioxidants. Antioxidant properties are preserved by the powder obtained from the skin of red grape varieties by drying, as well as by the water-alcohol extract of this powder.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;The skin of red grape varieties contains biologically active substances of the polyphenolic and stem series. These substances are powerful antioxidants. The skin of red grape varieties can be used in the technology of food for specific health purposes. This food to prevent heart diseases and gerontological purposes.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 В. М. Челябієва Geoinformation modeling of potentially important territories for the brown bear's stay in the Transcarpathian region 2023-09-08T11:54:27+00:00 M. V. Teslovych D. A. Krychevska <p><strong>Purpose.</strong>&nbsp;Search for important areas for the presence of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) within the Transcarpathian region using geoinformation modeling tools to optimize the boundaries of the structural elements of the econetwork.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong>&nbsp;Geoinformation modeling, geospatial analysis, processing of stock materials of environmental protection services.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;In order to delineate potentially important areas for the presence of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) within the Transcarpathian region, a comprehensive assessment of the natural environment was carried out using geoinformation modeling tools. This modeling involved a preliminary analysis of the suitability for the life of the species of the following five parameters: types of land cover, proximity of non-forest biotopes to forest, high-altitude bioclimatic zones, degrees of dismemberment of the terrain, distance from settlements and roads. As a result of the integral assessment of these parameters, a cartographic model "Integral suitability of biotopes for the presence of the brown bear (Ursus arctos)" was obtained, which also demonstrated the habitats recorded by experts and the places of registration of the species. It was established that the total area of territories that are potentially suitable for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) within Transcarpathian region &nbsp;is 574.6 thousand hectares, and covers about 45.1% of the territory of the region. The largest number of such habitats is concentrated in the mountainous southwestern part of the region within the orographic ecoregion of the elevated dissected highlands. The most suitable and suitable biotopes, formed as a result of modeling, are also found within the boundaries of Gorganska Verhovyna (on the border of Transcarpathian and Ivano-Frankivsk regions), which belongs to the ecoregion of elevated lowlands. The simulated territories correlate well enough with localities where real signs of the distribution of the species have been recorded. At the second stage of research, in accordance with the chosen methodology, a cartographic model of "Potentially important areas for the presence of the brown bear" was obtained, on which the population, reproduction and other areas, as well as key areas of the region's eco-network and nature protection areas were outlined. Spatial features of the location of population and breeding areas in other morphogenic ecoregions of the Carpathians were also characterized, natural and anthropogenic obstacles and threats to the species' migration and survival were identified. It is noted that the natural conditions of the border are favorable for the migration of mammals from Romania, Slovakia and Poland, which is also confirmed by monitoring studies conducted by environmental protection institutions, forestry and hunting management, etc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;The Transcarpathian region has favorable conditions for the existence of the brown bear (Ursus Arctos), in particular, a large share of forest ecosystems, the presence of hard-to-reach areas, a decrease in the population of small mountain villages, etc. However, the constant development of recreational and energy infrastructure can lead to the fragmentation of the natural environment. Therefore, the areas outlined by us, which are important for the presence of the brown bear (Ursus arctos), can be the basis for optimizing the boundaries of the structural elements of the eco-network of the mountainous part of the Transcarpathian region. In the future, it is necessary to continue monitoring studies on the presence of the brown bear within the key territories of the Zakarpattia econetwork and to more clearly delimit ecological corridors with the implementation of measures to comply with the norms of environmental protection restrictions.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 М. В. Теслович, Д. А. Кричевська